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30 Analyzing Spanish Speakers Cordoba Naming Test Performance

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  21 December 2023

Raymundo Cervantes
Affiliation:
The Lundquist Institute, Torrance, CA, USA. California State University, Dominguez Hills, Carson, CA, USA.
Isabel D.C. Munoz
Affiliation:
The Lundquist Institute, Torrance, CA, USA. California State University, Northridge, Northridge, CA, USA.
Estefania J. Aguirre
Affiliation:
Universidad de los Andes, Cundinamarca, Bogota, Colombia.
Natalia Lozano Acosta
Affiliation:
Tecnolögico de Monterrey, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
Mariam Gomez
Affiliation:
Tecnolögico de Monterrey, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
Adriana C. Cuello
Affiliation:
Tecnolögico de Monterrey, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
Krissy E. Smith
Affiliation:
The Lundquist Institute, Torrance, CA, USA. California State University, Dominguez Hills, Carson, CA, USA.
Diana I. Palacios Mata
Affiliation:
Universidad Nacional Autönoma de Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico City, Mexico.
Krithika Sivaramakrishnan
Affiliation:
The Lundquist Institute, Torrance, CA, Mexico. California State University, Fresno, Fresno, CA, USA.
Yvette De Jesus
Affiliation:
The Lundquist Institute, Torrance, CA, USA. California State University, Fresno, Fresno, CA, USA.
Santiago I. Espinoza
Affiliation:
Tecnolögico de Monterrey, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
Diana M. R. Maqueda
Affiliation:
Tecnolögico de Monterrey, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
David J. Hardy
Affiliation:
Loyola Marymount University, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
Tara L. Victor
Affiliation:
California State University, Dominguez Hills, Carson, CA, USA.
Alberto L. Fernandez
Affiliation:
National University of Cördoba, Cördoba, Cördoba, Argentina.
Daniel W. Lopez-Hernandez*
Affiliation:
The Lundquist Institute, Torrance, CA, USA. University of California San Diego Health, San Diego, CA, USA
*
Correspondence: Daniel W. Lopez-Hernandez, University of California San Diego Health, wdlopez31@gmail.com
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Abstract

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Objective:

A 30-item confrontation naming test was developed in Argentina for Spanish speakers, The Cordoba Naming Test (CNT). The Boston Naming Test is an established confrontation naming task in the United States. Researchers have used the Boston Naming Test to identify individuals with different clinical pathologies (e.g., Alzheimer’s disease). The current literature on how Spanish speakers across various countries perform on confrontational naming tasks is limited. To our knowledge, one study investigated CNT performance across three Spanish-speaking countries (i.e., Argentina, Mexico, and Guatemala). Investigators found that the Guatemalan group underperformed on the CNT compared to the Argentine and Mexican groups. The purpose of this study was to extend the current literature and investigate CNT performance across five Spanish-speaking countries (i.e., Argentina, Mexico, Guatemala, Colombia, United States). We predicted that the Argentine group would outperform the other Spanish-speaking countries.

Participants and Methods:

The present study sample consisted of 502 neurologically and psychologically healthy participants with a mean age of 29.06 (SD = 13.41) with 14.75 years of education completed (SD = 3.01). Participants were divided into five different groups based on their country of birth and current country residency (i.e., United States, Mexico, Guatemala, Argentina, & Colombia). All participants consented to voluntary participation and completed the CNT and a comprehensive background questionnaire in Spanish. The CNT consisted of 30 black and white line drawings, ranging from easy to hard in difficulty. An ANCOVA, controlling for gender, education, and age, was used to evaluate CNT performance between the five Spanish-speaking country groups. Meanwhile, a Bonferroni post-hoc test was utilized to evaluate the significant differences between Spanish-speaking groups. We used a threshold of p < .05 for statistical significance.

Results:

Results revealed significant group differences between the five Spanish speaking groups on the CNT, p = .000, np2 = .48. Bonferroni post-hoc test revealed that the United States group significantly underperformed on the CNT compared to all the Spanish-speaking groups. Next, we found the Guatemalan group underperformed on the CNT compared to the Argentinian, Mexican, and Colombian groups. Additionally, we found the Argentinian group outperformed the Mexican, Guatemalan, and United States groups on the CNT. No significant differences were found between the Argentinian group and Colombian group or the Mexican group and Colombian group on the CNT.

Conclusions:

As predicted, the Argentinian group outperformed all the Spanish-speaking groups on the CNT except the Colombian group. Additionally, we found that the United States group underperformed on the CNT compared to all the Spanish-speaking groups. A possible explanation is that Spanish is not the official language in the United States compared to the rest of the Spanish-speaking groups. Meanwhile, a possible reason why the Argentinian and Colombian groups demonstrated better CNT performances might have been that it was less culturally sensitive than the United States, Mexican, and Guatemalan groups. Further analysis is needed with bigger sample sizes across other Spanish-speaking countries (e.g., Costa Rica, Chile) to evaluate what variables, if any, are influencing CNT performance.

Type
Poster Session 05: Neuroimaging | Neurophysiology | Neurostimulation | Technology | Cross Cultural | Multiculturalism | Career Development
Copyright
Copyright © INS. Published by Cambridge University Press, 2023