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39 Perceived Workload and Language Order Effects on the Cordoba Naming Test in Spanish-English Bilinguals

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  21 December 2023

Krissy E. Smith*
Affiliation:
California State University Dominguez Hills, Carson, California, USA. The Lundquist Institute, Torrance, California, USA.
Isabel D. C. Munoz
Affiliation:
The Lundquist Institute, Torrance, California, USA. California State University Northridge, Northridge, California, USA.
Raymundo Cervantes
Affiliation:
California State University Dominguez Hills, Carson, California, USA. The Lundquist Institute, Torrance, California, USA.
Andrea R. Preciado
Affiliation:
The Lundquist Institute, Torrance, California, USA. Tecnologico de Monterrey, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.
Tara L. Victor
Affiliation:
California State University Dominguez Hills, Carson, California, USA.
Natalia Garcia
Affiliation:
California State University Dominguez Hills, Carson, California, USA. The Lundquist Institute, Torrance, California, USA.
Paula V. Bracho
Affiliation:
The Lundquist Institute, Torrance, California, USA. Tecnologico de Monterrey, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, USA.
Enrique Lopez
Affiliation:
The Lundquist Institute, Torrance, California, USA.
Alberto L. Fernandez
Affiliation:
Universidad Catolica De Cordoba, Center, Cordoba, Argentina.
Yvette De Jesus
Affiliation:
The Lundquist Institute, Torrance, California, USA. California State Univeristy Fresno, Fresno, California, USA.
Daniel W. Lopez-Hernandez
Affiliation:
The Lundquist Institute, Torrance, California, USA. University of California San Diego Health, San Diego, California, USA
*
Correspondence: Krissy E. Smith, California State University Dominguez Hills, krissye.smith@gmail.com
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Abstract

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Objective:

The Cordoba Naming Test (CNT) is a 30-item confrontation naming task. The administration of the CNT can be administered in multiple languages. Hardy and Wright (2018) conditionally validated a measure of perceived mental workload called the National Aeronautic Space Administration Task Load Index (NASA-TLX). They found that workload ratings on the NASA-TLX increased with increased demands on a cognitive task. Researchers found interactions in a study examining language proficiency and language (i.e., in which the test was administered) on several tasks of the Golden Stroop Test. Their results revealed that unbalanced bilinguals’ best-spoken language showed significantly better results compared to balanced bilinguals’ where language use did not matter. To our knowledge, no study has examined the order effects of Spanish-English bilingual speakers’ CNT performance and perceived workloads when completed in Spanish first compared to English second and vice-versa. We predicted that persons that completed the CNT in English first would demonstrate better performances and report lower perceived workloads on the CNT compared to completing the CNT in Spanish second. In addition, we predicted that persons that completed the CNT in Spanish first would demonstrate worse performance and higher perceived workloads on the CNT compared to completing the CNT in English second.

Participants and Methods:

The sample consisted of 62 Spanish-English healthy and neurologically bilingual speakers with a mean age of 19.94 (SD= 3.36). Thirty-seven participants completed the CNT in English first and then in Spanish (English-to-Spanish) and 25 participants completed the CNT in Spanish first and then in English (Spanish-to-English). The NASA-TLX was used to evaluate CNT perceived workloads. All the participants completed the NASA-TLX in English and Spanish after completing the CNT in the language given, respectfully. A series of paired-samples T-Tests were completed to evaluate groups CNT performance and perceived workload.

Results:

We found that the English-to-Spanish group performed better on the CNT in English first than completing it in Spanish second, p = .000. We also found that the English-to-Spanish group reported better performance and less mentally demanding on the CNT when it was completed in English first compared to completing it in Spanish second, p’s < .05. Regarding the Spanish-to-English group, we found participants performed worse when they completed the CNT in Spanish first compared to completing the CNT in English second, p = .000. Finally, the Spanish-to-English group reported worse performance completing the CNT in Spanish first, more temporal demanding, and more frustrating compared to completing the CNT in English second, p’s < .05.

Conclusions:

As expected, when participants completed the CNT in English, regardless of the order, they performed better and reported lower perceived workloads compared to completing the CNT in Spanish. Our data suggests that language order effect influenced participants CNT performance possibly due to not knowing specific items in Spanish compared to in English. Future studies using larger sample sizes should evaluate language order effects on the CNT in Spanish-English balanced bilingual speakers compared to unbalanced bilingual speakers.

Type
Poster Session 05: Neuroimaging | Neurophysiology | Neurostimulation | Technology | Cross Cultural | Multiculturalism | Career Development
Copyright
Copyright © INS. Published by Cambridge University Press, 2023