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People with cerebral palsy (CP) are less physically active than the general population and, consequently, are at increased risk of preventable disease. Evidence indicates that low-moderate doses of physical activity can reduce disease risk and improve fitness and function in people with CP. Para athletes with CP typically engage in ‘performance-focused’ sports training, which is undertaken for the sole purpose of enhancing sports performance. Anecdotally, many Para athletes report that participation in performance-focused sports training confers meaningful clinical benefits which exceed those reported in the literature; however, supporting scientific evidence is lacking. The aim of this paper is to describe the protocol for an 18-month study evaluating the clinical effects of a performance-focused swimming training programme for people with CP who have high support needs.
This study will use a concurrent multiple-baseline, single-case experimental design across three participants with CP who have high support needs. Each participant will complete a five-phase trial comprising: baseline (A1); training phase 1 (B1); maintenance phase 1 (A2); training phase 2 (B2); and maintenance phase 2 (A3). For each participant, measurement of swim velocity, health-related quality of life and gross motor functioning will be carried out a minimum of five times in each of the five phases.
The study described will produce Level II evidence regarding the effects of performance-focused swimming training on clinical outcomes in people with CP who have high support needs. Findings are expected to provide an indication of the potential for sport to augment outcomes in neurological rehabilitation.
Indigenous youth are vulnerable to concussion when playing hockey. A clear characterisation of sex differences among Indigenous youth could assist in tailoring future education programmes for prevention and management of concussion. The purpose of this study was to compare and contrast concussion knowledge, attitudes and resources in First Nations girls and boys playing recreational hockey.
The cross-sectional survey was conducted in partnership with a First Nations’ chief, other Indigenous community leaders and a tertiary care head injury clinic. In Canada, researchers engaging with Indigenous peoples are expected to adhere to principles of Ownership, Control, Access and Possessions. The study included Indigenous boys and girls between the ages of 10 and 18 years of age.
More girls attending the hockey tournament participated in the study as compared to boys (girls n = 46, boys n = 29). More girls reported they had never experienced a concussion (73.9%), as compared to boys (58.6%) self-reports. Less than half of all study participants were able to identify some signs and symptoms of concussion such as vomiting/nausea, memory problems, fatigue and blurred vision and recognition of several concussion symptoms varied by sex.
We created a unique partnership between Indigenous leaders and tertiary care clinic staff. Among Indigenous youth reasons for not reporting concussion symptoms to the coach varied by sex (although not reaching statistical significance), suggesting concussion education warrants tailoring for girls and boys.
To analyse the relationship of altered birth weight with metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes among adolescents, as well as to identify if sports participation is able to attenuate or even eliminate the impact of birth weight on health outcomes.
Cross-sectional study (Analysis of Behaviours of Children During Growth [ABCD Growth Study]). Adolescents with age ranging from 11 to 18 years old (14.7±2.1) stratified according to normal (n = 230) and altered (n = 35) birth weight composed the sample. Birth weight was self-reported by adolescent’s parents. Sports participation was assessed by face-to-face interview. Carotid intima–media thickness (CIMT) and femoral intima–media thickness (FIMT) were measured using an ultrasound device. C-reactive protein levels were used to assess the inflammatory status. Blood pressure, Z score of metabolic risk (dyslipidemia and glucose), adiposity, and insulin resistance were covariates.
In the crude model, FIMT (p value = 0.037) and C-reactive protein (p value = 0.029) were affected by altered birth weight. In the adjusted models, altered birth weight affected FIMT (p value = 0.048; small effect size of 1.7%), independently of sports participation. For C-reactive protein, previous time of engagement in sports (p value = 0.001; small effect size of 4.8%) affected C-reactive protein, independently of birth weight.
Vascular structure seems to be affected by birth weight in adolescents, while its impact on inflammation seems to be attenuated by the regular engagement in sports.
In the Global South since the 1980s, when economic downturns under pressure from the forces of neoliberalism eroded social relations, sport and athletes’ bodies have become major loci where masculinity is constituted and debated. Sport masculinity now fills a vacuum left by the evacuation of traditional forms of masculinity, which are no longer available to the new generations of men. For them, the possibility of employment in the sport industries in the Global North has had a transformative effect, despite the extremely limited probability of success. During the same period of time, the world of sport has become commoditized, mediatized, and corporatized, transformations that have been spearheaded by the growing importance of privatized media interests. Professional athletes have become neoliberal subjects responsible for their own destiny in an increasingly demanding and unpredictable labor market. In Cameroon, Fiji, and Senegal, athletic hopefuls prospectively embody this new gendered subjectivity by mobilizing locally available instruments that most closely resemble neoliberal subjectivity, such as Pentecostalism and maraboutism. Through the conduit of sport, the masculine self has been transformed into a neoliberal subject in locations where this is least expected. What emerges is a new approach to masculinity that eschews explanations based on the simple recognition of diverse and hierarchically organized masculinities, and instead recognizes masculinity in its different manifestations as embedded, scalar, relational, and temporally situated.
Relatively few older adults are physically active despite extensive research exploring barriers and facilitators and concomitant interventions designed to enhance participation rates. Building on the growing literature that considers the subjective experience of being physically active, we explored the meanings that older Canadian men attributed to physical activity broadly defined. Thus, we examined their experiences and perceptions of exercise, sport and/or leisure-time physical activities. Data are presented from qualitative interviews with 22 community-dwelling Canadian men aged 67–90. Our analysis resulted in three overarching categories that subsumed the men's understanding of physical activity. ‘I do it for my health’ described how the men stated that their primary reason for engaging in exercise was to maintain their health and body functionality so that they could age well and continue to participate in sport and leisure. ‘It feels good’ referred to the various ways that the men derived pleasure from being active, including the physical sensations, psychological benefits and social connections they derived from their participation. ‘It gets tougher’ detailed the ways that the men were finding physical activity to be increasingly difficult as a result of the onset of health problems, declining body functionality and the social realities of ageing. We discuss our findings in light of the extant literature concerning age relations, ageism, and the third and fourth ages.
To explore children’s responses to sponsorship of community junior sport by unhealthy food brands and investigate the utility of alternative, pro-health sponsorship options.
Between-subjects experiment, with four sponsorship conditions: A, non-food branding (control); B, unhealthy food branding; C, healthier food branding; D, obesity prevention campaign branding.
Online experiment conducted in schools. Participants were shown a junior sports pack for their favourite sport that contained merchandise with branding representing their assigned sponsorship condition. Participants viewed and rated the sports pack, completed a distractor task, then completed questions assessing brand awareness, brand attitudes and preference for food sponsors’ products.
Students in grades 1 to 3 (aged 5–10 years; n 1124) from schools in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia.
Compared with the control condition, there were no significant effects of unhealthy food branding on awareness of, attitudes towards or preference for these brands. Exposure to healthier food branding prompted a significant increase in the proportion of children aware of these brands, but did not impact attitudes towards or preference for these brands. Exposure to either healthier food branding or obesity prevention campaign branding prompted a significant reduction in the proportion of children showing a preference for unhealthy food sponsor products.
The sponsorship of children’s sport by healthier food brands may promote awareness of these brands and healthier sponsorship branding may reduce preferences for some unhealthy food products. Establishing and implementing healthy sponsor criteria in sports clubs could forge healthier sponsorship arrangements and help phase out unhealthy food and beverage sponsors.
The aim was to assess the utility and feasibility of a comprehensive cardiac screening protocol in young athletes before participation in sports. A total of 380 athletes referring before participation in sports, between April, 2014 and April, 2015, were included in this study. The mean age was 12.4 years. A screening protocol has been applied to all, including personal and family history, physical examination, 12-lead electrocardiography, transthoracic echocardiography, 24-hour rhythm Holter analysis, and treadmill exercise test. The most frequent complaints were chest pain in 19 (5%), dyspnoea in 13 (3.4%), and dizziness and fainting in five patients (1.3%) on exercise. There was sudden death and arrhythmia in 41 patients (10.7%) owing to family history. Heart murmur was present in 20 (5.2%) and hypertension in 10 patients (2.6%) on physical examination. The 12-lead electrocardiography was abnormal in 9 patients (2.4%). The findings of transthoracic echocardiography were insignificant in 47 patients (12.3%) and in five patients (1.3%) a haemodynamically important condition was detected. The 24-hour rhythm Holter analysis was abnormal in six patients (1.5%). There were significant ST changes in two patients (0.5%) on treadmill exercise test with normal findings on myocardial perfusion scans. No significant relation was present between findings of screening protocol and transthoracic echocardiography, 24-hour rhythm Holter analysis, or treadmill exercise test results.
Pre-participation screening in young athletes should consist of a targeted personal history, family history, physical examination, and 12-lead electrocardiography. Other tests should be applied only if the screening indicates the presence of a cardiovascular disease.
Objectives: The present study examined the relative contribution of recent or long-term heading to neuropsychological function in amateur adult soccer players. Participants and Methods: Soccer players completed a baseline questionnaire (HeadCount-12m) to ascertain heading during the prior 12 months (long-term heading, LTH) and an online questionnaire (HeadCount-2w) every 3 months to ascertain heading during the prior 2 weeks (recent heading, RH). Cogstate, a battery of six neuropsychological tests, was administered to assess neuropsychological function. Generalized estimating equations were used to test if LTH or RH was associated with neuropsychological function while accounting for the role of recognized concussion. Results: A total of 311 soccer players completed 630 HeadCount-2w. Participants had an average age of 26 years. Participants headed the ball a median of 611 times/year (mean=1,384.03) and 9.50 times/2 weeks (mean=34.17). High levels of RH were significantly associated with reduced performance on a task of psychomotor speed (p=.02), while high levels of LTH were significantly associated with poorer performance on tasks of verbal learning (p=.03) and verbal memory (p=.04). Significantly better attention (p=.02) was detectable at moderately high levels of RH, but not at the highest level of RH. One hundred and seven (34.4%) participants reported a lifetime history of concussion, but this was not related to neuropsychological function and did not modify the association of RH or LTH with neuropsychological function. Conclusion: High levels of both RH and LTH were associated with poorer neuropsychological function, but on different domains. The clinical manifestations following repetitive exposure to heading could change with chronicity of exposure. (JINS, 2018, 24, 147–155)
This is a case report of a 45-year-old man who reported complete amnesia during the very first kilometer of a 10-km run. He was wearing a heart rate monitor (HRM). The interrogation of his HRM watch showed 200 bpm tachycardia beginning in the first kilometer and increasing up to 220 bpm during the last kilometer. The patient was asked to wear a Holter-monitor (Holter Research Laboratory; Helena, Montana USA) electrocardiogram (ECG) while practicing a training session. This examination allowed for the diagnosis of an adrenergic paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) with an impressive auriculo-ventricular conduction over 260 bpm. This case highlights that non-medical devices, such as connected watches, can be helpful to diagnose arrhythmias.
ThabouillotO, BostanciK, BouvierF, DumitrescuN, StéfuriacM, PauleP, RocheNC. Syncope During Competitive Events: Interrogating Heart Rate Monitor Watches May Be Useful!Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(6):691–693
This study aimed to test a multilevel mediation model which examined the relationship between the perceived motivational climate created by coaches at team level and motivational regulations towards sport at individual level, as mediated by individual goal orientations. 211 university athletes from 20 teams training in different types of sport completed a battery of instruments that measured the variables included in the model. The statistics significance level was .05. Results of the multilevel mediation model revealed that the task-involving climate at team level positively predicted individual task orientation (γ01 = .77, p < .001) and autonomous motivation for sport practice (γ01 = .68, p = .03). Task orientation positively predicts the autonomous motivation (γ10 =.51, p < .01), and inversely the non motivation (γ10 = –.76, p < .001). Also task orientation partially mediated the relationship between task-involving climate and autonomous motivation (b1b2 = .39; 95% CI = [.11, .68]; τ = .68, p < .05), and fully mediated the relationship between task-involving climate and amotivation (b1b2 = –.58; 95% CI = [–.92, –.25]; τ = –.62, p >.05). The results are in line with previous research that have focused in the study of motivational climate at individual level, but the present study make a novel contribution by providing the perspective of a multilevel mediation model and thereby clarifying the phenomenon at team level.
Physical inactivity has been identified as a risk factor for depression and, less often, as a long-term consequence of depression. Underexplored is whether similar bi-directional longitudinal relationships are observed for anxiety disorders, particularly in relation to three distinct indicators of activity levels – sports participation, general physical activity and sedentary behavior.
Participants were from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA; N = 2932, 18–65 years old; 57% current anxiety or depressive disorder, 21% remitted disorder, 22% healthy controls). At baseline, 2, 4, and 6 years, participants completed a diagnostic interview and self-report questionnaires assessing psychopathology symptom severity, physical activity indicators, and sociodemographic and health covariates.
Consistently across assessment waves, people with anxiety and/or depressive disorders had lower sports participation and general physical activity compared to healthy controls. Greater anxiety or depressive symptoms were associated with lower activity according to all three indicators. Over time, a diagnosis or greater symptom severity at one assessment was associated with poorer sports participation and general physical activity 2 years later. In the opposite direction, only low sports participation was associated with greater symptom severity and increased odds of disorder onset 2 years later. Stronger effects were observed for chronicity, with lower activity according to all indicators increasing the odds of disorder chronicity after 2 years.
Over time, there seems to a mutually reinforcing, bidirectional relationship between psychopathology and lower physical activity, particularly low sports participation. People with anxiety are as adversely affected as those with depression.
A paradox lies at the heart of the biennial Southeast Asian (SEA) Games. On the one hand, the region's premier sporting event has consistently celebrated themes of regional friendship and cooperation; on the other, the SEA Games are synonymous with controversy and poor sportsmanship, especially over the strategic selection of sports by host nations. Yet the Games go on – every second year – just as they have done since 1959. In introducing sport to existing debates on regional community in Southeast Asia, this article seeks to understand the key features of the sporting community of the Southeast Asian Games, particularly the emergence and development of the institutions and norms that help this event to thrive in the face of national self-interest. Through this analysis, the article argues for a distinctive approach to regional community in Southeast Asia, based not on notions of unity but principles of reciprocity and exchange.
Objectives: Concussion is defined as a complex pathophysiological process affecting the brain. Although the cumulative and long-term effects of multiple concussions are now well documented on cognitive and motor function, little is known about their effects on emotion recognition. Recent studies have suggested that concussion can result in emotional sequelae, particularly in females and multi-concussed athletes. The objective of this study was to investigate sex-related differences in emotion recognition in asymptomatic male and female multi-concussed athletes. Methods: We tested 28 control athletes (15 males) and 22 multi-concussed athletes (10 males) more than a year since the last concussion. Participants completed the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, a neuropsychological test battery and a morphed emotion recognition task. Pictures of a male face expressing basic emotions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, surprise) morphed with another emotion were randomly presented. After each face presentation, participants were asked to indicate the emotion expressed by the face. Results: Results revealed significant sex by group interactions in accuracy and intensity threshold for negative emotions, together with significant main effects of emotion and group. Conclusions: Male concussed athletes were significantly impaired in recognizing negative emotions and needed more emotional intensity to correctly identify these emotions, compared to same-sex controls. In contrast, female concussed athletes performed similarly to same-sex controls. These findings suggest that sex significantly modulates concussion effects on emotional facial expression recognition. (JINS, 2017, 23, 65–77)
Participation in sport during high school has been linked with a range of educational and developmental benefits. However, there is limited research investigating the benefits of participation in sport from the perspective of Aboriginal former youth sports participants. The purpose of the current research was to investigate how participation in sports impacted on the educational engagement, aspirations and development of Aboriginal former youth sports participants. Interpretive phenomenological analysis of semistructured interviews with six participants was conducted. Analysis was conducted utilising the Positive Youth Development asset framework. Participants reported a positive influence for their participation in youth sport on key education related assets including, achievement motivation, school engagement and relationships with teachers. Participants also reflected upon the role of participation in youth sports in the development of empowerment and positive identity assets. For these participants, involvement in youth sport had clear educational and developmental benefits. It is concluded that youth sports participation is one developmental context with the potential to have a positive influence on the educational and developmental trajectory of Aboriginal youth.
“Athlete’s heart” is a cardiac adaptation to long-term intensive training. The aims of this study were to show the prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy in teenagers who participate in sports, to define the different types of cardiac re-modelling, and to differentiate between physiological and pathological hypertrophy.
Echocardiographic measurements were obtained by M-mode, two dimensional, and Doppler techniques of participants from sports and control groups.
The echocardiographic examinations included 100 healthy teenagers taking part in dynamic sports such as football and basketball and 100 healthy teenagers taking part in static sports such as karate and judo. The control group (n=100) included healthy, sedentary teenagers. Sports participants had significantly higher left ventricular mass when compared with the control group, (p<0.001). In the dynamic sports group, 29% of the respondents had left ventricular mass above the 95th percentile, whereas 71% had left ventricular mass below the 95th percentile (p<0.001). The cardiac re-modelling was eccentric (79.4 versus 20.6%, p<0.001). In the group of static sports participants, 37% had left ventricular mass above the 95th percentile, whereas 63% had left ventricular mass below the 95th percentile (z score 0.74±0.82, p<0.001). The prevalence of concentric and eccentric types of re-modelling was equally manifested (54.05 versus 45.95%, p>0.05). Respondents from both groups had E/A ratios (transmitral flow velocity ratio)>1, preserved diastolic function, and statistically they did not differ from the control group.
Echocardiographic parameters show that physiological hypertrophy and cardiac re-modelling are present in teenagers who play sports. Unexpectedly, the prevalence of concentric and eccentric types of re-modelling is equally possible in the group of static sports participants.
The lawn-tennis shoe was a popular, widely available commodity in late-Victorian Britain. Associated with new forms of sporting practice and consumption, this type of footwear was mass-produced in modern factories, promoted in the popular leisure press, and sold to both men and women in a variety of retail environments. This article analyzes processes of product innovation, production, and sale, and it situates the shoes within a wider context of sport, commerce, fashion, and class and gender relations. Like other late-Victorian sporting and recreational practices, lawn tennis combined material objects, physical activity, and the stylized display of gender and class ideals. Footwear was valued for symbolic and physically practical reasons. Ideas of intended use determined its design and material form. Sportswear created and communicated new masculine ideals. As lawn-tennis shoes moved from the court into everyday usage, the meanings attached to them accommodated a broader range of practices and contexts.
Tactical skills in sport are the basis for current models of invasion team sports instruction, and relate to other psychological variables that exert a mediating influence on people’s normal physical activity. This study aimed to validate the Spanish adaptation of the Tactical Skills Inventory for Sports by Elferink-Gemser, Visscher, Richart, and Lemmink (2004) and verify its factorial invariance. The sample included 540 participants 12.89 ± 1.73 years of age (10 to 17 years old; 333 males and 207 females). The adaptation and translation of the original questionnaire followed the methodological steps established by the International Test Commission. Then two measurement models with the original questionnaire’s four-factor structure were compared. Confirmatory analyses were conducted using the software AMOS 21 and maximum likelihood estimation. Results indicated a four-factor structure (positioning and deciding, knowing about ball actions, knowing about others, acting in changing situations) was viable and showed goodness of fit to the data, with adequate indices of reliability (α between .72 and .86) and validity (GFI = .955; RMSEA = .044; CFI = .974), and strong evidence of stability in the factor structure. Moreover, factorial invariance was observed between participants who do and do not practice team sports, with practitioners scoring higher than non-practitioners on all factors (p < .001; effect sizes between .97 and 1.08).
This article focuses on changes in American philanthropy during the Progressive Era and the Young Men’s Christian Association’s (YMCA) domestic promotion of its global sports program during the 1910s and 1920s. Since the American YMCA’s foreign department was entirely dependent on donations, philanthropists’ demands concerning efficient and scientific methods to fight the causes of social dysfunction needed to be addressed. YMCA and Christian progressive media thus presented clear-cut success stories about spreading Western sports. Oft-repeated topoi included the superiority vis-à-vis local practices of Western scientific and rational approaches to public health and leisure, and a knowledge transfer to local elites, meaning that indigenization would prevent a permanent “donation drain.” During the First World War, Asian sports events were communicated as a peaceful contrast to the European battlefields. Following the war, YMCA writers turned Asian athletes into a vanguard among non-Western athletes, now promoting the YMCA’s experience gained in this region as a guarantee to donors that an expensive expansion of its sportive “civilizing mission” would lead to similar achievements on a global level. By the late 1920s, the YMCA had completely “de-Orientalized” its earlier coverage of Asian social deficits to emphasize its own efficiency.
Limited data exist comparing the performance of computerized neurocognitive tests (CNTs) for assessing sport-related concussion. We evaluated the reliability and validity of three CNTs—ANAM, Axon Sports/Cogstate Sport, and ImPACT—in a common sample. High school and collegiate athletes completed two CNTs each at baseline. Concussed (n=165) and matched non-injured control (n=166) subjects repeated testing within 24 hr and at 8, 15, and 45 days post-injury. Roughly a quarter of each CNT’s indices had stability coefficients (M=198 day interval) over .70. Group differences in performance were mostly moderate to large at 24 hr and small by day 8. The sensitivity of reliable change indices (RCIs) was best at 24 hr (67.8%, 60.3%, and 47.6% with one or more significant RCIs for ImPACT, Axon, and ANAM, respectively) but diminished to near the false positive rates thereafter. Across time, the CNTs’ sensitivities were highest in those athletes who became asymptomatic within 1 day before neurocognitive testing but was similar to the tests’ false positive rates when including athletes who became asymptomatic several days earlier. Test–retest reliability was similar among these three CNTs and below optimal standards for clinical use on many subtests. Analyses of group effect sizes, discrimination, and sensitivity and specificity suggested that the CNTs may add incrementally (beyond symptom scores) to the identification of clinical impairment within 24 hr of injury or within a short time period after symptom resolution but do not add significant value over symptom assessment later. The rapid clinical recovery course from concussion and modest stability probably jointly contribute to limited signal detection capabilities of neurocognitive tests outside a brief post-injury window. (JINS, 2016, 22, 24–37)
In Western countries children's identities have been constructed through their bodies and the different meanings attached to them. Children's bodies are central to defining their social and spatial position in the city. They are in fact, more than any other group, subjected to a set of spatial bans and prohibitions that confine them within places specifically targeted at them during their free time (i.e. recreational, ludic and sports organisations). One of the recreational activities most commonly engaged in by Italian children is sport. However, little is known about children's approach to sporting activities. What is proposed here is that the site of children's involvement in sport is a valuable key for the observation of the ambiguous construction of children's citizenship through spatial borders and body training. Based on a long-term ethnographic study of the Cagliari football club academy for children, and informed by the new sociology of childhood approach, this article investigates the role of organised sport contexts in the urban generational order. The conclusions stress the contradiction detectable in a structured football club academy as a site that, on the one hand, promotes children's rights to play and, on the other, restricts their substantive citizenship within the public space.