To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The “Personnel” chapter deals with professions, potential population sources, operational needs in specific scenarios, and adjustments to the personnel packages, readiness and preparedness, and mobilization. It contains a discussion on the differences between operations in a field hospital to that of a regular “brick and mortar” hospital, as well as the different aspects of health-care operations in various disaster situations and varied cultural environments. It contains a discussion on the importance of “tailor force packaging,” as well as the role of deliberate and adaptive planning. The chapter includes sections on personnel planning, sourcing of personnel, guidance on force health protection initiatives to ensure the safety and health of deployable personnel, an overview of a notional personnel package, which describes a required mix of clinical and nonclinical personnel, “planning pearls” gleaned from recent operational experiences with field hospitals, and – finally – some thoughts on ad hoc team-building initiatives for successfully coalescing personnel to meet mission requirements. Its conclusion infers that there are several reasons for believing that we will continue to see an increase in the frequency, scope, and scale of disasters, making guidance on formulating adequate personnel staffing packages for field hospitals all the more important in the modern era.
Thermosonic wire bonding is a common fabrication process for connecting devices in electronic packaging. However, when the free air ball (FAB) is compressed onto the I/O pad of the chip during bonding procedure, chip cracking may occur if the contact pressure is too large. This study proposes an effective simulation technique that can predict the wire ball geometry after bonding in an accurate range. The contact force obtained in the simulation can be used for possible die cracking behavior evaluation. The simulation in this study used the explicit time integration scheme to deal with the time marching problem, and the second-order precision arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) algorithm was used to deal with the large deformation of the wire ball during the bonding process. In addition, the equilibrium smoothing algorithm in LS-DYNA can make the contact behavior and geometry of the bonding wire almost the same as the experiment, which can also significantly reduce the distortion of the mesh geometry after remeshing.
The ENEA Radiocarbon Laboratory (Bologna, Italy) has been operating since 1985; it is the oldest among such laboratories operating in Italy and has been active for about 30 years in the field of dating of different types of samples with the radiocarbon (14C) liquid scintillation method. This study shows the detailed procedure for radiocarbon analysis on bioplastic materials by means of the synthesis of benzene, which includes CO2 production and purification, synthesis of acetylene, and synthesis and collection of benzene. The changes made to the original design of the synthesis procedures and the operational parameters adopted to optimize the combustion of the plastic materials are described. The measurement of 14C activity was performed using the liquid scintillation counting technique by a QuantulusTM 1220 low-background counter. The δ13C content was compared with the percentage of 14C concentration for the characterization of the bio content in plastic used in the food packaging.
The environmental burden of packaging is huge. However, redesigning packaging to make it more sustainable without damaging its other functions is not always easy and can have a negative impact on consumers’ choice. In this paper, we adopt a user-perspective and test the effects of packaging appearance and a better eco-label on consumers’ responses. Based on the literature, we designed an eco- label using a traffic light system with an objective sustainability score enabling to compare the sustainability of different packages. The results of our experimental study (N=120) show that while a sustainable (vs. typical) appearance in packaging has a positive effect on perceived sustainability, it has a negative effect on perceived usability. However, we demonstrate that the presence of a high score on the eco-label positively impacts the perceived sustainability of both the sustainable and the typical packages and the choice intentions. This eco-label also enabled to mitigate the negative effects of the sustainable appearance on perceived usability. Designers and policy-makers can use the results of this paper to positively influence evaluations of and choice for sustainable packaging.
The changes in physical environmental parameters have severe impacts on food safety and security. Therefore, it is important to understand micro-level physical parameter changes occurring inside food packages to ensure food safety and security. The emergence of smart packaging has helped to track and inform the specific changes such as a change in humidity, temperature, and pH taken place in the microenvironment in the food package. Moreover, these key physical parameters help determine the freshness of the food as well. Radio-frequency identification (RFID)-based sensors are an emerging technology that has been used in smart packaging to detect changes in the physical stimuli in order to determine food freshness. This review looks at the key environmental factors that are responsible for food safety and food freshness, the role of smart packaging with sensors that can measure changes in physical stimuli in the microclimate and the detailed review of RFID-based sensors used in smart packaging for food-freshness applications and their existing limitations.
In this paper, we will discuss stability and reliability requirements of organic electronic devices and evaluate different encapsulation approaches enabling stable organic ultra-thin and stretchable devices. We highlight the differences in requirements and encapsulation approaches for applications, including organic light emitting diode (OLED) displays, OLED lighting, photovoltaics, and sensors. Stability and reliability requirements addressed in this paper cover light management, mechanical characteristics, chemical compatibility, form factors, and durability. While flexible organic electronic devices have already been demonstrated and commercialized, so far only prototypes of ultra-thin and stretchable devices have been demonstrated. The technological progress is promising and by identifying the gaps between prototyping and product realization, we intend to stimulate further research and development in this area.
One of the key aims of the OSCAR project (Optical Sensors based on CARbon-materials)—in the framework of the REXUS/BEXUS program—was to explore the use of organic-based solar cells for (aero)space applications through the in-flight investigation of devices’ performance during a stratospheric balloon flight. Next to the in-flight experiments, complementary lab stability assessment tests were performed. In this contribution, both the in-flight and lab experimental methodology and the corresponding technical aspects will be discussed in detail. Furthermore, attention will be paid to the issues of packaging and radiation. The importance of the OSCAR-balloon experiment is not only that it has demonstrated for the first time the use of organic-based solar cells in (aero)space conditions but also that it can be considered as the pioneering start of specific stability assessment methodologies for organic-based solar cells for (aero)space applications.
To understand parents’ knowledge and use of nutrition labelling and to explore its associated factors.
Two schools providing a nine-year educational programme in Putuo District, Shanghai, China, were selected for the study. Information was included on demographic data and knowledge of the Chinese Food Pagoda.
Students and their parents (n 1770) participated in a questionnaire survey.
Of questionnaires, 1766 were completed (response rate 99·8 %). Utilization rate of nutrition labelling was 19·3 %. Among 624 parents knowing nutrition labelling, 22·1 % understood all the information included, 70·7 % understood it partially and 7·2 % could not understand it at all. Use of nutrition labelling by parents was related to the following factors (OR; 95 % CI): high educational level of parent (1·465; 1·165, 1·841), parent’s knowledge of the Chinese Food Pagoda (1·333; 1·053, 1·688), parent’s consumption of top three snacks which are unhealthy (1·065; 1·023, 1·109), parent’s assumption that nutrition labelling would affect their choice of food (1·522; 1·131, 2·048), student’s willingness to learn about labels (1·449; 1·093, 1·920) and student’s knowledge and use of labels (2·214; 1·951, 2·513).
Parents’ knowledge and use of nutrition labelling are still at a lower level, and some information included in the nutrition labels is not understood by parents. The forms of the existing nutrition labelling need to be continuously improved to facilitate their understanding and usefulness. It is necessary to establish nutrition projects focusing on education and use of nutrition labels which help parents and their children make the right choices in selecting foods.
Radioactive waste with widely varying characteristics is generated from the operation and maintenance of nuclear reactors, nuclear fuel cycle facilities, research facilities and medical facilities and the through the use of radioisotopes in industrial applications. The waste needs to be treated and conditioned appropriately to provide wasteforms acceptable for safe storage and disposal. Conditioning of radioactive waste is an important step to prepare waste for long-term storage or disposal and includes the following processes:
▪ Immobilization which may or may not also provide volume reduction, including
a) Low temperature processes and
b) Thermal processes;
▪ Containerization for
b) Storage, and
▪ Overpacking of primary containers
a) Prior to disposal and
b) In a disposal facility as part of disposal process.
Conditioning consists of operations that produce a waste package suitable for handling, transportation, storage and/or disposal and may be performed for a variety of reasons including standardization of practices and/or wasteforms, technical requirements for waste stability in relation to a repository design or safety case, technical requirements related to waste transportation, societal preferences, regulatory preferences, etc. This paper gives an overview of recent advances in conditioning of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste.
The paper is based on the new IAEA Handbook “Conditioning of Low- and Intermediate-Level Liquid, Solidified and Solid Waste” which is one of eight IAEA handbooks intended to provide guidance for evaluating and implementing various characterisation and radioactive waste processing and storage technologies before final disposal
This study utilizes Farm Service Agency lending data to verify if previous racial and gender bias allegations still persist in more recent lending decisions. Beyond loan approval decisions, this study focuses on trends in direct loan packaging terms for approved single proprietorship farm borrowers. Results indicate that although no significant disparities were noted in loan amounts and maturities prescribed for various racial and gender minority groups, nonwhite male and female borrowers were usually charged higher interest rates than the others. Loan pricing differentials could have been the lenders' strategy for price management of borrowers' credit risks.
Ni/Sn–xZn/Ni (x = 1, 5, 9 wt%) joints were used to investigate the effect of Zn content on interfacial reactions during reflow under a temperature gradient. Asymmetrical growth and transformation of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) occurred between the cold and hot end interfaces. Faster IMC growth at the cold end and a more prompt IMC transformation at the hot end in a lower Zn content solder joint were identified due to the more thermomigration-induced Zn and Ni atomic fluxes toward the cold end. The main diffusion species into IMC layers changed from Zn atoms at the early stage to Sn and Ni atoms at the later stage. As a result, the IMC evolution followed (Ni,Zn)3Sn4 → Ni3Sn4 in the Ni/Sn–1Zn/Ni joint, Ni5Zn21 → τ phase → Ni3Sn4 in the Ni/Sn–5Zn/Ni joint, and Ni5Zn21 → τ phase in the Ni/Sn–9Zn/Ni joint along with the reflow time. A higher Zn content could effectively inhibit the dissolution of the hot-end Ni substrate and restrain the growth rate of the cold-end interfacial IMCs.
By reflowing Cu/Sn/Ni ultrafine interconnects under a temperature gradient, a new transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding process was proposed for three-dimensional packaging applications. The evolution of the dominant (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 intermetallic compounds depends strongly on the temperature gradient. The essential cause of such dependence is attributed to the different amounts of Cu and Ni atomic fluxes being introduced into the liquid solder. Under the coupling effect of thermomigration and Cu–Ni cross-interaction, the total atomic flux of Cu and Ni is promoted. As a result, the growth of dense (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 is significantly accelerated and the formation of Cu3Sn is eliminated. The new TLP bonding process consumes only a limited amount of the Ni substrate, but much more from the Cu substrate. The mechanism for the new TLP bonding process is discussed and experimentally verified in this study.
In this work, an electromagnetic (EM) model and a small-signal (lumped-element) model of a wafer-level encapsulated (WLE) radio frequency microelectromechanical systems (RF-MEMS) switch is presented. The EM model of the WLE RF-MEMS switch is developed to estimate its RF performance. After the fabrication of the switch, the EM model is used to get accurate S-parameter simulation results. Alternative to the EM model, a small-signal model of the fabricated WLE RF-MEMS switch is developed. The developed model is integrated into a 0.13 µm SiGe BiCMOS process technology design kit for fast simulations and to predict the RF performance of the switch from a pure electrical point of view. The 0.13 µm SiGe BiCMOS embedded WLE RF-MEMS shows beyond state-of-the-art measured RF performances in D-band (110–170 GHz) and provides a high capacitance Con/Coff ratio of 11.1. The results of the both EM model and small-signal model of the switch are in very good agreement with the S-parameter measurements in D-band. The measured maximum isolation of the WLE RF-MEMS switch is 51.6 dB at 142.8 GHz with an insertion loss of 0.65 dB.
Industrial ultrafast lasers are a key component of many new industrial manufacturing processes. The virtually athermal nature of the laser–matter interaction process enables high-quality material processing for many different materials with feature size reaching into the nanometer scale. Advances in laser average power and beam-delivery technology have significantly improved the throughput and productivity of real-life industrial and medical applications. In this article, we present key examples of laser processing, including drilling, cutting, and surface processing. In particular, we describe how ultrafast lasers can improve vision in patients, extend battery lifetime, improve the efficiency of solar cells and infrared detectors, or be applied in the printing or microelectronics industries. These examples demonstrate how further developments rely on a combination of laser technology, beam handling and delivery, and laser–matter interaction processes.
Presently, physical limitations are restricting the development of the microelectronic industry driven by Moore's law. To achieve high-performance, small form factor, and lightweight applications, new electronic packaging methods have exceeded Moore's law. This research proposes a double-chip stacking structure in an embedded fan-out wafer-level packaging with double-sided interconnections. The overall reliability of the solder joints and redistributed lines is assessed through finite element analysis. The application of soft lamination material and selection of a carrier material whose coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is close to that of the printed circuit board can effectively enhance the reliability of solder joints over more than 1,000 cycles. A trace/pad junction whose direction is parallel to the major direction of the CTE mismatch is recommended, and the curved portion of trace lines can absorb the expansion of metal lines and filler material. Design-on-simulation methodology is necessary to develop novel packaging structures in the electronic packaging industry.
We tested whether the presence of both child-targeted and nutrition-focused (i.e. parent-targeted) marketing cues on food packaging was associated with the nutritional content of these products.
We conducted a quantitative content analysis of 403 food packages chosen randomly from the supermarket’s online portal along with all products (n 312) from the cereal aisle in a supermarket from the Southeastern USA. We examined main and interaction effects for cues on nutritional content (e.g. energy density, sugar, sodium, fibre).
A regional supermarket chain in the Southeastern USA.
Tests of main effects indicated that increased presence of nutritional cues was linked to more nutritious content (e.g. less sugar, less saturated fat, more fibre) while the increased presence of child-targeted cues was uniformly associated with less nutritious content (e.g. more sugar, less protein, less fibre). Among the interaction effects, results revealed that products with increased nutrition-focused and child-targeted cues were likely to contain significantly more sugar and less protein than other products.
Products that seek to engage children with their packaging in the supermarket are significantly less nutritious than foods that do not, while product packages that suggest nutritional benefits have more nutritious content. More importantly, the study provides evidence that those products which try to engage both child and parent consumers are significantly less healthy in crucial ways (e.g. more sugar, less fibre) than products that do not.
Ecolabeling allows firms to segment a market by informing consumers about unobservable attributes of a product. Previous studies evaluate consumer preferences for products explicitly labeled as possessing positive environmental attributes. This research evaluates consumers’ willingness to pay for a product that is perceived by the consumer as having environmentally friendly attributes. We explore glass packaging for fluid milk as a case study. Data were collected through a contingent valuation survey, and a bound-and-a-half logit model was employed. The estimated premium is 59.78 cents with a premium between $0.73 and $0.92 for consumers more likely to prefer the glass alternative.
An effective method for detecting and characterizing counterfeit finished dosage forms and packaging materials is described in this study. Using attenuated total internal reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging, suspect tablet coating and core formulations as well as multi-layered foil safety seals, bottle labels, and cigarette tear tapes were analyzed and compared directly with those of a stored authentic product. The approach was effective for obtaining molecular information from structures as small as 6 μm.
Food packaging often pictures supplementary extras, such as toppings or frosting, that are not listed on the nutritional labelling. The present study aimed to assess if these extras might exaggerate how many calories† are pictured and if they lead consumers to overserve.
Four studies were conducted in the context of fifty-one different cake mixes. For these cake mixes, Study 1 compared the calories stated on the nutrition label with the calories of the cake (and frosting) pictured on the box. In Studies 2, 3 and 4, undergraduates (Studies 2 and 3) or food-service professionals (Study 4) were given one of these typical cake mix boxes, with some being told that cake frosting was not included on the nutritional labelling whereas others were provided with no additional information. They were then asked to indicate what they believed to be a reasonable serving size of cake.
Undergraduate students and food-service professionals.
Study 1 showed that the average calories of cake and frosting pictured on the package of fifty-one different cake mixes exceed the calories on the nutritional label by 134 %. Studies 2 and 3 showed that informing consumers that the nutritional information does not include frosting reduces how much people serve. Study 4 showed that even food-service professionals overserve if not told that frosting is not included on the nutritional labelling.
To be less misleading, packaging should either not depict extras in its pictures or it should more boldly and clearly state that extras are not included in calorie counts.