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Expert guidance from scientific societies and regulatory agencies recommend a framework of principles for frequency of in-person evaluations and remote monitoring for patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices. However, there are limited data regarding adherence to recommendations among paediatric electrophysiologists, and there are no data regarding cardiac implantable electronic device-related ancillary testing.
To assess current clinical practices for cardiac implantable electronic device in-person evaluation, remote monitoring, and cardiac implantable electronic device-related ancillary testing, the Paediatric and Congenital Electrophysiology Society members were surveyed. The main outcome measures were variations in frequency of in person evaluation, frequency of remote monitoring, and cardiac implantable electronic device-related ancillary testing.
All respondents performed in-person evaluation at least once a year, but <50% of respondents performed an in-person evaluation within 2 weeks of cardiac implantable electronic device implantation. Remote monitoring was performed every 3 months for pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators by 71 and 75% respondents, respectively. Follow-up echocardiography was performed every 2–3 years by 53% respondents for patients with >50% ventricular pacing. Majority of respondents (75%) did not perform either an exercise stress test or ambulatory Holter monitoring or chest X-ray (65%) after cardiac implantable electronic device implantation.
This survey identified significant practice variations in cardiac implantable electronic device in- person evaluation, remote monitoring, and ancillary testing practices among paediatric electrophysiologists. Cardiac implantable electronic device management may be optimised by development of a paediatric-specific guidelines for follow-up and ancillary testing.
To describe the incidence of seasonal respiratory viral infections (s-RVIs) before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and to compare virus-specific patient outcomes in pediatric patients.
A retrospective cross-sectional study including patient admissions to the Children’s National Hospital between October 1, 2015, and December 31, 2020.
Among 12,451 patient admissions between March 15 and December 31, 2020 (cohort 1), 8,162 (66%) were tested for severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and 249 (2.0%) were positive. Among 10,986 patient admissions between April 1 and December 31, 2020 (cohort 2), 844 (8%) were tested for s-RV upon admission and 160 were positive. Thus, 1.5% of patient admissions were associated with laboratory-confirmed s-RVIs. Among the 49,901 patient admissions during a viral season between October 1, 2015, and March 31, 2020 (cohort 3), 7,539 (15%) were tested for s-RV upon admission and 4,531 were positive; thus, 9.0% of patient admissions were associated with laboratory-confirmed s-RVIs. hHRV/rENT was the most detected virus, but the detection rate decreased substantially (31% vs 18%; P < .001) during the COVID-19 pandemic. No patients had RSV, influenza, hMPV, hPIV, or hCoV detected upon admission after April 21, 2020. The 3 patient cohorts had no statistically significant difference in the percentage of ICU admissions (10.8% vs 15.0% vs 14.2%; P > .05) or death at discharge (0.8% vs 0.6% vs 0.5%; P > .05).
Compared to COVID-19, s-RVI cases were associated with a higher proportion of inpatient admissions but were similar in ICU admission and death rates in hospitalized pediatric patients. Public health interventions for preventing COVID-19 were highly effective in preventing pediatrics s-RVIs.
Every year in the month of September, National Suicide Prevention Week is celebrated. The goal of suicide prevention week is to inform the public about suicide prevention, primarily the warning signs of suicide. However, the impact of this month on the general population is unknown. The Google trends show how frequent web searches have been performed for a particular search-term, which provide an approximation of the people’s interest.
To evaluate public interest in suicide prevention by analyzing the google trends of “Suicide Prevention” search-term.
We estimated the interest in such topics by running the google trends data of the last decade by using the filter [Search Term:“Suicide Prevention”, Locations: “United States” and Time Ranges “ 2010 to 2020”].
During this specific interval, people have searched “Suicide Prevention” most frequently during the month of September (month of National Suicide Prevention week). Conversely, in the other months, interest in “suicide prevention” fluctuated between little to none. The only other time people have shown interest in Suicide prevention, other than the month of September, was with suicide news in the media, such as the death of a celebrity by suicide, or suicide-related TV shows. [Figure]
Although it is not definitive, it gives some idea that National Suicide Prevention week has a considerable impact on population interest. Since we did not observe sufficient public interest in other months, there should be frequent and systematic efforts to spread suicide prevention awareness among the general population.
There is a limited literature available showing mental health burden among adolescents following cyberbullying.
Aim is to evaluate the association of low mood and suicidality amongst cyberbullied adolescents.
A study on CDC National Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance (YRBS) (1991-2017). Responses from adolescence related to cyberbullying and suicidality were evaluated. Chi-square and mix-effect multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to find out the association of cyberbullying with sadness/hopelessness, suicide consideration, plan, and attempts.
A total of 10,463 adolescents, 14.8% of adolescents faced cyberbullying a past year. There was a higher prevalence of cyberbullying in youths aged 15-17 years (25 vs 26 vs 23%), which included more females to males (68 vs 32%).(p<0.0001) Caucasians (53%) had the highest number of responses to being cyberbullied compared to Hispanics (24%), African Americans (11%).(p<0.0001) There was an increased prevalence of cyberbullied youths with feelings of sadness/hopelessness (59.6 vs 25.8%), higher numbers considering suicide (40.4 vs 13.2%), suicide plan (33.2 vs 10.8%), and multiple suicidal attempts in comparison to non-cyberbullied.(p<0.0001) On regression analysis, cyberbullied adolescence had a 155% higher chance of feeling sad and hopeless [aOR=2.55; 95%CI=2.39-2.72], considered suicide [1.52 (1.39-1.66)], and suicide plan [1.24 (1.13-1.36)].
In our study, cyberbullying was associated with negative mental health outcomes. Further research is warranted to examine the impact and outcomes of cyberbullying amongst adolescents and guiding the policies to mitigate the consequences.
Athletes have participated in sports and physical exercise for several decades as a coping strategy to alleviate mental health and behavioral issues. The increasing prevalence of psychiatric disorders among athletes attributed to the failure of its appropriate management.
Our goal is to identify barriers in diagnosing and treating psychiatric problems among sportspersons to educate clinicians about the potential risk factors for athletes’ mental health disorders to provide optimal medical care.
We examined MeSH terms “Athletes,” “Sports,” “Risk Factors,” “Diagnosis,” and “Patient Care Management,” in the context of “Mental Health,” “Mental Disorders,” “sports psychiatry,” and “diagnostic barriers.” We included 23 studies per the PRISMA guidelines, searching Medline, PubMed, PubMed Central, and PsychInfo databases until August 2020.
Barriers managing psychiatric disorders in athletes are overtraining syndrome, compensatory training, idolizing, negative coping mechanisms, social stigma, injuries, and performance-enhancing supplements usage. Other factors attributed to diagnostic barriers are general perceptions, age, racial and gender disparities, poor health services, interpersonal issues, patient-therapist relationships, sense of entitlement, control or confidentiality problems, and lack of quality preventative measures. Risk factors are injuries, sports type, doping, substance abuse, lifestyle, failures in achievement, eating disorders, and maladaptive coping mechanisms.
These barriers in psychiatric care have adversely impacted the mental health of sportspersons. Athletes have deviated from their careers and lost valuable periods of their lives due to inadequate attention to sports psychiatry aspects, such as cognitive health services, inclusive sports management measures, diagnostic and treatment approaches, reliable mental health services, and public awareness programs.
Anticholinergic medications block cholinergic transmission. The central effects of anticholinergic drugs can be particularly marked in patients with dementia. Furthermore, anticholinergics antagonise the effects of cholinesterase inhibitors, the main dementia treatment.
This study aimed to assess anticholinergic drug prescribing among dementia patients before and after admission to UK acute hospitals.
352 patients with dementia were included from 17 hospitals in the UK. All were admitted to surgical, medical or Care of the Elderly wards in 2019. Information about patients’ prescriptions were recorded on a standardised form. An evidence-based online calculator was used to calculate the anticholinergic drug burden of each patient. The correlation between two subgroups upon admission and discharge was tested with Spearman’s Rank Correlation.
Table 1 shows patient demographics. On admission, 37.8% of patients had an anticholinergic burden score ≥1 and 5.68% ≥3. At discharge, 43.2% of patients had an anticholinergic burden score ≥1 and 9.1% ≥3. The increase was statistically significant (rho 0.688; p=2.2x10-16). The most common group of anticholinergic medications prescribed at discharge were psychotropics (see Figure 1). Among patients prescribed cholinesterase inhibitors, 44.9% were also taking anticholinergic medications.
This multicentre cross-sectional study found that people with dementia are frequently prescribed anticholinergic drugs, even if also taking cholinesterase inhibitors, and are significantly more likely to be discharged with a higher anticholinergic drug burden than on admission to hospital.
Conflict of interest
This project was planned and executed by the authors on behalf of SPARC (Student Psychiatry Audit and Research Collaborative). We thank the National Student Association of Medical Research for allowing us use of the Enketo platform. Judith Harrison was su
In view of the increasing complexity of both cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) and patients in the current era, practice guidelines, by necessity, have become increasingly specific. This document is an expert consensus statement that has been developed to update and further delineate indications and management of CIEDs in pediatric patients, defined as ≤21 years of age, and is intended to focus primarily on the indications for CIEDs in the setting of specific disease categories. The document also highlights variations between previously published adult and pediatric CIED recommendations and provides rationale for underlying important differences. The document addresses some of the deterrents to CIED access in low- and middle-income countries and strategies to circumvent them. The document sections were divided up and drafted by the writing committee members according to their expertise. The recommendations represent the consensus opinion of the entire writing committee, graded by class of recommendation and level of evidence. Several questions addressed in this document either do not lend themselves to clinical trials or are rare disease entities, and in these instances recommendations are based on consensus expert opinion. Furthermore, specific recommendations, even when supported by substantial data, do not replace the need for clinical judgment and patient-specific decision-making. The recommendations were opened for public comment to Pediatric and Congenital Electrophysiology Society (PACES) members and underwent external review by the scientific and clinical document committee of the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), the science advisory and coordinating committee of the American Heart Association (AHA), the American College of Cardiology (ACC), and the Association for European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology (AEPC). The document received endorsement by all the collaborators and the Asia Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS), the Indian Heart Rhythm Society (IHRS), and the Latin American Heart Rhythm Society (LAHRS). This document is expected to provide support for clinicians and patients to allow for appropriate CIED use, appropriate CIED management, and appropriate CIED follow-up in pediatric patients.
To determine the utility of screening electrocardiograms after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among children in detecting myocarditis related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
A retrospective chart review was performed at a large paediatric academic institution to identify patients with prior SARS-CoV-2 infection who received a screening electrocardiogram by their primary care providers and were subsequently referred for outpatient cardiology consultation due to an abnormal electrocardiogram. The outcomes were the results from their cardiology evaluations, including testing and final diagnoses.
Among 46 patients, during their preceding COVID-19 illness, the majority had mild symptoms, 4 were asymptomatic, and 1 had moderate symptoms. The median length of time from positive SARS-CoV-2 test to screening electrocardiogram was 22 days, and many electrocardiogram findings that prompted cardiology consultation were normal variants in asymptomatic adolescent athletes. Patients underwent frequent additional testing at their cardiology appointments: repeat electrocardiogram (72%), echocardiogram (59%), Holter monitor (11%), exercise stress test (7%), and cardiac MRI (2%). Five patients were incidentally diagnosed with CHD or structural cardiac abnormalities, and three patients had conduction abnormalities (pre-mature atrial contractions, pre-mature ventricular contractions, borderline prolonged QTc), although potentially incidental to COVID-19. No patients were diagnosed with myocarditis or ventricular dysfunction.
In a small cohort of children with prior COVID-19, who were primarily either asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic, subsequent screening electrocardiograms identified various potential abnormalities prompting cardiology consultation, but no patient was diagnosed with myocarditis. Larger multi-centre studies are necessary to confirm these results and to evaluate those with more severe disease.
Personal protective equipment (PPE) is a critical aspect of preventing the transmission of severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in healthcare settings. We aimed to identify factors related to lapses in PPE use that may influence transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from patients to healthcare personnel (HCP).
Retrospective cohort study.
Tertiary-care medical center in Minnesota.
In total, 345 HCP who sustained a significant occupational exposure to a patient with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from May 13, 2020, through November 30, 2020, were evaluated.
Overall, 8 HCP (2.3%) were found to have SARS-CoV-2 infection during their 14-day postexposure quarantine. A lack of eye protection during the care of a patient with COVID-19 was associated with HCP testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) during the postexposure quarantine (relative risk [RR], 10.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28–82.39; P = .009). Overall, the most common reason for a significant exposure was the use of a surgical face mask instead of a respirator during an aerosol-generating procedure (55.9%). However, this was not associated with HCP testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 during the postexposure quarantine (RR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.96–1; P = 1). Notably, transmission primarily occurred in units that did not regularly care for patients with COVID-19.
The use of universal eye protection is a critical aspect of PPE to prevent patient-to-HCP transmission of SARS-CoV-2.
We present a theoretical and experimental study of the dynamics of two-layer viscous fluid flows on inclined surfaces, motivated by natural and industrial phenomena involving the interactions between two fluid layers. A general model describing the evolution of two fluids on an inclined substrate is developed and explored to reveal a rich variety of flow regimes for different modes of release. The asymptotic reduction of this problem due to the dominance of the along-slope component of gravity is shown to yield considerable analytical inroads compared with previous studies of multi-layer flow configurations, which have focused exclusively on the case of horizontal beds. For the canonical example in which two fluids are introduced at a constant flux, the flow forms two regions: an upstream region containing both fluids, and a downstream region comprised purely of the lighter fluid, with a sharp intervening jump in thicknesses between the two. By constructing similarity solutions, we establish a full regime diagram of the possible configurations over all asymptotic limits of the viscosity, flux and density ratios. For the release of two fixed volumes of fluid, the layers separate completely into two disjoint but connected regions, contrasting in essential structure from the constant flux case. Even a small volume of the heavier fluid is able to significantly accelerate the propagation of the lighter fluid in front of it. Excellent agreement is found between our theoretical predictions and the results of a series of laboratory experiments.
Treatment of hypoplastic left heart syndrome varies across institutions. This study examined the impact of introducing a standardised programme.
This retrospective cohort study evaluated the effects of a comprehensive strategy on 1-year transplant-free survival with preserved ventricular and atrioventricular valve (AVV) function following a Norwood operation. This strategy included standardised operative and perioperative management and dedicated interstage monitoring. The post-implementation cohort (C2) was compared to historic controls (C1). Outcomes were assessed using logistic regression and Kaplan–Meier analysis.
The study included 105 patients, 76 in C1 and 29 in C2. Groups had similar baseline characteristics, including percentage with preserved ventricular (96% C1 versus 100% C2, p = 0.28) and AVV function (97% C1 versus 93% C2, p = 0.31). Perioperatively, C2 had higher indexed oxygen delivery (348 ± 67 ml/minute/m2 C1 versus 402 ± 102ml/minute/m2 C2, p = 0.015) and lower renal injury (47% C1 versus 3% C2, p = 0.004). The primary outcome was similar in both groups (49% C1 and 52% C2, p = 0.78), with comparable rates of death and transplantation (36% C1 versus 38% C2, p = 0.89) and ventricular (2% C1 versus 0% C2, p = 0.53) and AVV dysfunction (11% C1 versus 11% C2, p = 0.96) at 1-year. When accounting for cohort and 100-day freedom from hospitalisation, female gender (OR 3.7, p = 0.01) increased and ventricular dysfunction (OR 0.21, p = 0.02) and CPR (OR 0.11, p = 0.002) or ECMO use (OR 0.15, p = 001) decreased the likelihood of 1-year transplant-free survival.
Standardised perioperative management was not associated with improved 1-year transplant-free survival. Post-operative ventricular or AVV dysfunction was the strongest predictor of 1-year mortality.
A compact antenna module with a single band notch at wireless local area network (WLAN) (5.725–5.825 GHz) for ultra-wideband (UWB) multiple input multiple output (MIMO) applications is proposed. Proposed antenna which acquires size of 0.299 λ × 0.413 λ × 0.005 λ mm3 at 3.1 GHz consists of two symmetrical radiators placed side by side on global merchandise link (GML) 1000 substrate (εr = 3.2, tan δ = 0.004). Isolation between the antenna elements is >18 dB in the whole UWB band, which is achieved by introducing the vertical stub and H-slot between the monopole radiators in the ground plane. The simulated and measured results of the antenna system are in good agreement. The proposed antenna covers entire UWB with impedance bandwidth (|S11| < −15 dB) from 3.1 to 11 GHz except at WLAN notched band. The designed antenna module bears low envelope correlation coefficient and minimal multiplexing efficiency hence fulfilling criteria suitable for various wireless MIMO applications.
Chronic aflatoxin exposure has been associated with childhood stunting (length-for-age/height-for-age < –2 sd), while data lacks for Bangladesh, a country with substantial burden of childhood stunting. This paper examined the association between aflatoxin exposure and childhood stunting in a slum setting of Dhaka city.
In this MAL-ED aflatoxin birth cohort study, plasma samples were assayed for aflatoxin B1-lysine adduct (AFB1-lys) by MS at 7, 15, 24 and 36 months of age for 208, 196, 173 and 167 children to assess chronic aflatoxin exposure. Relationship between aflatoxin exposure and anthropometric measures was examined by mixed-effects logistic regression models.
Setting and participants:
The study was conducted in Mirpur, Dhaka, where children were followed from birth to 36 months.
Prevalence of stunting increased from 21 % at 7 months to 49 % at 36 months of age. Mean AFB1-lys concentrations at 7, 15, 24 and 36 months were 1·30 (range 0·09–5·79), 1·52 (range 0·06–6·35), 3·43 (range 0·15–65·60) and 3·70 (range 0·09–126·54) pg/mg albumin, respectively, and the percentage of children with detectable AFB1-lys was 10, 21, 18 and 62 %, respectively. No association was observed between aflatoxin exposure and stunting in multivariable analyses. Factors associated with childhood stunting were age, low birth weight, maternal height, stool myeloperoxidase and number of people sleeping in one room.
A relatively lower exposure to aflatoxin may not influence the linear growth of children. This finding indicates a threshold level of exposure for linear growth deficit and further investigation in other areas where higher concentrations of aflatoxin exposure exist.
Approximately, 1.7 million individuals in the United States have been infected with SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for the novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). This has disproportionately impacted adults, but many children have been infected and hospitalised as well. To date, there is not much information published addressing the cardiac workup and monitoring of children with COVID-19. Here, we share the approach to the cardiac workup and monitoring utilised at a large congenital heart centre in New York City, the epicentre of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States.
Innovation Concept: The Orange Book (OB) identifies drugs approved on the basis of safety and effectiveness by the FDA and serves as the gold standard reference for correct pharmacological therapies. It ties in closely with Choosing Wisely Canada (CWC) modelling good stewardship in antimicrobial prescriptions. The book focuses on passive didactic learning instead of active learning, which was shown to have a greater influence on prescribing behaviour. Educational video games, a form of active learning, have been shown to improve clinical skills in medical training. Contagion is a role-playing video game providing an active way of teaching antimicrobial components of the OB and CWC guidelines. Method: Phase I of Contagion was qualitatively tested on students and physicians at McMaster University for teaching effectiveness, applicability to real-life scenarios, and enjoyability. Post-game play 12 participants scored different aspects of the game on a Likert scale. Curriculum, Tool, or Material: The player is a rural physician treating infections in various communities. Each round, the player is given a crate of antibiotics. As communities are infected, the player is provided with clinical symptoms the patients present with. The player must identify the pathology and then correctly treat the communities. The player can treat empirically or order tests to identify the infectious organism. The player strategically navigates which communities to treat as there are limited actions per turn and the player must prevent communities from dying or infecting neighboring regions. Communities tend to build antibiotic resistance over time making first-line treatments unviable, thus careful strategizing and stewardship is essential. Active learning will occur when players are tasked with finding the correct answer to different presentations. After each turn, players will learn about the infecting organism, its phenotypes, and common infectious symptoms. This is considered passive learning. Conclusion: Contagion was well-received by physicians and medical students as an active learning tool to teach the OB and CWC guidelines. On preliminary user testing Contagion scored 5 in effectiveness in teaching treatments and 4.6 in teaching stewardship. An objective of this project is to perform large scale testing across schools to demonstrate the effectiveness of the learning components of the game. We hope to eventually create a tool that can be incorporated in continuing medical education for physicians.
Diabetes mellitus is a syndrome with disordered metabolism and inappropriate hyperglycaemia due to either the deficiency of insulin secretion or to a combination of insulin resistance and inadequate insulin secretion to compensate. Depressive disorders have been found to occur at increased prevalence rates among patients with Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 9. Depression has the additional importance in diabetes because of its association with poor compliance with diabetic treatment, poor glycemic control and an increased risk of micro and macro vascular complications. An accurate estimate of depression prevalence is needed to keep and gauge the potential impact of depression management in patients with co-morbid diabetes 22. Better recognition and better treatment of depression are important in themselves but they could also improve medical outcome by substantial portion in patients of diabetes
Total of 527 cases of Diabetes were screened for major depressive disorder (MDD) by using DSMIV based criteria system. Montgomeny Asberg Depression rating scale (MADRS) and Clinical Global Impression (Severity) (CGI) scale to access severity.
1. Major depressive disorder is inordinately high among the sample of adult diabetic patients occurring at the rates of 2 - 6 times greater than those observed in general population.
2. Majority of patients with diabetes who have major depressive disorder have depression of moderate severity and not just mild depressive symptomatology.
3. The presence of major depressive disorder is significantly associated with poorer glycemic control.