To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
To investigate the effects of dietary fibre on follicular atresia in pigs fed a high-fat diet, we fed thirty-two prepubescent gilts a basal diet (CON) or a CON diet supplemented with 300 g/d dietary fibre (fibre), 240 g/d soya oil (SO) or both (fibre + SO). At the 19th day of the 4th oestrus cycle, gilts fed the SO diet showed 112 % more atretic follicles and greater expression of the apoptotic markers, Bax and caspase-3, and these effects were reversed by the fibre diet. The abundance of SCFA-producing microbes was decreased by the SO diet, but this effect was reversed by fibre treatment. Concentrations of serotonin and melatonin in the serum and follicular fluid were increased by the fibre diet. Overall, dietary fibre protected against high fat feeding-induced follicular atresia at least partly via gut microbiota-related serotonin–melatonin synthesis. These results provide insight into preventing negative effects on fertility in humans consuming a high-energy diet.
This article presents a brief review of our case studies of data-driven Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) for intelligently discovering advanced structural metal materials, including light-weight materials (Ti, Mg, and Al alloys), refractory high-entropy alloys, and superalloys. The basic bonding in terms of topology and electronic structures is recommended to be considered as the building blocks/units constructing the microstructures of advanced materials. It is highlighted that the bonding charge density could not only provide an atomic and electronic insight into the physical nature of chemical bond of materials but also reveal the fundamental strengthening/embrittlement mechanisms and the local phase transformations of planar defects, paving a path in accelerating the development of advanced metal materials via interfacial engineering. Perspectives on the knowledge-based modeling/simulations, machine-learning knowledge base, platform, and next-generation workforce for sustainable ecosystem of ICME are highlighted, thus to call for more duty on the developments of advanced structural metal materials and enhancement of research productivity and collaboration.
There is lack of Cameroonian adult neuropsychological (NP) norms, limited knowledge concerning HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in Sub-Saharan Africa, and evidence of differential inflammation and disease progression based on viral subtypes. In this study, we developed demographically corrected norms and assessed HIV and viral genotypes effects on attention/working memory (WM), learning, and memory.
We administered two tests of attention/WM [Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT)-50, Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS)-III Spatial Span] and two tests of learning and memory [Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R), Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R)] to 347 HIV+ and 395 seronegative adult Cameroonians. We assessed the effects of viral factors on neurocognitive performance.
Compared to controls, people living with HIV (PLWH) had significantly lower T-scores on PASAT-50 and attention/WM summary scores, on HVLT-R total learning and learning summary scores, on HVLT-R delayed recall, BVMT-R delayed recall and memory summary scores. More PLWH had impairment in attention/WM, learning, and memory. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) and current immune status had no effect on T-scores. Compared to untreated cases with detectable viremia, untreated cases with undetectable viremia had significantly lower (worse) T-scores on BVMT-R total learning, BVMT-R delayed recall, and memory composite scores. Compared to PLWH infected with other subtypes (41.83%), those infected with HIV-1 CRF02_AG (58.17%) had higher (better) attention/WM T-scores.
PLWH in Cameroon have impaired attention/WM, learning, and memory and those infected with CRF02_AG viruses showed reduced deficits in attention/WM. The first adult normative standards for assessing attention/WM, learning, and memory described, with equations for computing demographically adjusted T-scores, will facilitate future studies of diseases affecting cognitive function in Cameroonians.
This paper presents a comprehensive study of the zircon geochronology, geochemistry and Sr–Nd isotope geology of Devonian mafic rocks developed in the East Kunlun orogenic belt, northern Tibetan Plateau, and reveals their mantle sources, petrogenesis and geodynamic implications for continental exhumation. The zircon geochronology of typical samples indicates that these mafic rocks crystallized at 406∼408 Ma. They can be classified into two different groups based on petrographic observations and geochemical compositions. Group 1 rocks exhibit low TiO2 and FeOt contents and Nb/Y ratios and have enriched mid-ocean ridge basalt (E-MORB)-like compositions with slight negative Nb and Ta anomalies. However, Group 2 rocks have distinctly high TiO2 and FeOt contents and Nb/Y ratios, comparable to typical Fe–Ti-rich mafic rocks worldwide. All the samples exhibit weak enrichments in light rare earth elements, Nb and Ta relative to the primitive mantle. Based on geochemical and isotopic studies, Group 1 rocks are suggested to be derived from depleted asthenospheric mantle that was metasomatized by c. 3–5 % continental crustal components, while Group 2 rocks originated from partial melting of enriched lithospheric mantle. The high contents of Fe, Ti and Nb for Group 2 rocks could be attributed to a high degree of olivine crystallization under low fO2 conditions with delayed nucleation of Fe–Ti oxides. Combining those results with other geological data, we conclude that slab break-off was the key factor causing exhumation of eclogites and triggering flare-up of the Devonian magmatism, and that continental collision or continental subduction may have initiated at 431∼436 Ma.
We recently reported Cambrowania ovata Tang and Xiao in Tang et al., 2019, from the early Cambrian Hetang Formation in South China and interpreted it as a problematic animal fossil, possibly related to either sponges or bivalved arthropods (Tang et al., 2019). Slater and Budd (2019) contested our taxonomic identification and phylogenetic interpretation; instead, they claimed that Cambrowania ovata is a large acritarch referable to morphotaxon Leiosphaeridia Eisenack, 1958, and thus is not an animal. Here we refute their criticisms, clarify the differences between Cambrowania and Leiosphaeridia and other acritarchs, and reiterate why an animal affinity for Cambrowania cannot be ruled out.
The lower-middle Hetang Formation (Cambrian Stage 2–3) deposited in slope-basinal facies in South China is well known for its preservation of the earliest articulated sponge fossils, providing an important taphonomic window into the Cambrian Explosion. However, the Hetang Formation also hosts a number of problematic animal fossils that have not been systematically described. This omission results in an incomplete picture of the Hetang biota and limits its contribution to the understanding of the early evolution of animals. Here we describe a new animal taxon, Cambrowania ovata Tang and Xiao, new genus new species, from the middle Hetang Formation in the Lantian area of southern Anhui Province, South China. Specimens are preserved as carbonaceous compressions, although some are secondarily mineralized. A comprehensive analysis using reflected light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and micro-CT reveals that the new species is characterized by a spheroidal to fusoidal truss-like structure consisting of rafter-like crossbars, some of which are secondarily baritized and may have been internally hollow. Some specimens have aperture-like structures that are broadly similar to oscula of sponges, whereas others show evidence of a medial split reminiscent of gaping carapaces. While the phylogenetic affinity of Cambrowania ovata Tang and Xiao, n. gen. n. sp. remains problematic, we propose that it may represent carapaces of bivalved arthropods or more likely sponges in early life stages. Along with other problematic metazoan fossils such as hyolithids and sphenothallids, Cambrowania ovata Tang and Xiao, n. gen. n. sp. adds to the diversity of the sponge-dominated Hetang biota in an early Cambrian deepwater slope-basinal environment.
Invasive smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora Loisel) eradication is important for the health of many coastal ecosystems. An integrated regime of continuous submergence after clear mowing, with three interval levels between mowing and submergence (5, 10, and 15 d) and three submergence depths (20, 30, and 50 cm), was implemented in cofferdams enclosing invader populations along a Chinese coast. In July of the following year, after the roots of mowed S. alterniflora had been submerged for 12 mo, some ramets grew under the regime with an interval of 15 d and the regime with a submergence depth of 20 cm, but no ramets occurred under the regimes with submergence depths of 30 or 50 cm and intervals of 5 or 10 d. Four crab species were documented: Helice tridens tientsinensis Rathbun, Sesarma dehaani H. Milne-Edwards, Ocypode stimpsoni Ortmann, and Chiromantes haematocheir de Haan. Biomass and abundance values of crab species in the cofferdams were similar to those in the mudflats but different from those in smooth cordgrass populations. Thus, the treatment of submergence after mowing, which was implemented in the cofferdams, can control S. alterniflora and provide a mudflat-like habitat that promotes crab recovery if this treatment uses the proper combination of submergence depth and interval between mowing and submergence.
Orthogonal frequency division multiplex (OFDM) system is a special cognitive radio system that is widely used in military and civilian applications. As a crucial aspect of spectrum monitoring and electronic countermeasures reconnaissance, it is important to identify the OFDM signal. An identification method based on fractal box dimension and pseudo-inverse spectrum (PIS) has been proposed in this paper for the recognition problem of OFDM signal under multipath channel. Firstly, by theoretically analyzing the fractal box dimension of OFDM signal and single carrier (SC) signal, it can be concluded that the fractal box dimension of OFDM signal and SC signal has obvious differences. Thus, the fractal box dimension of the two types of signal is used to discriminate OFDM signal and SC signal. Then, the PIS of an OFDM signal is constructed according to the characteristics of the OFDM signal. Through theoretical analysis and the experimental simulation, it illustrates that the classification feature could be extracted by detecting the periodical peak of the PIS of OFDM signal and used for identifying OFDM signal in the Gaussian noise. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has better performance than the conventional algorithm based on autocorrelation.
In this paper, we present a preconditioned positive-definite and skew-Hermitian splitting (PPSS) iteration method for continuous Sylvester equations AX + XB = C with positive definite/semi-definite matrices. The analysis shows that the PPSS iteration method will converge under certain assumptions. An inexact variant of the PPSS iteration method (IPPSS) has been presented and the analysis of its convergence property in detail has been discussed. Numerical results show that this new method is more efficient and robust than the existing ones.
A type of
ultra-broadband antireflective coating has been developed using modified low refractive silica and high refractive silica layers by a sol–gel dip coating method for amplifier blast shields of the Shen Guang II high power laser facility (SG-II facility). Deposition of the first layer (high refractive index silica) involves baking at
in the post-treatment step. The second layer (low refractive index,
) uses low refractive index silica sol modified by acid catalysis. Thermal baking at temperatures no less than
for 60 min offers chemical stability, ethanol scratch resistance, and resistance to washing with water. The average residual reflection of dual-side-coated fused silica glass was less than 1% in the spectral range from 450 to 950 nm. Transmission gain has been evaluated by taking into account angular light, and the results show that the transmission gain increases with increasing light incidence. Even at
, the transmission spectrum of the broadband antireflective coating effectively covered the main absorption peak of Nd:glass.
Apixaban (Eliquis®) is a novel oral pyrazole-based direct FXa inhibitor. The title compound is an intermediate in the synthesis of the anticoagulant, Apixaban. X-ray powder diffraction data for the title compound, are reported [a = 9.511(5) Å, b = 18.539(2) Å, c = 5.645(3) Å, α = 90°, β = 101.813(1)°, γ = 90°, unit-cell volume V = 974.28 Å3, Z = 2, ρcal = 1.336 g cm−3, and space group P2]. All measured lines were indexed and are consistent with the P2 space group. No detectable impurities were observed.
X-ray powder diffraction data, unit-cell parameters, and space group for thiamphenicol, C12H15Cl2NO5S, are reported [a = 17.346(3), b = 15.341(0), c = 5.790 (2) Å, α = β = γ = 90°, unit-cell volume V = 1540.8(3) Å3, Z = 4, and space group P212121]. All measured lines were indexed and are consistent with the P212121 space group. No detectable impurities were observed.
X-ray powder diffraction data for 1-(4-aminophenyl)-5,6-dihydro-3-(4-morpholinyl)-2(1H)-pyridinone, C15H19N3O2, are reported [a = 14.877(4) Å, b = 5.893(6) Å, c = 18.984(3) Å, α = 90°, β = 122.298(3)°, γ = 90°, unit-cell volume V = 1406.86 Å3, Z = 4, and space group P21/c]. All measured lines were indexed and are consistent with the P21/c space group. No detectable impurities were observed.
X-ray powder diffraction data for 3-(4-Morpholinyl)-1-(4-nitrophenyl)-5,6-dihydro-2(1H)-pyridinone, C15H17N3O4, are reported [a = 7.112(1) Å, b = 33.360(2) Å, c = 6.265(1) Å, α = 90°, β = 94.037(1)°, γ = 90°, V = 1483.08 Å3, Z = 4, ρcal = 1.358 g cm−3 and space group P21]. All measured lines were indexed and are consistent with the P21 space group. No detectable impurities were observed.
To assess correlations between cruciferous vegetable intake and urinary isothiocyanate (ITC) level, in addition to glutathione S-transferase (GST) genotypes and other individual factors.
The study included cohort participants whose urinary ITC levels had been previously ascertained. Urinary ITC was assessed using HPLC. Usual dietary intake of cruciferous vegetables was assessed using a validated FFQ and total dietary ITC intake was calculated. Recent cruciferous vegetable intake was determined. GST genotypes were assessed using duplex real-time quantitative PCR assays. Spearman correlations were calculated between the covariates and urinary ITC levels and linear regression analyses were used to calculate the mean urinary ITC excretion according to GST genotype.
Urban city in China.
The study included 3589 women and 1015 men from the Shanghai Women’s and Men’s Health Studies.
Median urinary ITC level was 1·61 nmol/mg creatinine. Self-reported usual cruciferous vegetable intake was weakly correlated with urinary ITC level (rs=0·1149; P<0·0001), while self-reported recent intake was more strongly correlated with urinary ITC (rs=0·2591; P<0·0001). Overall, the GST genotypes were not associated with urinary ITC level, but significant differences according to genotype were observed among current smokers and participants who provided an afternoon urine sample. Other factors, including previous gastrectomy or gastritis, were also related to urinary ITC level.
The study suggests that urinary secretion of ITC may provide additional information on cruciferous vegetable intake and that GST genotypes are related to urinary ITC level only in some subgroups.
In insect, fat body plays major roles in insect innate immunity. Phenoloxidase (PO) is an important component in insect innate immunity and is necessary for acclimatization. In our study, two prophenoloxidase (PPO) subunits were obtained from fat body of Catantops pinguis (Stål). The full-length cDNA sequence of one PPO (CpPPO1) consisted of 2347 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 2187 bp encoding 728 amino acids, while the other subunit (CpPPO2) had a full length of 2445 bp, encoding 691 amino acids. Both the PPO gene products are predicted to possess all the structural features of other PPO members, including two putative tyrosinase copper-binding motifs with six highly conserved histidine residues and a thiolester-like motif. Tissue distribution analysis showed that both PPO mRNAs were abundantly expressed in the fat body among 11 tissues examined, and they were transiently up-regulated after Escherichia coli infection, consistent with them being immune-responsive genes. Total levels of CpPPO1 and CpPPO2 mRNA transcripts were much higher in first instar larvae and adults. A much higher transcript level of CpPPO1 was detected in several months, while there were extremely high mRNA expression levels of CpPPO2 in January, July, October, and December. The above results suggested that PPO from fat body might also bring significant function during the processes of development and acclimatization for C. pinguis.
We study the two-sided exit problem of a time-homogeneous diffusion process with tax payments of loss-carry-forward type and obtain explicit formulae for the Laplace transforms associated with the two-sided exit problem. The expected present value of tax payments until default, the two-sided exit probabilities, and, hence, the nondefault probability with the default threshold equal to the lower bound are solved as immediate corollaries. A sufficient and necessary condition for the tax identity in ruin theory is discovered.
Atomic layer deposition has attracted much attention recently in fabricating noble metal nanoparticles for a wide range of applications. We have explored synthesizing palladium nanoparticles via atomic layer deposition on self-assembled monolayers modified silicon substrate. Using alkyltrichlorosilanes as the passivating agents, our results show the method is capable of fabricating Pd nanoparticles with well controlled density and particle diameter on the modified silicon substrate.
A dual-band high-efficiency coaxial relativistic backward wave oscillator (CRBWO) with asymmetric resonant reflector is designed and presented in this paper. Improved sectioned coaxial slow wave structure (SWS) with stepwise variation of coupling impedance and phase velocity is employed, and the performance of the dual-band CRBWO is investigated by use of a 2.5-D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation code. When the diode voltage is 510 kV and beam current is 9.03 kA, an average microwave power of 1.0 GW with power conversion efficiency of 21.7% is obtained. Synchronously radiating dual-band frequencies of 8.1 GHz and 9.9 GHz are obtained, corresponding to C-band and X-band, respectively. A more clear and stable beating radiation microwave power with beating frequency of 1.8 GHz is acquired.