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Firearm injuries are a significant public health problem. Prior studies have analyzed firearm death data or adult firearm injury data, but few studies have analyzed firearm injury data specifically among youth. To inform the current debate surrounding gun policy in the United States, this study aims to provide an estimate of the immense burden of youth firearm injury and its associated risk factors. Therefore, we performed a descriptive analysis of the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS), the largest all-payer emergency department database in the United States, from January 2006 to September 2015. All patients age < 21 who presented with any diagnosis of firearm-related injuries were included.
There were an estimated 198,839 incidents of firearm-related emergency department visits for patients age < 21 from 2006 through 2015. After presenting to the ED, an estimated 11,909 cases resulted in death. The population adjusted rate of firearm-related emergency department visits was highest in the South and Midwest. This study demonstrates the significant burden of firearm injury among youth. Having a reliable estimate of the number of children harmed by firearms each year is a critical tool for policymakers — and may make common-sense gun safety measures more politically possible.
We investigated whether neurobehavioral markers of risk for emotion dysregulation were evident among newborns, as well as whether the identified markers were associated with prenatal exposure to maternal emotion dysregulation. Pregnant women (N = 162) reported on their emotion dysregulation prior to a laboratory assessment. The women were then invited to the laboratory to assess baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and RSA in response to an infant cry. Newborns were assessed after birth via the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale. We identified two newborn neurobehavioral factors—arousal and attention—via exploratory factor analysis. Low arousal was characterized by less irritability, excitability, and motor agitation, while low attention was related to a lower threshold for auditory and visual stimulation, less sustained attention, and poorer visual tracking abilities. Pregnant women who reported higher levels of emotion dysregulation had newborns with low arousal levels and less attention. Larger decreases in maternal RSA in response to cry were also related to lower newborn arousal. We provide the first evidence that a woman's emotion dysregulation while pregnant is associated with risks for dysregulation in her newborn. Implications for intergenerational transmission of emotion dysregulation are discussed.
Catherine Esnouf, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), Paris,Marie Russel, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), Paris,Nicolas Bricas, Centre de Co-opération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement (CIRAD), Paris
The duALIne project chose to examine the methods used to assess food sustainability in a chapter of its own, separate from the sectorial approaches presented previously, so that this examination could be as open as possible. This chapter focuses in particular on the specific issues posed by food vis-à-vis the methods currently used to measure sustainability. Under this approach, this chapter looks firstly at the complexity of food systems, then how the associated challenges of sustainability could be structured and finally presents some methods and indicators and the research questions they raise.
Measuring performance has become a widespread activity in modern societies. It is the benchmark by which political and economic choices are regularly backed and/or justified. Performance indicators, whatever their objective, have seen exponential development, as have the operators who construct them. Assessing the performance of food systems through the prism of sustainable development is still a recent concern that requires in-depth reflection, both in terms of its scope and of the issue(s) to be assessed on the one hand, and regarding the choices of the sustainable challenges targeted or the assessment methods to be used on the other.
The growth hormone (GH)–insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis is dramatically altered in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether GH and IGF-1 could be predictors of outcome in patients with a restrictive form of AN. Blood levels of GH, IGF-1, adipocytokines, ghrelin, insulin, glucose, and sex and thyroid hormones were measured in eleven women inpatients with AN and in ten healthy women controls. Three stages were compared during refeeding: admission (T0), when BMI reached 16 kg/m2 (T1) and at discharge when BMI reached 17·5 kg/m2 (T2). Clinical status was assessed 6 months after discharge from hospital (T3), and remission was defined by the maintenance of a BMI ≥ 17·5 kg/m2. AN patients in remission (AN-R; n 6) had significantly higher GH levels at admission than those who relapsed (AN-NR; n 5) (P< 0·05). During refeeding (Δ = T2 − T0), the AN-R group differed from the AN-NR group only by both GH level decrease (P< 0·05) and BMI increase (P< 0·05). In multiple regression analysis, ΔGH was associated negatively and significantly and Δleptin and Δbody fat mass levels were associated positively and significantly with BMI at T3 and explained 88 % of its variability (r2 0·88, P< 0·05). The present study suggests that a low GH level at admission and the absence of its decrease after weight recovery could predict short-term relapse in women suffering from a restrictive form of AN.
Plasma concentrations of vitamin E and carotenoids are governed by several factors, including genetic factors. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in some genes involved in lipid metabolism have recently been associated with fasting plasma concentrations of these fat-soluble micronutrients. To further investigate the role of genetic factors that modulate the plasma concentrations of these micronutrients, we assessed whether SNP in five candidate genes (apo C-III, CETP, hepatic lipase, I-FABP and MTP) were associated with the plasma concentrations of these micronutrients. Fasting plasma vitamin E and carotenoid concentrations were measured in 129 French Caucasian subjects (forty-eight males and eighty-one females). Candidate SNP were genotyped by PCR amplification followed by restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Plasma γ-tocopherol, α-carotene and β-carotene concentrations were significantly different (P < 0·05) in subjects who carried different SNP variants in hepatic lipase. Plasma α-tocopherol concentrations were significantly different in subjects who had different SNP variants in apo C-III and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP). Plasma lycopene concentrations were significantly different (P < 0·05) in women who had different SNP variants in intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP). Finally, there was no effect of SNP variants in microsomal TAG transfer protein upon the plasma concentrations of these micronutrients. Most of the observed differences remained significant after the plasma micronutrients were adjusted for plasma TAG and cholesterol. These results suggest that apo C-III, CETP and hepatic lipase play a role in determining the plasma concentrations of tocopherols while hepatic lipase and I-FABP may modulate plasma concentrations of carotenoids.
Diet is a major aspect of glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes, particularly among the elderly. The objective of this study was to describe the food habits of elderly diabetic subjects compared with non-diabetic ones and to examine the difference between their nutritional behaviour and nutritional recommendations. This study was based on the Three City (3C) community-based cohort. The food habits of 1336 participants aged 65 or over, including 149 diabetic subjects, were evaluated using a FFQ and a 24 h recall of food consumption. For both sexes, intake of carbohydrates was lower for diabetic compared to non-diabetic subjects, essentially due to a lower intake of mono-/disaccharides. For diabetic men, this was compensated for by a higher intake of protein whereas women had a lower energy intake overall. Fibre intake was also higher in diabetic men. There was no absolute increase in fats intake, neither for men nor for women, and distribution of subtypes of fats (saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated) did not differ between diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. Carbohydrates provided 40·5 % of energy intake in diabetic men and 43·9 % in diabetic women. Contrary to nutritional recommendations for diabetic subjects, for approximately two-thirds of the diabetic subjects carbohydrates represented less than 45 % of daily energy intake. Although food habits of elderly diabetic subjects differed from those of non-diabetic ones, these habits are not totally in line with nutritional recommendations. These results should be taken into account to adapt nutritional advice given to the diabetic population.
Resveratrol has been widely investigated for its potential health properties, although little is known about its metabolism in vivo Here we investigated the distribution of metabolic products of [3H]trans-resveratrol, following gastric administration. At 2h, plasma concentrations reached 1·7% of the administered dose, whilst liver and kidney concentrations achieved 1·0 and 0·6%, respectively. Concentrations detected at 18h were lower, being only 0·5% in plasma and a total of 0·35% in tissues. Furthermore, whilst kidney and liver concentrations fell to 10 and 25%, respectively, of concentrations at 2h, the brain retained 43% of that measured at 2h. Resveratrol-glucuronide was identified as the major metabolite, reaching 7μm in plasma at 2h. However, at 18h the main form identified in liver, heart, lung and brain was native resveratrol aglycone, indicating that it is the main form retained in the tissues. No phenolic degradation products were detected in urine or tissues, indicating that, unlike flavonoids, resveratrol does not appear to serve as a substrate for colonic microflora. The present study provides additional information about the nature of resveratrol metabolites and which forms might be responsible for its in vivo biological effects.
In the second part of the paper, we compare the solutions produced
in the framework of the conference “Mathematical and numerical
aspects of low Mach number flows” organized by INRIA and MAB in
Porquerolles, June 2004, to the reference solutions described in
Part 1. We make some recommendations on how to produce good
quality solutions, and list a number of pitfalls to be avoided.
There are very few reference solutions in the literature on
non-Boussinesq natural convection flows. We propose here a test
case problem which extends the well-known De Vahl Davis
differentially heated square cavity problem to the case of large
temperature differences for which the Boussinesq approximation is
no longer valid. The paper is split in two parts: in this first
part, we propose as yet unpublished reference solutions for cases
characterized by a non-dimensional temperature difference of 0.6,
Ra = 106 (constant property and variable property cases) and
Ra = 107 (variable property case). These reference solutions were
produced after a first international workshop organized by CEA and
LIMSI in January 2000, in which the above authors volunteered to
produce accurate numerical solutions from which the present
reference solutions could be established.
The discussions in this theme provided an opportunity to address the unique hazards facing the Pacific Rim.
Details of the methods used are provided in the preceding paper. The chairs moderated all presentations and produced a summary that was presented to an assembly of all of the delegates. Since the findings from the Theme 3 and Theme 7 groups were similar, the chairs of both groups presided over one workshop that resulted in the generation of a set of action plans that then were reported to the collective group of all delegates.
The main points developed during the presentations and discussion included: (1) communication, (2) coordination, (3) advance planning and risk assessment, and (4) resources and knowledge.
Action plans were summarized in the following ideas: (1) plan disaster responses including the different types, identification of hazards, focusing training based on experiences, and provision of public education; (2) improve coordination and control; (3) maintain communications, assuming infrastructure breakdown; (4) maximize mitigation through standardized evaluations, the creation of a legal framework, and recognition of advocacy and public participation; and (5) provide resources and knowledge through access to existing therapies, the media, and increasing and decentralizing hospital inventories.
The problems in the Asia-Pacific rim are little different from those encountered elsewhere in the world. They should be addressed in common with the rest of the world.
In this work we report optical characterization on several cubic c-AlGaN layers grown by MBE on SiC on Si pseudo-substrates, with different aluminum concentrations ranging from 0 to 70 %. Excitation power evolution of AlGaN photoluminescence (PL) spectra as well as reflectivity spectra allow to attribute PL peak to band gap recombination. PL energy dependence versus aluminum concentration is given. Reflectivity investigations are performed in the energy range between 1.5 eV and 4 eV on the samples. Theoretical calculations of multilayered structure reflectivity are fitted to experimental results, allowing an accurate determination of refractive index evolution versus Al concentration. From this analysis, qualitative information about interface roughness at AlGaN/SiC is also be derived.
Agrobacterium radiobacter was isolated from 15 blood cultures collected from 15 newborns. Contamination of blood cultures was suspected because, in most cases, the babies' illnesses seemed incompatible with infection. A radiobacter was isolated from citrated tubes used for clotting-factor studies. Review of venipuncture technique revealed that occasionally the coagulation study tubes were being inoculated before the blood-culture bottles. This investigation demonstrated how an environmental source coupled with faulty technique caused a cluster of false-positive blood cultures.
The clinical validity of melancholia has been argued on the basis of its capacity to predict response to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). We have argued that a sign-based (CORE) rating system of psychomotor disturbance can identify patients with melancholia. Therefore, the clinical validity of the CORE system was tested here in terms of its capacity to predict response to ECT.
The response of 81 patients with primary affective disorders to an individualised course of ECT was investigated. CORE scores and other clinical predictors were evaluated in terms of their capacity to predict effect size changes in symptoms and disability.
CORE scores predicted ECT response, as did the presence of psychotic features. The combination of marked psychomotor change (high CORE scores) and psychotic features predicted the best response to ECT.
This study supports the clinical validity of the CORE system for diagnosing melancholia.
Three wild oats phenotypes were grown in wheat stands sown at different dates in greenhouse and field trials. Wild oats growth and seed output, and their effects on wheat biomass were not different among phenotypes when wild oats emerged 2 wk after the wheat. In experiments in which wild oats were planted in germinated wheat, one phenotype was shorter, weighed less, and produced fewer seed than the other phenotypes. Another phenotype reduced wheat biomass more than the other phenotypes. Vernalization increased vegetative growth and reduced spikelet production of one phenotype, but had no effect on its competitiveness with wheat.