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Selenium is an essential micronutrient with biochemical and cellular effects through activities of 25 selenocysteine-containing selenoproteins. Selenoproteins are anti-inflammatory and have antioxidant properties. Severe selenium deficiency causes muscle weakness and atrophy in humans however the effects of moderate selenium deficiency are unclear. The aims of this study are twofold: 1) to determine dietary selenium intakes and contributing food sources in very old adults and; 2) to determine whether dietary selenium intakes are associated with 5-year trajectories of muscle function: hand-grip strength (HGS) and Timed-Up-and-Go (TUG).
Cross-sectional (baseline) and prospective (1.5, 3 and 5-year follow-up) analyses of 845 participants aged 85 years from the Newcastle 85 + study were assessed for HGS and TUG performance using standardized protocols (Antoneta et al. 2016). Baseline dietary intakes were assessed using 24-hour multiple pass recall methods on two separate days (Mendonça et al. 2016). The top selenium food contributors (~90%) and the adequacy of intakes were determined i.e. those with intakes < LRNI, between the LRNI and RNI and > RNI. Linear mixed models explored the associations between selenium intake categories and time on the prospective, 5-year change in HGS and TUG in all participants, males and females.
Median intakes of selenium were 39, 48 and 35μg for all participants, males and females, respectively. Selenium intakes were below the LRNI in 51% of participants (median 27μg) whilst 15% had intakes ≥ the RNI (median 85μg). Only 13.3% of females and 16.9 % of males met the RNI. The top selenium contributors were cereals (46%), meat (22%), fish (10%), milk (6%), eggs (4%) and potatoes (3%) making up 91% of selenium intakes. Those with the lowest intakes had 2.72 kg lower HGS and 2.36s slower TUG compared to those with higher intakes (P < 0.005). There was no association between selenium intake in HGS or TUG, but time had a significant effect on the rate of change over 5-years in both parameters (P < 0.001).
Overall these results show that poor dietary selenium intakes are common in very old adults and that cereal and cereal products are major sources of selenium in this population. Whilst low selenium intakes are associated with worse HGS and TUG performance in the cross-sectional analysis, no significant associations were observed in the prospective analyses.
Prior evolutionary theory provided reason to suspect that measures of development and reproduction would be correlated with antisocial behaviours in human and non-human species. Behavioural genetics has revealed that most quantitative traits are heritable, suggesting that these phenotypic correlations may share genetic aetiologies. We use genome-wide association study data to estimate the genetic correlations between various measures of reproductive development (N = 52 776–318 863) and antisocial behaviour (N = 31 968). Our genetic correlation analyses demonstrate that alleles associated with higher reproductive output (number of children ever born, rg = 0.50, P = 0.0065) were positively correlated with alleles associated with antisocial behaviour, whereas alleles associated with more delayed reproductive onset (age at first birth, rg = −0.64, P = 0.0008) were negatively associated with alleles linked to antisocial behaviour. Ultimately, these findings coalesce with evolutionary theories suggesting that increased antisocial behaviours may partly represent a faster life history approach, which may be significantly calibrated by genes.
Enlist™ cotton contains the aad-12 and pat genes that confer resistance to 2,4-D and glufosinate, respectively. Thirty-three field trials were conducted focused on Enlist cotton injury from glufosinate as affected by cotton growth stage, application rate, and single or sequential applications. Maximum injury from a single application of typical 1X (542 g ae ha-1) and 2X use rates was 3 and 13%, respectively, regardless of growth stage. Injury from sequential applications of 1X or 2X rates was equivalent to single applications. Similar injury was observed with four commercial formulations of glufosinate. Cotton yield was never affected by glufosinate. This research demonstrates Enlist™ cotton has robust resistance to glufosinate at rates at least twice the typical use rate when applied once or twice at growth stages ranging from 2 to 12 leaves.
We sought to conduct a major objective of the CAEP Academic Section, an environmental scan of the academic emergency medicine programs across the 17 Canadian medical schools.
We developed an 84-question questionnaire, which was distributed to academic heads. The responses were validated by phone by the lead author to ensure that the questions were answered completely and consistently. Details of pediatric emergency medicine units were excluded from the scan.
At eight of 17 universities, emergency medicine has full departmental status and at two it has no official academic status. Canadian academic emergency medicine is practiced at 46 major teaching hospitals and 13 specialized pediatric hospitals. Another 69 Canadian hospital EDs regularly take clinical clerks and emergency medicine residents. There are 31 full professors of emergency medicine in Canada. Teaching programs are strong with clerkships offered at 16/17 universities, CCFP(EM) programs at 17/17, and RCPSC residency programs at 14/17. Fourteen sites have at least one physician with a Master’s degree in education. There are 55 clinical researchers with salary support at 13 universities. Sixteen sites have published peer-reviewed papers in the past five years, ranging from four to 235 per site. Annual budgets range from $200,000 to $5,900,000.
This comprehensive review of academic activities in emergency medicine across Canada identifies areas of strengths as well as opportunities for improvement. CAEP and the Academic Section hope we can ultimately improve ED patient care by sharing best academic practices and becoming better teachers, educators, and researchers.
Recent work on the morality of hell spans the various subdisciplines of theology, with the ironic exception of theological ethics. An adequate defence of hell requires a positive account of how God's eternally tormenting some humans is beautiful, just and worthy of worship. This suggests a short-term and long-term task. The short-term task, which this article pursues, tests whether an adequate moral theory is available by evaluating three possible candidates, the third of which is the most interesting, as it offers a historicist defence of hell: we believe hell is cruel only because of aversions to cruel and unusual punishment that emerged in modernity. Nonetheless, all three defences are inadequate, suggesting a longer term goal: we need either better moral theories or better accounts of hell, as well as greater analytic clarity regarding theological statements of the form, I want doctrine y to be true but believe doctrine x is true.
North American studies show bipolar disorder is associated with elevated
rates of problem gambling; however, little is known about rates in the
different presentations of bipolar illness.
To determine the prevalence and distribution of problem gambling in
people with bipolar disorder in the UK.
The Problem Gambling Severity Index was used to measure gambling problems
in 635 participants with bipolar disorder.
Moderate to severe gambling problems were four times higher in people
with bipolar disorder than in the general population, and were associated
with type 2 disorder (OR = 1.74, P = 0.036), history of
suicidal ideation or attempt (OR = 3.44, P = 0.02) and
rapid cycling (OR = 2.63, P = 0.008).
Approximately 1 in 10 patients with bipolar disorder may be at moderate
to severe risk of problem gambling, possibly associated with suicidal
behaviour and a rapid cycling course. Elevated rates of gambling problems
in type 2 disorder highlight the probable significance of modest but
unstable mood disturbance in the development and maintenance of such
Long-acting injectable formulations of antipsychotics are treatment alternatives to oral agents.
To assess the efficacy of aripiprazole once-monthly compared with oral aripiprazole for maintenance treatment of schizophrenia.
A 38-week, double-blind, active-controlled, non-inferiority study; randomisation (2:2:1) to aripiprazole once-monthly 400 mg, oral aripiprazole (10–30 mg/day) or aripiprazole once-monthly 50mg (a dose below the therapeutic threshold for assay sensitivity). (Trial registration: clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00706654.)
A total of 1118 patients were screened, and 662 responders to oral aripiprazole were randomised. Kaplan–Meier estimated impending relapse rates at week 26 were 7.12% for aripiprazole once-monthly 400mg and 7.76% for oral aripiprazole. This difference (−0.64%, 95% CI −5.26 to 3.99) excluded the predefined non-inferiority margin of 11.5%. Treatments were superior to aripiprazole once-monthly 50mg (21.80%, P⩽0.001).
Aripiprazole once-monthly 400mg was non-inferior to oral aripiprazole, and the reduction in Kaplan–Meier estimated impending relapse rate at week 26 was statistically significant v. aripiprazole once-monthly 50 mg.