To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This chapter presents the multi-scale co-creation methodology used in SURE-Farm to involve stakeholders with the aim of assessing the resilience of European farming systems. This methodology resulted in a wide range of valuable insights and allowed to identify convergent and divergent stakeholders’ perceptions with possible policy implications.
The extensive sheep farming system (FS) in Huesca has shown a low resilience capacity to deal with the multiple challenges that it is facing. Policies should support the provision of public goods and be flexible to support diverse resilience-enabling strategies. Research about indicators to measure the provision of public goods, innovation to foster herd and pasture management, and strengthening collaboration between actors in the FS have to accompany policy initiatives.
Large dams are emerging drivers of landscape-scale habitat fragmentation, causing extensive flooding and transforming hilltops into islands. Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs; the process to assess and account for impacts of development) do not explicitly consider reservoir islands in calculations of habitat impacted by dam construction. Reservoir islands maintain relict biological communities from the previously continuous habitat. Relict communities are subject to an extinction debt whereby species are lost over time. We demonstrate how estimating the ‘conservation value’ of islands (CV; the proportion of relict continuous habitat [forest] species on islands) using relict species–area relationships (RSARs), can be used in an area-of-impact correction tool to account for insular habitats in EIAs. We used data from eight taxonomic groups within the Balbina Hydroelectric Reservoir (BHR) archipelago in Brazilian Amazonia. We found ca. 72,000 ha of insular habitat had reduced CV, equating to 60% of aggregate island area, and that an additional 24% of the ca. 300,000 ha BHR water surface area should be included in area assessments for impacted terrestrial habitat. Where reservoir island creation is unavoidable, using RSARs to assess the CV of islands enables more accurate and dynamic assessment of the ecological impacts of dam construction.
Six younger investigators of violent behavior comment on the autobiographies of their senior colleagues. They were chosen to represent investigators at different points in their careers, as well as different countries and different topics. Their comments highlight the family, economic, cultural, and professional contexts that influenced the lives and careers of their senior colleagues. They also highlight the general lessons to be learned from their research. They then describe how the last five decades of work has set the agenda for the next generations of scholars. Suggested future research topics include: 1) testing the extent to which reducing identified risk factors has preventive impacts; 2) studying genetics and epigenetics; 3) using machine learning; 4) using electronic tools to substantially increase data collection in longitudinal studies; 5) expanding the education and training of aggression researchers by integrating biological sciences, data sciences such as bioinformatics and machine learning, social sciences, moral sciences, and the art of policymaking; 6) creating international research teams to do cross-cultural studies and also address global violence research; and 7) scaling up evidence-based programs for wider dissemination and to achieve population-level impacts.
A millimetre-size superhydrophobic sphere impacting on the free surface of a quiescent bath can be propelled back into the air by capillary effects and dynamic fluid forces, whilst transferring part of its energy to the fluid. We report the findings of a thorough investigation of this phenomenon, involving different approaches. Over the range from minimum impact velocities required to produce rebounds to impact velocities that cause the sinking of the solid sphere, we focus on the dependence of the coefficient of restitution, contact time and maximum surface deflection on the different physical parameters of the problem. Experiments, simulations and asymptotic analysis reveal trends in the rebound metrics, uncover new phenomena at both ends of the Weber number spectrum, and collapse the data. Direct numerical simulations using a pseudo-solid sphere successfully reproduce experimental data whilst also providing insight into flow quantities that are challenging to determine from experiments. A model based on matching the motion of a perfectly hydrophobic impactor to a linearised fluid free surface is validated against direct numerical simulations and used in the low-Weber-number regime. The hierarchical and cross-validated models in this study allow us to explore the entirety of our target parameter space within a challenging multi-scale system.
Cognitive impairment is common in bipolar disorder and is emerging as a therapeutic target to enhance quality of life and function. A systematic search was conducted on PubMed, PsycInfo, Cochrane, clinicaltrials.gov, and Embase databases for blinded or open-label randomized controlled trials evaluating the pro-cognitive effects of pharmacological, neurostimulation, or psychological interventions for bipolar disorder. Twenty-two trials were identified, evaluating a total of 16 different pro-cognitive interventions. The methodological quality of the identified trials were assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Currently, no intervention (i.e., pharmacologic, neurostimulation, cognitive remediation) has demonstrated robust and independent pro-cognitive effects in adults with bipolar disorder. Findings are preliminary and methodological limitations limit the interpretation of results. Methodological considerations including, but not limited to, the enrichment with populations with pre-treatment cognitive impairment, as well as the inclusion of individuals who are in remission are encouraged. Future trials may also consider targeting interventions to specific cognitive subgroups and the use of biomarkers of cognitive function.
Although hepcidin synthesis is stimulated by inflammation and inhibited by Fe deficiency, the strength of their opposing effects on serum hepcidin (SHep) in humans remains unclear. It was recently shown that an inflammatory stimulus in anaemic women did not increase SHep or decrease Fe absorption. The enhancing effect of ascorbic acid on Fe absorption may not be effective during inflammation because of increased SHep. Our study aim was to test whether reducing inflammation in Fe-depleted overweight (OW) women with low-grade inflammation would lower SHep and improve Fe absorption with and without ascorbic acid, compared with normal-weight (NW) women without inflammation. Before and after 14 d of anti-inflammatory treatment (3 × 600 mg ibuprofen daily) in OW and NW women (n 36; 19–46 years of age), we measured SHep and fractional Fe absorption (FIA) (erythrocyte Fe incorporation) from 57Fe- and 58Fe-labelled test meals with and without ascorbic acid. There were significant group effects on IL-6, C-reactive protein, serum ferritin and SHep (for all, P < 0·05). There was a significant treatment effect on SHep (P < 0·05): in OW women, treatment decreased IL-6 by approximately 30 % and SHep by approximately 45 %. However, there were no significant treatment or group effects on FIA. Body Fe stores (BIS) were a significant positive predictor of SHep before and after treatment (P < 0·001), but IL-6 was not. Reducing chronic inflammation in OW women halved SHep but did not affect Fe absorption with or without ascorbic acid, and the main predictor of Fe absorption was BIS.
Dietary protein is a pre-requisite for the maintenance of skeletal muscle mass; stimulating increases in muscle protein synthesis (MPS), via essential amino acids (EAA), and attenuating muscle protein breakdown, via insulin. Muscles are receptive to the anabolic effects of dietary protein, and in particular the EAA leucine, for only a short period (i.e. about 2–3 h) in the rested state. Thereafter, MPS exhibits tachyphylaxis despite continued EAA availability and sustained mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 signalling. Other notable characteristics of this ‘muscle full’ phenomenon include: (i) it cannot be overcome by proximal intake of additional nutrient signals/substrates regulating MPS; meaning a refractory period exists before a next stimulation is possible, (ii) it is refractory to pharmacological/nutraceutical enhancement of muscle blood flow and thus is not induced by muscle hypo-perfusion, (iii) it manifests independently of whether protein intake occurs in a bolus or intermittent feeding pattern, and (iv) it does not appear to be dependent on protein dose per se. Instead, the main factor associated with altering muscle full is physical activity. For instance, when coupled to protein intake, resistance exercise delays the muscle full set-point to permit additional use of available EAA for MPS to promote muscle remodelling/growth. In contrast, ageing is associated with blunted MPS responses to protein/exercise (anabolic resistance), while physical inactivity (e.g. immobilisation) induces a premature muscle full, promoting muscle atrophy. It is crucial that in catabolic scenarios, anabolic strategies are sought to mitigate muscle decline. This review highlights regulatory protein turnover interactions by dietary protein, exercise, ageing and physical inactivity.
The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) framework aims to understand how environmental exposures in early life shape lifecycle health. Our understanding and the ability to prevent poor health outcomes and enrich for resiliency remain limited, in part, because exposure–outcome relationships are complex and poorly defined. We, therefore, aimed to determine the major DOHaD risk and resilience factors. A systematic approach with a 3-level screening process was used to conduct our Rapid Evidence Review following the established guidelines. Scientific databases using DOHaD-related keywords were searched to capture articles between January 1, 2009 and April 19, 2019. A final total of 56 systematic reviews/meta-analyses were obtained. Studies were categorized into domains based on primary exposures and outcomes investigated. Primary summary statistics and extracted data from the studies are presented in Graphical Overview for Evidence Reviews diagrams. There was substantial heterogeneity within and between studies. While global trends showed an increase in DOHaD publications over the last decade, the majority of data reported were from high-income countries. Articles were categorized under six exposure domains: Early Life Nutrition, Maternal/Paternal Health, Maternal/Paternal Psychological Exposure, Toxicants/Environment, Social Determinants, and Others. Studies examining social determinants of health and paternal influences were underrepresented. Only 23% of the articles explored resiliency factors. We synthesized major evidence on relationships between early life exposures and developmental and health outcomes, identifying risk and resiliency factors that influence later life health. Our findings provide insight into important trends and gaps in knowledge within many exposures and outcome domains.
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have increased susceptibility to anxiety disorders. Variation in a common ASD symptom, insistence on sameness behaviour, may predict future anxiety symptoms.
To describe the joint heterogeneous longitudinal trajectories of insistence on sameness and anxiety in children with ASD and to characterise subgroups at higher risk for anxiety.
In a longitudinal ASD cohort (n = 421), insistence on sameness behaviour was measured using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised at approximately ages 3, 6 and 11 years. Anxiety was quantified at 8 time points between ages 3 and 11 years using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) (parent report). Clusters of participants following similar trajectories were identified using group-based and joint trajectory modelling.
Three insistence on sameness trajectories were identified: (a) ‘low-stable’ (41.7% of participants), (b) ‘moderate-increasing’ (52.0%) and (c) ‘high-peaking’ (i.e. increasing then stabilising/decreasing behaviour) (6.3%). Four anxiety trajectories were identified: (a) ‘low-increasing’ (51.0%), (b) ‘moderate-decreasing’ (16.2%), (c) ‘moderate-increasing’ (19.6%) and (d) ‘high-stable’ (13.1%). Of those assigned to the ‘high-peaking’ insistence on sameness trajectory, 95% jointly followed an anxiety trajectory that surpassed the threshold for clinical concern (T-score >65) by middle childhood (anxiety trajectories 3 or 4). Insistence on sameness and anxiety trajectories were similar in severity and direction for 64% of the sample; for 36%, incongruous patterns were seen (e.g. decreasing anxiety and increasing insistence on sameness).
The concurrent assessment of insistence on sameness behaviour and anxiety in ASD may help in understanding current symptom profiles and anticipating future trajectories. High preschool insistence on sameness in particular may be associated with elevated current or future anxiety symptoms.
In the current work, we compared the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using plant extracts, a promising methodology against the use of chemical reducers, such as oleic acid and oleylamine. The advantages of green synthesis are one-step method, economic and ecological while the advantages of classic synthesis methods are high nanoparticle performance, homogeneity in size and smaller average sizes. With this work we want to demonstrate that plant extracts with specific mixtures of chemical compounds can obtain smaller average sizes with greater homogeneity in nanoparticles compared to the use of classical synthesis. Myrtillocactus geometrizans was used as a polar plant extract, which was selected by the chemical components contained in the extract. Phytosterols, oleic acid and betalains contained in Myrtillocactus geometrizans are biomolecules responsible for the reduction and stability of AgNP below 5 nm. TEM analysis of the green synthesis of nanoparticles revealed the formation of spherical particles with an average diameter of 5 nm and with preferential crystallographic directions of the silver plane .
Semantically ambiguous and emotional words occur frequently in language, and the different meanings of ambiguous words can sometimes have different emotional loads. For example, the Spanish word heroína (heroin/heroine) can refer to a drug or to a woman who performs a heroic act. Because both ambiguity and emotionality affect word processing, there is a need for normative databases that include data on the emotionality of the different meanings of such words. Thus far, no bases of this type are available in Spanish. With this in mind, the current study will present meaning-dependent affective (valence) ratings for 252 Spanish ambiguous words. The analyses performed show that (a) among ambiguous words, those words with meanings that have distinct affective valence are quite frequent, (b) ambiguous words rated as neutral in isolation can have meanings of opposite valence (i.e., negative-positive or positive-negative), and (c) the valence estimated for ambiguous words in isolation is better explained by the weighted average of the valence of their meanings by dominance. A database of this kind can be useful both for basic research (e.g., relationship between emotion and language and ambiguity processing) and for applied research (e.g., cognitive and emotional biases in emotional disorders and second language learning).
This paper is a revised and updated edition of a previous description of the Quebec Newborn Twin Study (QNTS), an ongoing prospective longitudinal follow-up of a birth cohort of twins born between 1995 and 1998 in the greater Montreal area, Québec, Canada. The goal of QNTS is to document individual differences in the cognitive, behavioral, and social-emotional aspects of developmental health across childhood, their early genetic and environmental determinants, as well as their putative role in later social-emotional adjustment, school, health, and occupational outcomes. A total of 662 families of twins were initially assessed when the twins were aged 6 months. These twins and their family were then followed regularly. QNTS now has 16 waves of data collected or planned, including 5 in preschool. Over the last 24 years, a broad range of physiological, cognitive, behavioral, school, and health phenotypes were documented longitudinally through multi-informant and multimethod measurements. QNTS also entails extended and detailed multilevel assessments of proximal (e.g., parenting behaviors, peer relationships) and distal (e.g., family income) features of the child’s environment. QNTS children and a subset of their parents have been genotyped, allowing for the computation of a variety of polygenic scores. This detailed longitudinal information makes QNTS uniquely suited for the study of the role of the early years and gene–environment transactions in development.
This chapter presents an overview of the motivation for the volume, emphasizing why studying deep carbon is relevant to the goal of understanding carbon quantities, movements, forms, and origins. It contains brief highlights of the new instruments, cross-cutting research initiatives, and deep carbon science over the past decade (spurred in large part by the international Deep Carbon Observatory) that have expanded our understanding of carbon on Earth.
Carbon is one of the most important elements of our planet, and ninety percent of it resides inside Earth's interior. This book summarizes ten years of research by scientists involved in the Deep Carbon Observatory, a global community of 1200 scientists. It is a comprehensive guide to carbon inside Earth, including its quantities, movements, forms, origins, changes over time, and impact on planetary processes. Leading experts from a variety of fields, including geoscience, biology, chemistry, and physics, provide exciting new insights into the interconnected nature of the global carbon cycle, and explain why it matters to the past, present, and future of our planet. With end-of-chapter problems, illustrative infographics, full-color images, and access to online models and datasets, it is a valuable reference for graduate students, researchers, and professional scientists interested in carbon cycling and Earth system science. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
LED illumination systems for fluorescence microscopy offer a wealth of benefits in comparison to traditional mercury and metal halide lamps, including ease of use, improved stability, and enhanced control. To fully realize these benefits, it is important to ensure that optical filters are configured correctly, which often can be confusing. However, without the correct filter configuration, experimental conditions can be suboptimal, and results may therefore be inaccurate. This article looks at optical filter setup in more depth, explaining the purpose and benefits of optimal LED filtering.