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To determine which established diet quality indices best predict weight-related outcomes in young women.
In this cross-sectional analysis, we collected dietary information using the Harvard FFQ and measured body fat percentage (BF%) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. We used FFQ data to derive five diet quality indices: Recommended Food Score (RFS), Healthy Eating Index 2015 (HEI-2015), Alternate Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI-2010), alternate Mediterranean Diet Score (aMED) and Healthy Plant-Based Diet Index (HPDI).
University of Massachusetts at Amherst.
Two hundred sixty healthy women aged 18–30 years.
The AHEI-2010 and HPDI were associated with BMI and BF%, such that a ten-point increase in either diet score was associated with a 1·2 percentage-point lower BF% and a 0·5 kg/m2 lower BMI (P < 0·05). Odds of excess body fat (i.e. BF% > 32 %) were 50 % lower for those in the highest v. lowest tertile of the AHEI-2010 (P = 0·04). Neither the RFS nor HEI-2015 was associated with BMI or BF%; the aMED was associated with BMI but not BF%.
These results suggest that diet quality tends to be inversely associated with BMI and BF% in young women, but that this association is not observed for all diet quality indices. Diet indices may have limited utility in populations where the specific healthful foods and food groups emphasised by the index are not widely consumed. Future research should aim to replicate these findings in longitudinal studies that compare body composition changes over time across diet indices in young women.
This study compared the level of education and tests from multiple cognitive domains as proxies for cognitive reserve.
The participants were educationally, ethnically, and cognitively diverse older adults enrolled in a longitudinal aging study. We examined independent and interactive effects of education, baseline cognitive scores, and MRI measures of cortical gray matter change on longitudinal cognitive change.
Baseline episodic memory was related to cognitive decline independent of brain and demographic variables and moderated (weakened) the impact of gray matter change. Education moderated (strengthened) the gray matter change effect. Non-memory cognitive measures did not incrementally explain cognitive decline or moderate gray matter change effects.
Episodic memory showed strong construct validity as a measure of cognitive reserve. Education effects on cognitive decline were dependent upon the rate of atrophy, indicating education effectively measures cognitive reserve only when atrophy rate is low. Results indicate that episodic memory has clinical utility as a predictor of future cognitive decline and better represents the neural basis of cognitive reserve than other cognitive abilities or static proxies like education.
In recent years, a variety of efforts have been made in political science to enable, encourage, or require scholars to be more open and explicit about the bases of their empirical claims and, in turn, make those claims more readily evaluable by others. While qualitative scholars have long taken an interest in making their research open, reflexive, and systematic, the recent push for overarching transparency norms and requirements has provoked serious concern within qualitative research communities and raised fundamental questions about the meaning, value, costs, and intellectual relevance of transparency for qualitative inquiry. In this Perspectives Reflection, we crystallize the central findings of a three-year deliberative process—the Qualitative Transparency Deliberations (QTD)—involving hundreds of political scientists in a broad discussion of these issues. Following an overview of the process and the key insights that emerged, we present summaries of the QTD Working Groups’ final reports. Drawing on a series of public, online conversations that unfolded at www.qualtd.net, the reports unpack transparency’s promise, practicalities, risks, and limitations in relation to different qualitative methodologies, forms of evidence, and research contexts. Taken as a whole, these reports—the full versions of which can be found in the Supplementary Materials—offer practical guidance to scholars designing and implementing qualitative research, and to editors, reviewers, and funders seeking to develop criteria of evaluation that are appropriate—as understood by relevant research communities—to the forms of inquiry being assessed. We dedicate this Reflection to the memory of our coauthor and QTD working group leader Kendra Koivu.1
Understanding place-based contributors to health requires geographically and culturally diverse study populations, but sharing location data is a significant challenge to multisite studies. Here, we describe a standardized and reproducible method to perform geospatial analyses for multisite studies. Using census tract-level information, we created software for geocoding and geospatial data linkage that was distributed to a consortium of birth cohorts located throughout the USA. Individual sites performed geospatial linkages and returned tract-level information for 8810 children to a central site for analyses. Our generalizable approach demonstrates the feasibility of geospatial analyses across study sites to promote collaborative translational research.
During the last fifteen years there has been a paradigm shift in the continuum modelling of granular materials; most notably with the development of rheological models, such as the $\mu (I)$-rheology (where $\mu$ is the friction and I is the inertial number), but also with significant advances in theories for particle segregation. This paper details theoretical and numerical frameworks (based on OpenFOAM) which unify these currently disconnected endeavours. Coupling the segregation with the flow, and vice versa, is not only vital for a complete theory of granular materials, but is also beneficial for developing numerical methods to handle evolving free surfaces. This general approach is based on the partially regularized incompressible $\mu (I)$-rheology, which is coupled to the gravity-driven segregation theory of Gray & Ancey (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 678, 2011, pp. 353–588). These advection–diffusion–segregation equations describe the evolving concentrations of the constituents, which then couple back to the variable viscosity in the incompressible Navier–Stokes equations. A novel feature of this approach is that any number of differently sized phases may be included, which may have disparate frictional properties. Further inclusion of an excess air phase, which segregates away from the granular material, then allows the complex evolution of the free surface to be captured simultaneously. Three primary coupling mechanisms are identified: (i) advection of the particle concentrations by the bulk velocity, (ii) feedback of the particle-size and/or frictional properties on the bulk flow field and (iii) influence of the shear rate, pressure, gravity, particle size and particle-size ratio on the locally evolving segregation and diffusion rates. The numerical method is extensively tested in one-way coupled computations, before the fully coupled model is compared with the discrete element method simulations of Tripathi & Khakhar (Phys. Fluids, vol. 23, 2011, 113302) and used to compute the petal-like segregation pattern that spontaneously develops in a square rotating drum.
The goal of this study was to assess the utility of participatory needs assessment processes for continuous improvement of developing clinical and translational research (CTR) networks. Our approach expanded on evaluation strategies for CTR networks, centers, and institutes, which often survey stakeholders to identify infrastructure or resource needs, using the case example of the Great Plains IDeA-CTR Network. Our 4-stage approach (i.e., pre-assessment, data collection, implementation of needs assessment derived actions, monitoring of action plan) included a member survey (n = 357) and five subsequent small group sessions (n = 75 participants) to better characterize needs identified in the survey and to provide actionable recommendations. This participatory, mixed-methods needs assessment and strategic action planning process yielded 11 inter-related recommendations. These recommendations were presented to the CTR steering committee as inputs to develop detailed, prioritized action plans. Preliminary evaluation shows progress towards improved program capacity and effectiveness of the network to respond to member needs. The participatory, mixed-methods needs assessment and strategic planning process allowed a wide range of stakeholders to contribute to the development of actionable recommendations for network improvement, in line with the principles of team science.
There is increasing evidence that women with the ability to exercise control over their sexual and reproductive lives have greater access to prompt prevention and treatment of maternal health disorders, resulting in a concomitant reduction in maternal morbidity and mortality. This study assessed the association between indices of women’s empowerment and utilization of skilled antenatal, intrapartum and postnatal maternity care in two rural Local Government Areas in Edo State, Nigeria. Data were taken from a household survey conducted in July and August 2017, and the study sample comprised 1245 ever-married women currently in a union who had given birth in the 5 years preceding the survey. A Gender Roles Framework guided the selection of independent women’s empowerment variables. Using hierarchical logistic regression, the likelihood of receiving all three levels of skilled maternal health care service (antenatal, intrapartum and postnatal) by women’s empowerment variables, grouped into resource, decision-making and influencer domains following the model of Anderson and Neuman, was assessed. Of the resource domain variables, respondent’s education and respondent’s participation in payment for their own health care positively predicted their use of all three levels of skilled maternal care, whereas their ownership of land negatively predicted this. Two decision-making domain variables were significantly associated with respondent’s use of all three levels of service: those who made decisions alone about major household purchases were twice as likely to use all three levels of services than when decisions were made by their partners or others, while respondent making decisions alone about what food to cook each day was a negative predictor. Of the influencer variables, religion and a large spousal education gap were strong positive factors, whereas living in a consensual union rather than being legally married was a negative factor. Although health system factors are important, interventions geared towards changing gender norms that constrain women’s empowerment are critical to achieving maternal health-related development goals in Nigeria. A composite strategy that targets all women’s empowerment indices is recommended, as Nigeria strives towards achieving SDG-3.
In premodern economic systems where the social embedding of exchange provided actors with the ability to control or monopolize trade, including the goods that enter and leave a marketplace, “restricted markets” formed. These markets produced external revenues that could be used to achieve political goals. Conversely, commercialized systems required investment in public goods that incentivize the development of market cooperation and “open markets,” where buyers and sellers from across social sectors and diverse communities could engage in exchange as economic equals within marketplaces. In this article, we compare market development at the Late Postclassic sites of Chetumal, Belize, and Tlaxcallan, Mexico. We identified a restricted market at Chetumal, using the distribution of exotic goods, particularly militarily and ritually charged obsidian projectile points; in contrast, an open market was built at Tlaxcallan. Collective action theory provides a useful framework to understand these differences in market development. We argue that Tlaxcaltecan political architects adopted more collective strategies, in which open markets figured, to encourage cooperation among an ethnically diverse population.
Evidence is limited on how to synthesize and incorporate the views of stakeholders into a multisite pragmatic trial and how much academic teams change study design and protocol in response to stakeholder input. This qualitative study describes how stakeholders contributed to the design, conduct, and dissemination of findings of a multisite pragmatic clinical trial, the COMprehensive Post-Acute Stroke Services (COMPASS) Study. We engaged stakeholders as integral research partners by embedding them in study committees and community resource networks that supported local sites. Data stemmed from formal focus groups and continuous participation in working groups. Guided by Grounded Theory, we extracted themes from focus group and meeting notes. These were discussed as a team and with other stakeholder groups for feasibility. A consensus approach was used. Stakeholder input changed many aspects of the study including: the care model that treated stroke as a chronic condition after hospital discharge, training for hospital-based providers who often lacked awareness of the barriers to recovery that patients face, support for caregivers who were essential for stroke patients’ recovery, and for community-based health and social service providers whose services can support recovery yet often go underutilized. Stakeholders brought value to both pragmatic research and health service delivery. Future studies should test the impact of elements of study implementation informed by stakeholders vs those that are not.
Telemedicine visits are an increasingly popular method of care for mild infectious complaints, including uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs), and they are an important target for antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) to evaluate quality of prescribing. In this study, we compared antimicrobial prescribing in a primary care network for uncomplicated UTIs treated through virtual visits and at in-office visits.
Retrospective cohort study comparing guideline-concordant antibiotic prescribing for uncomplicated UTI between virtual visits and office visits.
Primary care network composed of 44 outpatient sites and a single virtual visit platform.
Adult female patients diagnosed with a UTI between January 1 and December 31, 2018.
Virtual visit prescribing was compared to office visit prescribing, including agent, duration, and patient outcomes. The health system ASP provides annual education to all outpatient providers regarding local antibiogram trends and prescribing guidelines. Guideline-concordant therapy was assessed based on the network’s ASP guidelines.
In total, 350 patients were included, with 175 per group. Patients treated for a UTI through a virtual visit were more likely to receive a first-line antibiotic agent (74.9% vs 59.4%; P = .002) and guideline-concordant duration (100% vs 53.1%; P < .001). Patients treated through virtual visits were also less likely to have a urinalysis (0% vs 97.1%; P < .001) or urine culture (0% vs 73.1%; P < .001) ordered and were less likely to revisit within 7 days (5.1% vs 18.9%; P < .001).
UTI care through a virtual visit was associated with more appropriate antimicrobial prescribing compared to office visits and decreased utilization of diagnostic and follow-up resources.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) studies are increasingly targeting earlier (pre)clinical populations, in which the expected degree of observable cognitive decline over a certain time interval is reduced as compared to the dementia stage. Consequently, endpoints to capture early cognitive changes require refinement. We aimed to determine the sensitivity to decline of widely applied neuropsychological tests at different clinical stages of AD as outlined in the National Institute on Aging – Alzheimer’s Association (NIA-AA) research framework.
Amyloid-positive individuals (as determined by positron emission tomography or cerebrospinal fluid) with longitudinal neuropsychological assessments available were included from four well-defined study cohorts and subsequently classified among the NIA-AA stages. For each stage, we investigated the sensitivity to decline of 17 individual neuropsychological tests using linear mixed models.
1103 participants (age = 70.54 ± 8.7, 47% female) were included: n = 120 Stage 1, n = 206 Stage 2, n = 467 Stage 3 and n = 309 Stage 4. Neuropsychological tests were differentially sensitive to decline across stages. For example, Category Fluency captured significant 1-year decline as early as Stage 1 (β = −.58, p < .001). Word List Delayed Recall (β = −.22, p < .05) and Trail Making Test (β = 6.2, p < .05) became sensitive to 1-year decline in Stage 2, whereas the Mini-Mental State Examination did not capture 1-year decline until Stage 3 (β = −1.13, p < .001) and 4 (β = −2.23, p < .001).
We demonstrated that commonly used neuropsychological tests differ in their ability to capture decline depending on clinical stage within the AD continuum (preclinical to dementia). This implies that stage-specific cognitive endpoints are needed to accurately assess disease progression and increase the chance of successful treatment evaluation in AD.
To explore perceptions of how context shapes adolescent diet and physical activity in eight low- and middle-income (LMIC) sites at different stages of societal and economic transition.
Novel qualitative secondary analysis of eight data sets generated as part of the international Transforming Adolescent Lives through Nutrition (TALENT) collaboration.
Diverse sites in India and Sub-Saharan Africa.
Fifty-two focus group discussions with 491 participants (303 adolescents aged 10–17 years; 188 caregivers).
Analysis of pooled qualitative data identified three themes: (1) transitions in generational nutrition education and knowledge; (2) transition in caregiver–adolescent power balance and (3) the implications of societal and economic transition for diet and physical activity. Adolescents in urban and peri-urban areas could readily access ‘junk’ food. Diets in rural settings were determined by tradition, seasonality and affordability. Physical activity was inhibited by site-specific factors including lack of space and crime in urban settings, and the prioritisation of academic performance. Gender influenced physical activity across all sites, with girls afforded fewer opportunities.
Interventions to improve adolescent diet and physical activity in LMIC need to be complex, context-specific and responsive to transitions at the individual, economic and societal levels. Moreover, solutions need to acknowledge gender inequalities in different contexts, as well as structural and cultural influences on diet and physical activity in resource-limited settings. Programmes need to be effective in engaging and reconciling adolescents’ and caregivers’ perspectives. Consequently, there is a need for action at both the community-household level and also through policy.
This study investigated the latent factor structure of the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB) and its measurement invariance across clinical diagnosis and key demographic variables including sex, race/ethnicity, age, and education for a typical Alzheimer’s disease (AD) research sample.
The NIHTB-CB iPad English version, consisting of 7 tests, was administered to 411 participants aged 45–94 with clinical diagnosis of cognitively unimpaired, dementia, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or impaired not MCI. The factor structure of the whole sample was first examined with exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and further refined using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Two groups were classified for each variable (diagnosis or demographic factors). The confirmed factor model was next tested for each group with CFA. If the factor structure was the same between the groups, measurement invariance was then tested using a hierarchical series of nested two-group CFA models.
A two-factor model capturing fluid cognition (executive function, processing speed, and memory) versus crystalized cognition (language) fit well for the whole sample and each group except for those with age < 65. This model generally had measurement invariance across sex, race/ethnicity, and education, and partial invariance across diagnosis. For individuals with age < 65, the language factor remained intact while the fluid cognition was separated into two factors: (1) executive function/processing speed and (2) memory.
The findings mostly supported the utility of the battery in AD research, yet revealed challenges in measuring memory for AD participants and longitudinal change in fluid cognition.
A number of recent results have shown that within the shallow water, rigid-lid approximation, alongshore variations in the bathymetry, i.e. a submerged ridge, can lead to continental shelf waves (CSWs) that are localised geographically at the ridge and then decay both along and away from the coast. Removing the rigid-lid assumption, introduces the superinertial Poincaré waves and a Kelvin wave that is present at all frequencies. This implies that the spectrum of the associated wave operator, which is bounded for the rigid lid case, is continuous and unbounded for the free-surface case. In the rigid-lid case the localisation of modes are isolated eigenvalues lying above the continuous spectrum whereas any localised modes for the free-surface problem must necessarily be embedded in the continuous spectrum. The purpose of this work is to construct trapped CSWs analytically and numerically for a non-rectilinear shelf. A regular asymptotic method is employed by considering a slowly varying, non-rectilinear shelf with an approximate boundary condition at the shelf–ocean boundary. It is shown that even with the free-surface present, trapped CSWs do indeed exist for the submerged ridge topography. Comparison with highly accurate numerical results demonstrates the accuracy of the asymptotic method and also allows the consideration of shelves that abut an open ocean so avoiding the approximate boundary condition at the shelf–ocean boundary.
Primates are one of the most threatened groups of mammals. Understanding their patterns of population occurrence and abundance, especially in response to threats, is critical for informing conservation action. The crested black macaque Macaca nigra is the only Critically Endangered species of Sulawesi's seven endemic macaques. Little is known about its distribution or its response to deforestation and hunting. We conducted a camera-trap survey across the entire species range using an occupancy-based analytical approach to (1) establish the first range-wide baseline of occurrence, (2) investigate how environmental and anthropogenic factors influence occurrence, (3) identify priority conservation subpopulations, and (4) test the efficacy of the sampling and analytical protocol for temporal monitoring of M. nigra using occupancy as the state variable. From 9,753 camera-trap days, M. nigra was detected on 473 days at 77 of the 111 camera locations. Species occupancy was 0.66 and highest inside protected areas and closed canopy forest. We identified eight distinct subpopulations, based on distribution and forest fragment size. To inform future monitoring, we used a power analysis to determine if our effort would allow us to detect inter-annual occupancy declines of 10%, and found that 90 camera locations surveyed for 3 months (8,100 camera days) across three consecutive seasons is the effort required to detect such change with 80% certainty. Our study underscores the importance of well-managed protected areas and intact forests for the long-term survival of the crested black macaque, and tests the effectiveness of camera traps to monitor primates at the landscape scale.
Acanthocephalans are parasites with complex lifecycles that are important components of aquatic systems and are often model species for parasite-mediated host manipulation. Genetic characterization has recently resurrected Pomphorhynchus tereticollis as a distinct species from Pomphorhynchus laevis, with potential implications for fisheries management and host manipulation research. Morphological and molecular examinations of parasites from 7 English rivers across 9 fish species revealed that P. tereticollis was the only Pomphorhynchus parasite present in Britain, rather than P. laevis as previously recorded. Molecular analyses included two non-overlapping regions of the mitochondrial gene – cytochrome oxidase and generated 62 sequences for the shorter fragment (295 bp) and 74 for the larger fragment (583 bp). These were combined with 61 and 13 sequences respectively, from Genbank. A phylogenetic analysis using the two genetic regions and all the DNA sequences available for P. tereticollis identified two distinct genetic lineages in Britain. One lineage, possibly associated with cold water tolerant fish, potentially spread to the northern parts of Britain from the Baltic region via a northern route across the estuarine area of what is now the North Sea during the last Glaciation. The other lineage, associated with temperate freshwater fish, may have arrived later via the Rhine/Thames fluvial connection during the last glaciation or early Holocene when sea levels were low. These results raise important questions on this generalist parasite and its variously environmentally adapted hosts, and especially in relation to the consequences for parasite vicariance.
To explore, from the perspectives of adolescents and caregivers, and using qualitative methods, influences on adolescent diet and physical activity in rural Gambia.
Six focus group discussions (FGD) with adolescents and caregivers were conducted. Thematic analysis was employed across the data set.
Rural region of The Gambia, West Africa.
Participants were selected using purposive sampling. Four FGD, conducted with forty adolescents, comprised: girls aged 10–12 years; boys aged 10–12 years; girls aged 15–17 years, boys aged 15–17 years. Twenty caregivers also participated in two FGD (mothers and fathers).
All participants expressed an understanding of the association between salt and hypertension, sugary foods and diabetes, and dental health. Adolescents and caregivers suggested that adolescent nutrition and health were shaped by economic, social and cultural factors and the local environment. Adolescent diet was thought to be influenced by: affordability, seasonality and the receipt of remittances; gender norms, including differences in opportunities afforded to girls, and mother-led decision-making; cultural ceremonies and school holidays. Adolescent physical activity included walking or cycling to school, playing football and farming. Participants felt adolescent engagement in physical activity was influenced by gender, seasonality, cultural ceremonies and, to some extent, the availability of digital media.
These novel insights into local understanding should be considered when formulating future interventions. Interventions need to address these interrelated factors, including misconceptions regarding diet and physical activity that may be harmful to health.
Surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis (SAP) is commonly administered in orthopedic procedures. Research regarding SAP appropriateness for specific orthopedic procedures is limited and is required to facilitate targeted orthopedic prescriber behavior change.
To describe SAP prescribing and appropriateness for orthopedic procedures in Australian hospitals.
Design, setting, and participants:
Multicenter, national, quality improvement study with retrospective analysis of data collected from Australian hospitals via Surgical National Antimicrobial Prescribing Survey (Surgical NAPS) audits from January 1, 2016, to April 15, 2019, were analyzed.
Logistic regression identified hospital, patient and surgical factors associated with appropriateness. Adjusted appropriateness was calculated from the multivariable model. Additional subanalyses were conducted on smaller subsets to calculate the adjusted appropriateness for specific orthopedic procedures.
In total, 140 facilities contributed to orthopedic audits in the Surgical NAPS, including 4,032 orthopedic surgical episodes and 6,709 prescribed doses. Overall appropriateness was low, 58.0% (n = 3,894). This differed for prescribed procedural (n = 3,978, 64.7%) and postprocedural doses (n = 2,731, 48.3%). The most common reasons for inappropriateness, when prophylaxis was required, was timing for procedural doses (50.9%) and duration for postprocedural prescriptions (49.8%). The adjusted appropriateness of each orthopedic procedure group was low for procedural SAP (knee surgery, 54.1% to total knee joint replacement, 74.1%). The adjusted appropriateness for postprocedural prescription was also low (from hand surgery, 40.7%, to closed reduction fractures, 68.7%).
Orthopedic surgical specialties demonstrated differences across procedural and postprocedural appropriateness. The metric of appropriateness identifies targets for quality improvement and is meaningful for clinicians. Targeted quality improvement projects for orthopedic specialties need to be developed to support optimization of antimicrobial use.