Chitosan (CHI) is a natural biopolymer with antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and digestive modulatory effects, which can be used in the ruminant diet to replace antibiotics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of CHI on lamb growth traits, nutrients digestibility, muscle and fatty deposition, meat fatty acid (FA) profile, meat quality traits and serum metabolome. Thirty 30-month-old male lambs, half Suffolk and half Dorper, with an average BW of 21.65 ± 0.86 kg, were fed in a feedlot system for a total of 70 days. The lambs were separated into two groups according to the diet: the control (CON) group which received the basal diet and the CHI group which received the basal diet with the addition of CHI as 2 g/kg of DM in the diet. Lambs supplemented with CHI had a greater (P < 0.05) final BW, DM intake, final body metabolic weight (P < 0.05) and lower residual feed intake than the CON group. Animals fed CHI had a greater (P < 0.05) starch digestibility at 14 and 28 days, average daily gain at 14, 42 and 56 days, greater feed efficiency at 28 days and feed conversation at 14 and 42 days in feedlot. Most of the carcass traits were not affected (P > 0.05) by the treatment; however, the CHI supplementation improved (P < 0.05) dressing and longissimus muscle area. The treatments had no effect (P > 0.05) on the meat colour and other quality measurements. Meat from the CHI-fed lambs had a greater concentration (P < 0.05) of oleic-cis-9 acid, linoleic acid, linolenic-trans-6 acid, arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. According to the variable importance in projection score, the most important metabolites to differentiate between the CON and the CHI group were hippurate, acetate, hypoxanthine, arginine, malonate, creatine, choline, myo-inositol, 2-oxoglutarate, alanine, glycerol, carnosine, histidine, glutamate and 3-hydroxyisobutyrate. Similarly, fold change (FC) analysis highlighted succinate (FC = 1.53), arginine (FC = 1.51), hippurate (FC = 0.68), myo-inositol (FC = 1.48), hypoxanthine (FC = 1.45), acetate (FC = 0.73) and malonate (FC = 1.35) as metabolites significantly different between groups. In conclusion, the present data showed that CHI changes the muscle metabolism improving muscle mass deposition, the lamb’s performance and carcass dressing. In addition, CHI led to an alteration in the FA metabolism, changes in the meat FA profile and improvements in meat quality.