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Amenorrhea is one of the most frequent and serious consequences of Anorexia Nervosa (AN). Resumption of menses (ROM) is considered an important goal and is associated with a better outcome.
To investigate the role of age, Body Mass Index (BMI), diagnostic subtype (restrictive vs binge-purging), history of childhood abuse, duration of illness, psychopathology and sex hormones on ROM in AN.
52 patients with AN and amenorrhea were enrolled at the start of treatment. Clinical parameters of interest were collected, and questionnaires were administered for the assessment of general (SCL-90-R) and specific (EDE-Q) psychopathology. Blood samples were taken to assess FSH, LH and estradiol levels. All patients were monitored regularly through psychiatric checkups until ROM, for up to four years.
A total of 30 (57.7%) subjects recovered their menstrual cycle in the follow-up period (mean time: 18.7 ± 14.8 months). Recovery was more frequent in the binge-purging subtype than in the restrictive subtype (82.4% vs 48.6%, p=0.019), and was significantly associated with diagnostic crossover (odds ratio=10.0, p=0.032). Multivariate Cox regression showed an increased likelihood of menstrual recovery for binge-purging subtype (p=0.005) and for those reporting a history of childhood abuse (p=0.025). Early ROM was also associated with baseline SCL-90-R scores (p=0.002) and FSH (p=0.011), while a longer duration of illness (p=0.003) and EDE-Q scores (p=0.009) predicted a later recovery.
This study highlights the role of duration of illness, childhood abuse history and psychopathological characteristics in subjects with AN at the start of treatment in predicting ROM.
Data presented in this work represents the first record of parasites from the Alpine and Pyrenean Lagopus muta subspecies, providing valuable information to consider for conservation management. From 1987 to 2018, 207 Rock ptarmigans were collected in the framework of a long-term sanitary monitoring in France. Eight parasites were found in the Alpine Rock ptarmigan, and one in the Pyrenean subspecies. Only two parasites occurred with high prevalence in the Alpine Rock ptarmigan: Capillaria caudinflata (38.9%) and Eimeria sp. (34.7%). Prevalence of the other parasites (Ascaridia compar, Cestodes, Amphimerus sp. and Trichostrongylus tenuis) was lower than 20%. Dispharynx nasuta was found with a prevalence of 52.9% in the Pyrenean Rock ptarmigan. Overall, we found a spatially aggregated distribution of parasites in the northern French Alps, probably due to both favourable climatic conditions for parasite cycle and high host density. Statistical analyses indicated a positive effect of altitude and latitude on C. caudinflata occurrence whereas risk factors for Eimeria sp. were the distance from urban areas and land cover. In addition, the majority of the infested birds came from areas close to ski-pistes, where human disturbance increases the susceptibility to diseases, causing stress to wildlife.
This study provides insights about the diversity, prevalence and distribution of alpine wild galliformes gastrointestinal parasite community, trying to fill a gap in the scientific information currently available in scientific literature. The analysis included three host species: 77 rock partridge (Alectoris graeca saxatilis), 83 black grouse (Tetrao tetrix tetrix) and 26 rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta helveticus) shot during the hunting seasons 2008–2015. Parasites isolated were Ascaridia compar, Capillaria caudinflata and cestodes. The rock ptarmigan was free from gastrointestinal parasites, whereas the most prevalent helminth (37%) was A. compar in both black grouse and rock partridge. C. caudinflata occurrence was significantly higher in black grouse (prevalence = 10%, mean abundance = 0.6 parasites/sampled animal) than in rock partridge (prevalence = 1.20%, mean abundance = 0.01 parasites/sampled animal). Significant differences were detected among hunting districts. A. compar was found with a significant higher degree of infestation in the hunting districts in the northern part of the study area whereas cestodes abundance was higher in Lanzo Valley. Quantitative analysis of risk factors was carried out using a generalized linear model (GLM) only on the most common parasite (A. compar). Latitude was the only factors associated with infestation risk (OR = 52.4). This study provides information on the composition and variability of the parasite community in the alpine Galliformes species.
Serum uric acid (SUA), a causative agent for gout, is linked to dietary factors, perhaps differentially by race. Cross-sectional (SUAbase, i.e. baseline SUA) and longitudinal (SUArate; i.e. annual rate of change in SUA) associations of SUA with diet were evaluated across race and sex–race groups, in a large prospective cohort study of urban adults. Of 3720 African American (AA) and White urban adults participating in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span study, longitudinal data (2004–2013, k=1·7 repeats, follow-up, 4·64 (sd 0·93) years) on n 2138 participants were used. The main outcome consisted of up to two repeated measures on SUA. Exposures included the dietary factors such as ‘added sugar’, ‘alcoholic beverages’, ‘red meat’, ‘total fish’, ‘legumes’, ‘total dairy product’, ‘caffeine’, ‘vitamin C’ and a composite measure termed ‘dietary urate index’. Mixed-effects linear regression models were conducted, stratifying by race and by race×sex. A positive association between legume intake and SUArate was restricted to AA, whereas alcohol intake was positively associated with SUAbase overall without racial differences. Added sugars were directly related to SUAbase among White men (P<0·05 for race×sex interaction), whereas dairy product intake was linked with slower SUArate among AA women, unlike among White women. Nevertheless, dairy product intake was associated with a lower SUAbase among Whites. Finally, the dietary urate index was positively associated with both SUAbase and SUArate, particularly among AA. In sum, race and sex interactions with dietary intakes of added sugars, dairy products and legumes were detected in determining SUA. Similar studies are needed to replicate these findings.
The role of dairy foods and related nutrients in cardiometabolic health aetiology is poorly understood. We investigated longitudinal associations between the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components with key dairy product exposures. We used prospective data from a bi-racial cohort of urban adults (30–64 years at baseline (n 1371)), the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS), in Baltimore City, MD (2004–2013). The average of two 24-h dietary recalls measured 4–10 d apart was computed at baseline (V1) and follow-up (V2) waves. Annual rates of change (Δ) in dairy foods and key nutrients were estimated. Incident obesity, central obesity and the MetS were determined. Among key findings, in the overall urban adult population, both cheese and yogurt (V1 and Δ) were associated with an increased risk of central obesity (hazard ratio (HR) 1·13; 95 % CI 1·05, 1·23 per oz equivalent of cheese (V1); HR 1·21; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·44 per fl oz equivalent of yogurt (V1)]. Baseline fluid milk intake (V1 in cup equivalents) was inversely related to the MetS (HR 0·86; 95 % CI 0·78, 0·94), specifically to dyslipidaemia–TAG (HR 0·89; 95 % CI 0·81, 0·99), although it was directly associated with dyslipidaemia–HDL-cholesterol (HR 1·10; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·21). Furthermore, ΔCa and ΔP were inversely related to dyslipidaemia–HDL and MetS incidence, respectively, whereas Δdairy product fat was positively associated with incident TAG–dyslipidaemia and HDL-cholesterol–dyslipidaemia and the MetS. A few of those associations were sex and race specific. In sum, various dairy product exposures had differential associations with metabolic disturbances. Future intervention studies should uncover how changes in dairy product components over time may affect metabolic disorders.
We employ a non-recursive identification scheme to identify the effects of a monetary policy shock in a Structural Vector Autoregressive (SVAR) model for the US post-WWII quarterly data. The identification of the shock is achieved via heteroskedasticity, and different on-impact macroeconomic responses are allowed for (but not imposed) in each volatility regime. We show that the impulse responses obtained with the suggested non-recursive identification scheme are quite similar to those conditional on a recursive VAR estimated with pre-1984 data. In contrast, recursive vs. non-recursive identification schemes return different short-run responses of output and investment during the Great Moderation. Robustness checks dealing with a different definition of investment, an alternative break-point, and federal funds futures rates as an indicator of the monetary policy stance are documented and discussed.
Serum uric acid (SUA), a causative agent for gout among others, is affected by both genetic and dietary factors, perhaps differentially by sex. We evaluated cross-sectional (SUAbase) and longitudinal (SUArate) associations of SUA with a genetic risk score (GRS), diet and sex. We then tested the interactive effect of GRS, diet and sex on SUA. Longitudinal data on 766 African-American urban adults participating in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhood of Diversity across the Lifespan study were used. In all, three GRS for SUA were created from known SUA-associated SNP (GRSbase (n 12 SNP), GRSrate (n 3 SNP) and GRStotal (n 15 SNP)). Dietary factors included added sugar, total alcohol, red meat, total fish, legumes, dairy products, caffeine and vitamin C. Mixed-effects linear regression models were conducted. SUAbase was higher among men compared with that among women, and increased with GRStotal tertiles. SUArate was positively associated with legume intake in women (γ=+0·14; 95 % CI +0·06, +0·22, P=0·001) and inversely related to dairy product intake in both sexes combined (γ=−0·042; 95 % CI −0·075, −0·009), P=0·010). SUAbase was directly linked to alcohol consumption among women (γ=+0·154; 95 % CI +0·046, +0·262, P=0·005). GRSrate was linearly related to SUArate only among men. Legume consumption was also positively associated with SUArate within the GRStotal’s lowest tertile. Among women, a synergistic interaction was observed between GRSrate and red meat intake in association with SUArate. Among men, a synergistic interaction between low vitamin C and genetic risk was found. In sum, sex–diet, sex–gene and gene–diet interactions were detected in determining SUA. Further similar studies are needed to replicate our findings.
This paper describes new features implemented in the EXPO2014 software and aimed at assisting crystallographers in the use of quantum-chemistry calculations in combination with experimental powder diffraction data. The implemented tools are useful in particular in two important steps of the process of crystal structure determination from powder diffraction data: (1) preparing accurate structural model suitable for crystal structure determination by real-space methods; (2) validating structure determination. The combination of experimental/quantum-chemical methods in EXPO2014 is now managed easily thanks to the following capabilities: (a) converting crystallographic data in input files and reading molecular geometry from output files of a wide variety of computational chemistry packages (GAMESS-US, NWChem, Gaussian, CRYSTAL, ABINIT, QUANTUM ESPRESSO); (b) optimizing the geometry of a molecule using Open Babel's force fields; (c) a graphical interface to run semi-empirical quantum calculation by MOPAC (Molecular Orbital PACkage); (d) producing input file for dispersion-corrected density functional theory.
Poor diet quality contributes to morbidity, including poor brain health outcomes such as cognitive decline and dementia. African Americans and individuals living in poverty may be at greater risk for cognitive decrements from poor diet quality.
Baltimore, MD, USA.
Participants were 2090 African Americans and Whites (57 % female, mean age=47·9 years) who completed two 24 h dietary recalls. We examined cognitive performance and potential interactions of diet quality with race and poverty status using baseline data from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study. Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) scores were calculated and interpreted using federal guidelines. A neurocognitive test battery was administered to evaluate cognitive function over several domains.
Linear regression analyses showed that lower HEI-2010 scores were associated with poorer verbal learning and memory (P<0·05) after adjustment for covariates. Diet quality within the sample was poor. Significant interactions of HEI-2010 and poverty status (all P<0·05) indicated that higher diet quality was associated with higher performance on tests of attention and cognitive flexibility, visuospatial ability and perceptual speed among those below the poverty line. No significant race interactions emerged. Higher diet quality was associated with better performance on two measures of verbal learning and memory, irrespective of race and poverty status.
Findings suggest that diet quality and cognitive function are likely related at the population level. Future research is needed to determine whether the association is clinically significant.
In pigs, many production traits are known to vary among breeds or lines. These traits can be considered end phenotypes or external traits as they are the final results of complex biological interactions and processes whose fine biological mechanisms are still largely unknown. This study was designed to compare plasma and serum metabolomic profiles between animals of two heavy pig breeds (12 Italian Large White and 12 Italian Duroc), testing indirectly the hypothesis that different genetic backgrounds might be the determining factors of differences observed on the level of metabolites in the analyzed biofluids between breeds. We used a targeted metabolomic approach based on mass spectrometric detection of about 180 metabolites and applied a statistical validation pipeline to identify differences in the metabolomic profiles of the two heavy pig breeds. Blood samples were collected after jugulation at the slaughterhouse and prepared for metabolomics analysis that was carried out using the Biocrates AbsoluteIDQ p180 Kit, covering five different biochemical classes: glycerophospholipids, amino acids, biogenic amines, hexoses and acylcarnitines. A statistical pipeline that included the selection of the most relevant metabolites differentiating the two breeds by sparse Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (sPLS-DA) was coupled with a stability test and significance test determined with leave one out and permutation procedures. sPLS-DA plots clearly separated the pigs of the two investigated breeds. A few metabolites (a total of five metabolites considering the two biofluids) involved in key metabolic pathways largely contributed to these differences between breeds. In particular, a higher level of the sphingomyelins SM (OH) C14:1 (both in plasma and serum), SM (OH) C16:1 (in serum) and SM C16:0 (in serum) were observed in Italian Duroc than in Italian Large White pigs and the inverse was for the biogenic amine kynurenine (in plasma). The level of another biogenic amine (acetylornithine) was higher in Italian Large White than in Italian Duroc pigs in both analysed biofluids. These results provided biomarkers that could be important to understand the biological differences between these two heavy pig breeds. In particular, according to the functional role played by sphingomyelins in obesity-induced inflammatory responses, it could be possible to speculate that a higher level of sphingomyelins in Italian Duroc might be related to the higher interrmuscular fat deposition of this breed compared with the Italian Large White. Additional studies will be needed to evaluate the relevance of these biomarkers for practical applications in pig breeding and nutrition.
We explore the properties of early-type galaxies (ETGs) in rich environments such as clusters of galaxies. The L24/LK distribution of ETGs in both Virgo and Coma clusters shows that some lenticulars (S0, 10 in Coma and 3 in Virgo) have a much larger L24/LK ratio (0.5 to ~2 dex) than the bulk of the ETG population. We call these sources Mid-Infrared Enhanced Galaxies (MIEGs). In Coma, they are mostly located in the South-West part of the cluster where a substructure is falling onto the main cluster. MIEGs present lower g-r color than the rest of the ETGs, because of a blue continuum. We interpret the excess L24/LK ratio as evidence for an enhanced star-formation induced as a consequence of their infall into the main cluster.
We investigate the issues of existence and efficiency of lookahead equilibria in congestion games. Lookahead equilibria, whose study has been initiated by Mirrokni et al. (2012), correspond to the natural extension of pure Nash equilibria in which the players, when making use of global information in order to predict subsequent reactions of the other ones, have computationally limited capabilities.
Analysing dietary data to capture how individuals typically consume foods is dependent on the coding variables used. Individual foods consumed simultaneously, like coffee with milk, are given codes to identify these combinations. Our literature review revealed a lack of discussion about using combination codes in analysis. The present study identified foods consumed at mealtimes and by race when combination codes were or were not utilized.
Duplicate analysis methods were performed on separate data sets. The original data set consisted of all foods reported; each food was coded as if it was consumed individually. The revised data set was derived from the original data set by first isolating coded foods consumed as individual items from those foods consumed simultaneously and assigning a code to designate a combination. Foods assigned a combination code, like pancakes with syrup, were aggregated and associated with a food group, defined by the major food component (i.e. pancakes), and then appended to the isolated coded foods.
Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span study.
African-American and White adults with two dietary recalls (n 2177).
Differences existed in lists of foods most frequently consumed by mealtime and race when comparing results based on original and revised data sets. African Americans reported consumption of sausage/luncheon meat and poultry, while ready-to-eat cereals and cakes/doughnuts/pastries were reported by Whites on recalls.
Use of combination codes provided more accurate representation of how foods were consumed by populations. This information is beneficial when creating interventions and exploring diet–health relationships.
The rising impact of invasive species and climate change on Mediterranean fish biodiversity highlight the urgency to evaluate the current status of natural assemblages. Here we investigated the rocky-reef fish of Malta and Lampedusa (Strait of Sicily, Mediterranean Sea), two islands of high biogeographical importance subjected to a different level of protection and anthropic pressure. By using underwater visual census, a total of 192 counts were performed in May–June and September–October 2007 using a hierarchical spatial design and four depth layers. Overall, 23 families and 61 different taxa were recorded. Out of them, two highly invasive species were censused (i.e. Siganus luridus and Fistularia commersonii) with relatively low abundances. Native Labridae and Sparidae shape the assemblage structure of both islands, and thermophilic species such as Sparisoma cretense and Thalassoma pavo occur with high densities. The fish assemblages of Malta and Lampedusa were relatively similar in species composition, richness and total abundance. Nevertheless, multivariate analysis depicted significant differences between these two islands, mainly attributable to the unevenness of Labridae. Significant differences in the size distribution of the most abundant species were detected between islands, with parallel variation across time. The pattern of spatio-temporal variability of the whole assemblage structure strongly resembled that of nekto-benthic fish, hence pointing out the relevance of this guild as an indicator species group in future monitoring activity. This study will serve as a current baseline against which future changes in the central Mediterranean fish assemblages can be assessed.
We study the Helmholtz equation with electromagnetic-type perturbations, in the exterior of a domain, in dimension n ≥ 3. Using multiplier techniques in the style of Morawetz, we prove a family of a priori estimates from which the limiting absorption principle follows. Moreover, we give some standard applications to cases with an absence of embedded eigenvalues and zero resonances, under explicit conditions on the potentials.