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Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) is a polyphagous and highly destructive invasive insect pest of many crops. It was recently introduced into India and widely reported in almost all parts of India. Development of a temperature-based phenology model for predicting its rate of development and distribution will help in understanding the establishment and further spread of introduced invasive insect pests. Development, survival and reproduction parameters of S. frugiperda at six constant temperature conditions (15, 20, 25, 27, 30 and 35°C) were investigated and further validated with data generated under fluctuating temperature conditions. The estimated lower developmental threshold temperatures were 12.1°C for eggs, 11°C for larvae, 12.2°C for pupae, 15.13°C for males and 12.66°C for females. Degree-day (DD) requirements for the development of the different stages of S. frugiperda were 50, 250 and 200 DD for egg, larva and pupa, respectively. The best-fitted functions were compiled for each life stage to yield a phenology model, which was stochastically simulated to estimate the life table parameters. The developed phenology model predicted temperature ranges between 27 and 30°C as favourable for S. frugiperda development, survival and reproduction. The results revealed that maximum net reproductive rate (215.66 females/female/generation) and total fecundity (981.08 individuals/female/generation) were attained at 30°C constant temperature. The mean length of generations decreased from 74.29 days at 15°C to 38.74 days at 30°C. The maximum intrinsic rate of increase (0.138 females/female/day) and shortest doubling time (4.9 days) were also observed at 30°C. Results of simulated life table parameters showed high temperature-dependent development of S. frugiperda and complete development within all the tested constant temperature ranges (15–35°C). Simulated life table parameters for predicting risk indices of S. frugiperda in India indicated a significant increase in activity indices and establishment risk indices with a higher number of generations during future (2050 and 2070) climatic change scenarios compared to present conditions. Our results indicate that India will be highly suitable for the establishment and survival of S. frugiperda in future time periods.
The Miocene beds of Kutch in India are well known for their mammalian assemblages, including the extinct ape Sivapithecus, but far less is known about the fossil squamates from this area. Although India with its over 800 reptile species is recognized as one of the global biodiversity hotspots, knowledge of past diversity and paleobiogeography of squamates on this subcontinent is very limited. We here report on new lizard finds, which have been recovered from two stratigraphic levels: the older Palasava locality (dated to the middle Miocene, ca. 14 Ma) and the younger Tapar site (late Miocene, ca. 11–10 Ma). Although fragmentarily preserved, the material described here sheds important light on the composition and paleobiogeography of squamates during the Miocene in South Asia. The older Palasava locality contains cf. Uromastyx s.l. and Varanus sp., the latter representing the oldest record of this taxon in the region of India south of the Himalayas and its occurrence here suggests a mean annual temperature not less than 15°C. The material from the younger Tapar locality consists of an unidentified acrodontan lizard, here questionably placed in agamids, and a skink. The latter shows a resemblance to mabuyines, however, the fragmentary nature of the material does not allow a precise allocation without doubts. The cosmopolitan mabuyines have been suggested to have their origin in Asia, so the potential presence of mabuyines in the Tapar locality might represent the first, but putative, Asian evidence of the occurrence of this group in the Miocene.
This study details the intra-operative complications, and compares auditory scales post-implantation of either profoundly deaf young children with radiologically normal inner ears (group A) or children with Mondini dysplasia (group B).
A retrospective survey was carried out of 338 patients with severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss who underwent cochlear implant surgery from February 2015 to May 2017. Patients were divided into 2 groups of 27 patients each. Both groups were followed up to three years post-implantation.
Cerebrospinal fluid ooze developed in 12 patients, and 2 patients had a cerebrospinal fluid ‘gusher’, one of which had to be explored within 24 hours. After implant use for one year, both groups had similar speech perception scores.
The cerebrospinal fluid gusher in Mondini dysplasia should be anticipated and adequately managed intra-operatively. This study highlights the tailoring of a post-implantation rehabilitation programme according to individual needs.
To test the functional implications of impaired white matter (WM) connectivity among patients with schizophrenia and their relatives, we examined the heritability of fractional anisotropy (FA) measured on diffusion tensor imaging data acquired in Pittsburgh and Philadelphia, and its association with cognitive performance in a unique sample of 175 multigenerational non-psychotic relatives of 23 multiplex schizophrenia families and 240 unrelated controls (total = 438).
We examined polygenic inheritance (h2r) of FA in 24 WM tracts bilaterally, and also pleiotropy to test whether heritability of FA in multiple WM tracts is secondary to genetic correlation among tracts using the Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis Routines. Partial correlation tests examined the correlation of FA with performance on eight cognitive domains on the Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery, controlling for age, sex, site and mother's education, followed by multiple comparison corrections.
Significant total additive genetic heritability of FA was observed in all three-categories of WM tracts (association, commissural and projection fibers), in total 33/48 tracts. There were significant genetic correlations in 40% of tracts. Diagnostic group main effects were observed only in tracts with significantly heritable FA. Correlation of FA with neurocognitive impairments was observed mainly in heritable tracts.
Our data show significant heritability of all three-types of tracts among relatives of schizophrenia. Significant heritability of FA of multiple tracts was not entirely due to genetic correlations among the tracts. Diagnostic group main effect and correlation with neurocognitive performance were mainly restricted to tracts with heritable FA suggesting shared genetic effects on these traits.
The current study was undertaken to identify the sources of tolerance to bruchid in cowpea, by screening a set of germplasm accessions as a source for natural resistance. A total of 103 diverse accessions of cowpea were evaluated for resistance to Callosobruchus maculatus Fab. under no-choice artificial infestation conditions. Significant differences among the cowpea accessions were observed for oviposition, adult emergence, exit holes and per cent seed weight loss (PSWL) caused by the bruchid infestation. The accessions showed variation in physical seed parameters viz., colour, shape, testa texture, length, width and seed hardness. Among the seed biochemical parameters studied, per cent sugar content ranged from 0.322 (IC330950) to 1.493 (IC249137), and per cent phenol content ranged from 0.0326 (EC390261) to 1.081 (EC528423). Correlation studies indicated that PSWL had significant positive correlation (r = 0.335) with exit holes, oviposition (r = 0.219), adult emergence (r = 0.534) and seed roundness (r = 0.219). Adult emergence had a significant negative correlation with seed hardness (r = −0.332). Correlation with biochemical parameters indicated that PSWL had a significant positive correlation (r = 0.231) with sugar content and a significant negative correlation with phenol content (r = −0.219). None of the accessions were found to be immune to bruchid infestation. However, out of studied accessions, EC528425 and EC528387 were identified as resistant based on PSWL and moderately resistant based on adult emergence. These resistance sources of cowpea germplasm can be used as potential donors for development of bruchid tolerant/resistant cultivars.
The purpose of this study was to examine how exposure to the armed conflict and the tsunami, perceived availability of resources, and perceived helpfulness of religious practices would predict depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress, and psychosocial functioning in a multi-ethnic sample of Sri Lankan youth. A sample of Tamil (174), Sinhalese (332), and Muslim (215) children (girls=391) between 12 and 19 years (mean age =14.4, sd =1.9), completed a survey including demographic questions and items assessing exposure to the conflict and the tsunami, the perceived availability of resources, and perceived helpfulness of religious practices. Scales assessing depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress, and psychosocial functioning were also completed. Four hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted with exposure to the conflict and tsunami, perceived availability of resources, and perceived helpfulness of religious beliefs as predictors, and with depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress and psychosocial functioning as outcomes. The results revealed that exposure to the armed conflict significantly predicted posttraumatic stress (R2 =.03, F [1,494] = 12.77, p< .001), while exposure to the tsunami predicted anxiety (R2 =.03, F [2,506] = 7.8, p< .001), and perceived availability of resources predicted depression (R2=.09, F [4,499] = 11.83, p< .001) and psychosocial functioning (R2=.098, F [4,506] = 13.67, p< .001). The results suggest that exposure to traumatic events should not be assumed to be the only or even the most important variable when considering the overall psychological and psychosocial functioning of children in developing countries and traditional cultures. Implications for interventions, policy, and future research are discussed.
Transitions from Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) to Adult Mental Health Services (AMHS) can often be problematic due to high eligibility thresholds, inconsistent support during transition and limited participation from young people. The TRACK Study highlighted several clinical, organizational and policy related reasons for Services to develop and implement transition protocols effectively.
Aims and objectives
This audit aims to examine whether the Trust's Transitions Policy is adhered to during transitions of young people across services. It also aims to review the qualitative experience of young people and professionals involved.
A Questionnaire Survey method was used to collect quantitative and qualitative data from involved professionals and young people who moved from CAMHS into AMHS (Aug11–Jan12). The data was analyzed against the audit criteria, which relate to specific aspects of the Transitions Policy.
A variable response rate showed that majority of the young people and involved professionals were satisfied with the planning and transfer of care with high policy adherence rates. Young people wished for better communication, more information on the nature of services offered and greater support, while professionals hoped for greater consideration of engagement levels and joint working. Alternative support was requested for declined referrals.
Improved adherence to the Transitions Policy can be achieved through proper planning, better communication, more joint working and regular feedback from young people and professionals. It can also help to achieve higher standards and continuity of clinical care to meet the needs of young people.
There is a lack of pharmacological trials studying drug response in Persistent Delusional Disorder (PDD) to guide clinical practice. Available reviews of retrospective data indicate good response to second-generation antipsychotics, but even such data from India is sparse.
Objectives and aims
We aimed to compare the response of acute PDD to risperidone and olanzapine in our retrospective review.
We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients diagnosed with PDD (ICD-10) from 2000 to 2014 (n = 455) at our Center. We selected the data of patients prescribed either olanzapine or risperidone for the purpose of this analysis. We extracted data about dose, drug compliance and response, adverse effects, number of follow-up visits and hospitalizations. The study was approved by the Institute Ethics Committee.
A total of 280/455 (61%) were prescribed risperidone and 86/455 (19%) olanzapine. The remaining (n = 89; 20%) had received other antipsychotics. The two groups were comparable in socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of PDD. Compliance was good and comparable in both groups (> 80%, P = 0.2). Response to treatment was comparable in both groups (85% partial response and > 52% good response, all P > 0.3). Olanzapine was effective at lower mean chlorpromazine equivalents than risperidone (240 vs. 391, P < 0.05).
Our study indicates a good response to both risperidone and olanzapine, if compliance to treatment can be ensured. In the absence of specific treatment guidelines for PDD, second-generation antipsychotics like risperidone and olanzapine offer good treatment options for this infrequently encountered and difficult to treat psychiatric disorder.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Previous studies have reported depressive symptoms in patients with persistent delusional disorder (PDD). Patients with PDD and depression may need antidepressants for treatment.
The aim of the study was to compare the sociodemographic profile, clinical presentation and treatment response in patients with PDD with and without comorbid depressive symptoms.
We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients diagnosed with PDD (ICD-10) from 2000 to 2014 (n = 455). We divided the patients into PDD + depression (n = 187) and PDD only (n = 268) for analysis.
Of the 187 patients with PDD + D, only eighteen (3.9%) were diagnosed with syndromal depression. There were no significant differences in sociodemographic profile including sex, marital and socioeconomic status (all P > 0.05). PDD + D group had a significantly younger age at onset ([PDD + D: 30.6 9.2 years vs. PDD: 33.5 11.1 years]; t = 2.9, P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the clinical presentation including mode of onset, the main theme of their delusion and secondary delusions (all P > 0.3). However, comorbid substance dependence was significantly higher in patients with PDD only. (χ2 = 5.3, P = 0.02). In terms of treatment, response to antipsychotics was also comparable ([> 75% response: PDD + D = 77/142 vs. PDD = 106/179); χ2 = 1.9, P = 0.3). There was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of antidepressant treatment ([PDD + D = 32/187; 17% vs PDD: 17/268; 6%), χ2 = 12.9, P = 0.001).
Patients with PDD + D had significantly earlier onset of illness. These patients may require antidepressants for treatment.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Until the past half-century, all agriculture and land management was framed by local institutions strong in social capital. But neoliberal forms of development came to undermine existing structures, thus reducing sustainability and equity. The past 20 years, though, have seen the deliberate establishment of more than 8 million new social groups across the world. This restructuring and growth of rural social capital within specific territories is leading to increased productivity of agricultural and land management systems, with particular benefits for those previously excluded. Further growth would occur with more national and regional policy support.
While the burden of dementia is increasing in low- and middle-income countries, there is a low rate of diagnosis and paucity of research in these regions. A major challenge to study dementia is the limited availability of standardised diagnostic tools for use in populations with linguistic and educational diversity. The objectives of the study were to develop a standardised and comprehensive neurocognitive test battery to diagnose dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to varied etiologies, across different languages and educational levels in India, to facilitate research efforts in diverse settings.
A multidisciplinary expert group formed by Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) collaborated towards adapting and validating a neurocognitive test battery, that is, the ICMR Neurocognitive Tool Box (ICMR-NCTB) in five Indian languages (Hindi, Bengali, Telugu, Kannada, and Malayalam), for illiterates and literates, to standardise diagnosis of dementia and MCI in India.
Following a review of existing international and national efforts at standardising dementia diagnosis, the ICMR-NCTB was developed and adapted to the Indian setting of sociolinguistic diversity. The battery consisted of tests of cognition, behaviour, and functional activities. A uniform protocol for diagnosis of normal cognition, MCI, and dementia due to neurodegenerative diseases and stroke was followed in six centres. A systematic plan for validating the ICMR-NCTB and establishing cut-off values in a diverse multicentric cohort was developed.
A key outcome was the development of a comprehensive diagnostic tool for diagnosis of dementia and MCI due to varied etiologies, in the diverse socio-demographic setting of India.
A novel series of nanocrystalline AlCuCrFeMnWx (x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5) high-entropy alloys (HEAs) were synthesized by mechanical alloying followed by spark plasma sintering. The phase evolution of the current HEAs was studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy, and selected area electron diffraction. The XRD of the AlCuCrFeMn sintered HEA shows evolution of ordered B2 phase (AlFe type), sigma phase (Cr rich), and FeMn phase. AlCuCrFeMnWx (x = 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 mol) shows formation of ordered B2 phases, sigma phases, FeMn phases, and BCC phases. Micro-hardness of the AlCuCrFeMnWx samples was measured by Vickers microindentation and the maximum value observed is 780 ± 12 HV. As the tungsten content increases, the fracture strength under compression increases from 1010 to 1510 MPa. Thermodynamic parameters of present alloys confirm the crystalline phase formation, and finally structure–property relationship was proposed by conventional strengthening mechanisms.
The changes in DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for dementia (Major neurocognitive disorder (NCD)) and mild cognitive impairment (mild NCD) mandate a re-evaluation of screening instruments. This study attempted to validate screening instruments, identify optimum threshold, and describe their indices of efficacy.
Consecutive people above the age of 65 years attending the outpatient department of a general hospital were recruited. They were assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Vellore Screening Instruments for Dementia and were evaluated against the DSM-5 standard. Bivariate and multivariate statistics were obtained. Receiver-operating-characteristic curves were drawn, optimum thresholds obtained, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values calculated.
One hundred and thirty four older people were recruited. The majority were women, married, with low levels of education, not employed, living with family, and had medical co-morbidity. A minority satisfied DSM-5 criteria for major (1.5%) and mild NCD (36.5%). The factors associated with NCD were older age, fewer years of education, and lower socio-economic status. MMSE, VSID patient, and VSID informant scores were significantly associated with NCD. The indices of efficacy for the MMSE and VSID patient version were modest for identifying Mild NCD. However, their performance in identifying major NCD was better. Nevertheless, optimal thresholds for recognition differed markedly from their originally recommended cut-offs.
The DSM-5 standards, with new and different cognitive domains, mandate a revaluation and recalibration of existing screening instruments. Ideally, new screening instruments, which match the cognitive domains and DSM-5 standard should be developed.
The solar active region (AR) 12192 was one of the most flare productive region of solar cycle 24, which produced many X-class flares; the most energetic being an X3.1 flare on October 24, 2014 at 21:10 UT. Customarily, such events are believed to be triggered by magnetic reconnection in coronal magnetic fields. Here we use the vector magnetograms from solar photosphere, obtained from Heliospheric Magnetic Imager (HMI) to investigate the magnetic field topology prior to the X3.1 event, and ascertain the conditions that might have caused the flare. To infer the coronal magnetic field, a novel non-force-free field (NFFF) extrapolation technique of the photospheric field is used, which suitably mimics the Lorentz forces present in the photospheric plasma. We also highlight the presence of magnetic null points and quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs) in the magnetic field topology, which are preferred sites for magnetic reconnections and discuss the probable reconnection scenarios.
The daily time series Flare Index (FI) data of Northern Hemisphere, Southern Hemisphere and Total Disk for Solar Cycle 21- 23 and 24 up to Dec. 2014 has been pre-processed using a 2nd order exponential smoothing algorithm to remove orthogonal noise. The smoothed data in each case is processed for scaling analysis using Rescaled-Range Analysis as well as Finite Variance Scaling Method in order to search for the Hurst exponent. As the value of H obtained from our analysis lies in between 0 and 1, so it can be said that the signal may behave like Fractional Brownian Motion. Also, it is observed that H is less than 0.5 which indicates the data is anti-persistent in nature and it has a strong negative correlation within the signal. The value of H also indicates the oscillating features of the signal which might have some fundamental periodicities in the Suns atmosphere.
Magnetic reconnections (MRs) for various magnetic field line (MFL) topologies are believed to be the initiators of solar eruptive events like flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Consequently, important is a thorough understanding and quantification of the MFL topology and their evolution which leads to MRs. Contemporary standard is to extrapolate the coronal MFLs using equilibrium models where the Lorentz force on the coronal plasma is zero everywhere. In tandem, a non-force-free-field (NFFF) extrapolation scheme has evolved and allows for a Lorentz force which is non-zero only at the photosphere but asymptotically vanishes with height. The paper reports magnetohydrodynamic (MHD)- simulations initiated by NFFF extrapolation of the coronal MFLs for a flare producing active region NOAA 11158. Interestingly, quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs) which facilitate MRs are detected in the extrapolated MFLs and, here the paper makes an attempt to asses the role of QSLs in the flare onsets.
Artificial Neural Network based Nonlinear Autoregressive Model is designed to reconstruct and predict Forbush Decrease (FD) Data obtained from Izmiran, Russia. Result indicates that the model seems adequate for short term prediction of the FD data.
The burden of dengue virus infections increased globally during recent years. Though India is considered as dengue hyper-endemic country, limited data are available on disease epidemiology. The present study includes molecular characterization of dengue virus strains occurred in Hyderabad, India, during the year 2014. A total of 120 febrile cases were recruited for this study, which includes only children and 41 were serologically confirmed for dengue positive infections using non-structural (NS1) and/or IgG/IgM ELISA tests. RT-PCR, nucleotide sequencing and evolutionary analyses were carried out to identify the circulating serotypes/genotypes. The data indicated a high percent of severe dengue (63%) in primary infections. Simultaneous circulation of all four serotypes and co-infections were observed for the first time in Hyderabad, India. In total, 15 patients were co-infected with more than one dengue serotype and 12 (80%) of them had severe dengue. One of the striking findings of the present study is the identification of serotype Den-1 as the first report from this region and this strain showed close relatedness to the Thailand 1980 strains but not to any of the strains reported from India until now. Phylogenetically, all four strains of the present study showed close relatedness to the strains, which are reported to be high virulent.
Castor is an industrially important oilseed crop. Vascular wilt caused by the soil borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ricini is a serious disease of castor. Use of resistant cultivars is the only viable option for management of wilt disease problem in castor production. Excellent sources of resistance to wilt have been found in castor germplasm. In this study, a set of four castor inbred lines (48–1, CI-1, AP42 and AP48) was characterized for inheritance of resistance to wilt by studying segregating populations generated by crossing these inbred lines with eight different susceptible genotypes. An artificial screening method (sick pot) with a new scoring system (days to wilt) was used for evaluation of plant progenies for reaction to the pathogen infection. The reaction of F1s indicated that the nature of resistance in 48–1, CI-1 and AP48 is recessive whereas it was dominant in AP42. Inheritance results from eight F2 populations showed that resistance to wilt is conferred by a single locus in one population and at least two loci, which interact in complementary way, in other seven populations. Different modes of inheritance were also observed when the same resistant source was crossed with different susceptible parents, indicating the possible role of genetic backgrounds in determining resistance. Overall, the results suggested that Mendelian resistance to wilt is predominant in the castor genotypes, which can be exploited for breeding cultivars. Particularly, AP42 with dominant nature of resistance will be of great interest to hybrid breeding.