To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The conventional wisdom that human growth is optimal when adequate amounts of all nutrients, minimal infection, and adequate psychosocial stimulation are available is too simplistic. The extensive interacting networks of material, biological, social, and ideological variables that comprise human life give rise to a hugely complicated matrix of factors that shape human phenotypes. There is no single optimal pattern of growth. There are ranges of possibilities with a multitude of local optima within the developmental matrix. The importance of social-economic-political-emotional (SEPE) factors is discussed in relation to new hypotheses of community effects and strategic growth adjustments on human development.
Cereals and cereal products have a long history of use by humans. Recently, there have been some discussions regarding level of processing as a descriptor to define food products, including cereal-based foods. This has led to a somewhat emotional debate on food processing. Given the widespread inclusion of cereals in the diet, this review highlights the history of cereal processing as well as their consumption by humans. It provides an evidence-based discussion on their production, contribution to human nutrition, benefits and disadvantages. The present review illustrates the impact of processing on nutrients, as well as non-nutrients specifically in bread and ready-to-eat breakfast cereals (RTEC), two cereal-based foods which are widely consumed and integral parts of food-based dietary guidelines globally. As a category, most cereals must be processed in some way to enable consumption by humans as we are not equipped to survive exclusively on raw grains. Even thousands of years ago, the processing of cereals was a common practice by humans, turning raw grains into palatable, safe and nutritious foods. Modern processes for cereal-based products are efficient in providing safe and good-quality products to satisfy population needs, as well as helping to meet consumer expectations by providing a range of foods that allows for a varied and balanced diet. Today, RTEC and bread make significant contributions to dietary energy and nutrient requirements and underpin food-based dietary guidance globally. They have been positively linked with intake of dietary fibre, vitamins and minerals, especially when consumed as whole grain.
Fruit and vegetables (F&V) play an important role in the prevention of obesity and other chronic diseases and low intakes have been highlighted as one of the risk factors attributing to global mortality in adults. The childhood years are a critical period during which eating behaviours and food preferences evolve, providing an opportunity to develop and foster healthy eating practices, which carry into adulthood. This review aimed to summarise dietary guidelines relating to F&V, intakes of F&V and the contribution of F&V to energy and nutrient intakes in school-aged children in Europe. The current review showed a paucity of data in relation to guidelines specific for children for F&V consumption. Where guidelines were available, they ranged from 100 to 500 g or one to three portions of F&V daily (with variations in the categorisations). A key finding was the lack of data on estimates of F&V intakes in school-aged children across Europe. Where data were available, intakes ranged from 221 to 404 g/d and were generally below the WHO recommendation of at least 400 g/d. F&V contributed low proportions of energy intake (6–9%) but made significant contributions to intakes of dietary fibre (19–37%), vitamin A (26–46%), vitamin C (32–83%) and potassium (16–27%); however, they also contributed to intakes of total (25–50%) and free sugar (7–11%). This review has highlighted the need for more data on estimates of F&V intakes in school-aged children in Europe and a need for continued promotion of F&V consumption to increase intakes in this age group.
To assess the usual dietary intake of twenty micronutrients and to identify their food sources in a representative sample of Greek children and adolescents.
Cross-sectional data from the Hellenic National Nutrition and Health Survey (HNNHS). Vitamin and mineral intakes were estimated from two 24 h dietary recalls by sex and age groups. Estimates were calculated using the National Research Council method and the statistical software package Stata13 to account for within- and between-person variations. The prevalence of nutrients’ inadequacy among sample was estimated using the estimated average requirement (EAR) cut-point method. The contribution of food groups to nutrient intake was estimated to identify micronutrients food sources.
Children and adolescents aged 1–19 years (n 577) who provided sufficient and plausible 24-h recalls.
A substantial percentage of children and adolescents had insufficient intakes of numerous micronutrients. Usual intake of vitamins D, K and potassium was inadequate in practically all individuals. Vitamin A, folate, Ca and Mg were also insufficient to a considerable percentage, especially in girls aged 14–18 years. Pantothenic acid was highlighted as nutrient of interest since only one out of ten boys 9–13 years and girls 14–19 years had intake above the EAR. Data demonstrated that food groups highly ranked in energy contribution were not necessarily important sources of micronutrients.
Results suggest that micronutrient density of Greek children and adolescents’ diet should be improved. These findings might be used by public health policy-makers to help young people optimise their food choices in Greece.
There is a fundamental concern regarding the prediction of kiwifruit yield based on the concentration of nutrients in the leaf (2–3 months before fruits harvesting). For this purpose, the current study was designed to employ an artificial neural network (ANN) to evaluate the kiwi yield of Hayward cultivar. In this regard, 31 kiwi orchards (6–7 years old) in different parts of Rudsar, Guilan Province, Iran, with 101 plots (three trees in every plot) were selected. The complete leaves of branches with fruits were harvested, and the concentration of nitrogen, potassium, calcium, and magnesium measured. After fruit harvesting in late November, the fruit yield of each plot was evaluated along with the fresh and dry weights of the fruit. The ANN analyses were carried out using a multi-layer perceptron with the Langburge-Marquardt training algorithm. Using calcium (Ca) as input data (Ca-model) was more accurate than using nitrogen (N-model). The maximum R2 and the lowest root mean square error was obtained when all nutrients and related ratios were considered as input variables. Since the difference between the proposed model and the model fitted by the calcium variable (Ca-model) was only about 6%, the Ca-model is recommended.
The Nutrition Society's 1st Annual Nutrition and Cancer Networking Conference brought together scientists from the fields of Nutrition, Epidemiology, Public Health, Medical Oncology and Surgery with representatives of the public, cancer survivors and cancer charities. Speakers representing these different groups presented the challenges to collaboration, how the needs of patients and the public can be met, and the most promising routes for future research. The conference programme promoted debate on these issues to highlight current gaps in understanding and barriers to generating and implementing evidence-based nutrition advice. The main conclusions were that the fundamental biology of how nutrition influences the complex cancer risk profiles of diverse populations needs to be better understood. Individual and population level genetics interact with the environment over a lifespan to dictate cancer risk. Large charities and government have a role to play in diminishing our current potently obesogenic environment and exploiting nutrition to reduce cancer deaths. Understanding how best to communicate, advise and support individuals wishing to make dietary and lifestyle changes, can reduce cancer risk, enhance recovery and improve the lives of those living with and beyond cancer.
All multicellular organisms, be they heterotroph or autotroph, saprophyte or detritivore, herbivore or carnivore, harbour a distinct microbiome that is adapted to aid the flow of nutrients to its host. Often these symbioses have a long evolutionary history. This microbially mediated release of nutrients has implications for host health at the organismal scale, as well as environmental turnover and regulation of nutrient cycles on the global scale. Classic examples of plant–soil nutrient dynamics include symbiotic nitrogen fixation by rhizobia and Frankia spp. in leguminous and non-leguminous species, respectively, and the mycorrhizal symbioses that facilitate the release of phosphorous for plants by fungi in return for carbon produced via photosynthesis. A number of invertebrate–microbe symbioses have also been studied in detail, including aphids and nutrient-fixing symbionts, fungal gardens of leafcutter ants and termites, and honeybees and pollen digestion. We provide an overview of these here, in addition to the interactions between gut microbes and nutrition in vertebrates, particularly humans and agriculturally important species.
To examine associations of tree nut snack (TNS) consumption with diet quality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in UK adults from National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) 2008–2014.
Cross-sectional analysis using data from 4-d food diaries, blood samples and physical measurements for CVD risk markers. To estimate diet quality, modified Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) and modified Healthy Diet Score (HDS) were applied. Associations of TNS consumption with diet quality and markers of CVD risk were investigated using survey-adjusted multivariable linear regression adjusted for sex, age, ethnicity, socio-economic and smoking status, region of residency and total energy and alcohol intake.
UK free-living population.
4738 adults (≥19 years).
TNS consumers had higher modified MDS and HDS relative to non-consumers. TNS consumers also had lower BMI, WC, SBP and DBP and higher HDL compared to non-consumers, although a dose-related fully adjusted significant association between increasing nut intake (g per 4184 kJ/1000 kcal energy intake) and lower marker of CVD risk was only observed for SBP. TNS consumption was also associated with higher intake of total fat, mono-, n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, fibre, vitamin A, thiamin, folate, vitamin C, vitamin E, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, selenium and iron; and lower intake of saturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, total carbohydrate, starch, free sugar, sodium and chloride.
TNS consumers report better dietary quality and consumption was associated with lower CVD risk factors. Encouraging replacement of less healthy snacks with TNS should be encouraged as part of general dietary guidelines.
The community composition of zooplankton with an emphasis on copepods was assessed in the frontal zones of the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean (SO) during summer 2013. Copepods were the dominant group in both the bongo net and multiple plankton sampler across the entire region. High zooplankton abundance was recorded along each transect in the Polar Front (PF). Community structure in this front was dominated by common taxa, including Ctenocalanus citer, Clausocalanus spp., Calanoides acutus, Calanus propinquus, Calanus australis and Rhincalanus gigas, which together accounted for > 62% of the total abundance. Calocalanus spp., Neocalanus tonsus and C. propinquus were indicator species in the Sub-Tropical Front (STF), Sub-Antarctic Front and PF, respectively. A strong contrast in population structure and biovolume was observed between then PF and the STF. The community structure of smaller copepods was associated with the high-temperature region, whereas communities of larger copepods were associated with the low-temperature region. Thus, it seems probable that physical and biological characteristics of the SO frontal regions are controlling the abundance and distribution of zooplankton community structure by restricting some species to the warmer stratified zones and some species to the well-mixed zone.
The role of meat in the diet has come under scrutiny recently due to an increased public emphasis on providing healthy diets from sustainable food systems and due to health concerns relating to the consumption of red and processed meat. The present review aimed to summarise dietary guidelines relating to meat, actual meat intakes and the contribution of meat to energy and nutrient intakes of children, teenagers and adults in Europe. The available literature has shown that food-based dietary guidelines for most countries recommend consuming lean meat in moderation and many recommend limiting red and processed meat consumption. Mean intakes of total meat in Europe range from 40 to 160 g/d in children and teenagers and from 75 to 233 g/d in adults. Meat contributes to important nutrients such as protein, PUFA, B vitamins, vitamin D and essential minerals such as Fe and Zn; however, processed meat contributes to significant proportions of saturated fat and Na across population groups. While few data are available on diaggregated intakes of red and processed meat, where data are available, mean intakes in adults are higher than the upper limits recommended by the UK Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (70 g/d) and the World Cancer Research Fund (500 g/week). While there are no recommendations for red and processed meat consumption in children and teenagers, intakes currently range from 30 to 76 g/d. The present review provides a comprehensive overview of the role of meat in the European diet which may be of use to stakeholders including researchers, policy makers and the agri-food sector.
Much of the global population lacks access to basic public sanitation, energy and fertilizers. Micro-scale anaerobic digestion presents an opportunity for low-cost decentralized waste management that creates valuable co-products of renewable energy and organic fertilizer. However, field-based assessments of system performance and clearly articulated guidelines for digestate management and field application are needed. Feedstocks and effluent from seven digesters in Kampala, Uganda were monitored for standard wastewater and fertilizer metrics including indicator organisms (Escherichia coli and fecal coliform), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD5), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), total phosphorous (TP), heavy metals, pH, temperature and total solids (TS) over 2 yr. Results reveal that digester effluent does not meet standards for wastewater discharge or international safety standards for field application. Data indicate that digestate could be a suitable source of fertilizer (TKN = 1467 mg L−1, TP = 214 mg L−1) but poses issues for water quality if not managed properly (TS = 26,091 mg L−1, COD = 3471 mg L−1 and BOD5 = 246 mg L−1). While effluent from the digester contained pathogen indicator organisms (fecal coliform = 8.13 × 105 CFU/100 ml, E. coli = 3.27 × 105 CFU/100 ml), they were lower than the influent concentrations, and lower than reported concentrations in drainage canals. All digestate samples contained little to no heavy metals suggesting effective source separation. Data suggest that micro-scale biogas systems have potential to improve waste handling and meet standards associated with fertilizer application with proper post-digestion treatment.
Breast cancer (BC) is a growing public health concern in most developed and developing countries. Since an increasing number of patients with BC are diagnosed before the menopause and premenopausal women show a more aggressive phenotype, there is consistent interest in promoting prevention strategies in order to reduce the incidence of BC in the premenopause. The Mediterranean diet (MD) has been reported to have beneficial effect in terms of cancer prevention. This healthy dietary pattern consists primarily of foods having important antioxidant properties along with a favourable fatty acid profile, all associated with a reduced risk of cancer. Due to the large variability in study subject characteristics, the protective role of the MD on BC still remains controversial and studies that have investigated the association between adherence to the MD and risk of BC in premenopausal women are fewer than those in postmenopausal women. In addition, the possibility that the beneficial effects of the MD are due to a single component or might more probably derive from the synergic effects of all components of the MD remains a scantly explored field. Considering the increased risk of recurrence and mortality rate of BC in premenopausal women as compared with postmenopausal women, the aim of the present report is to provide a general overview of the current evidence on the relationship between BC and the MD specifically in premenopausal women, and to emphasise the potential role of the MD as an effective measure to reduce the risk of developing BC in premenopausal women.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. The present study explored genetic risk scores (GRS) of genetic variants that influence the MetS and the effect of interactions between GRS and nutrient intake on MetS risk. The genetic variants that influence MetS risk were selected by genome-wide association study after adjusting for age, sex, area of residence and BMI in 8840 middle-aged adults. GRS were calculated by summing the risk alleles of the selected SNP and divided into low (0–1), medium (2–3) and high (4–7) risk groups, and the relationships between the MetS and GRS were determined by logistic regression after adjusting covariates involved in MetS risk. We also analysed the interaction between GRS and lifestyles. Four genetic variants (APOA5_rs651821, EFCAB4B_rs4766165, ZNF259_rs2160669 and APOBEC1_rs10845640) were selected because they increased MetS risk after adjusting for covariates. Individuals with medium-GRS and high-GRS alleles had a higher MetS risk by 1·48- and 2·23-fold, respectively, compared with those with low-GRS after adjusting for covariates. The increase in MetS risk was mainly related to serum TAG and HDL-cholesterol concentrations. The GRS had an interaction with carbohydrate (CHO) and Na intakes and daily physical activities for MetS risk. In conclusion, Asian middle-aged adults with high-GRS alleles were at increased MetS risk mainly due to dyslipidaemia. High daily physical activity (≥1 h moderate activity per d) reduced the MetS risk but a low-CHO diet (<65 % of total energy intake) increased the risk in carriers with high-GRS alleles. Low Na intake (<1·6 g Na intake/4 MJ) did not decrease its risk.
To evaluate the dietary diversity and the nutrient contribution of traditional foods (locally cultivated and wild) by conducting a food intake study in rural Ecuador.
Repeated 24 h recalls over a 14 d interval and frequency of consumption served to simulate the usual diet by the Multiple Source Method. Data on missing visits (n 11) were imputed using multivariate imputation by chained equations. The intakes of three macro- and six micronutrients were reported. Nutrient Adequacy Ratios, Mean Adequacy Ratio (MAR), Dietary Species Richness (DSR) and Minimum Dietary Diversity for Women were used as measures of dietary quality. A linear quantile mixed model was used to investigate the association between DSR, local species, MAR, age, education and occupation.
Guasaganda, Cotopaxi (Ecuador).
Rural, indigenous adult women, non-pregnant and not breast-feeding.
The studied diet had MAR of 0·78. Consumption of traditional foods contributed 38·6 % of total energy intake. Daily requirements for protein, carbohydrates, Fe and vitamin C were reached. An extra level of consumption of local species was associated with an increase in median MAR for macronutrients of 0·033 (P < 0·001). On the other hand, an extra level of consumption of local species was associated with an increase in median MAR for micronutrients of 0·052 (P < 0·001).
We found statistical evidence that traditional foods contribute to adequate intakes of macro- and micronutrients and dietary diversification in the studied population. Future public health interventions should promote the cultivation and consumption of traditional foods to increase the quality of the local diet.
Although bariatric surgery is approved for a woman of child-bearing age with an interest in subsequent pregnancy, reports of in utero growth issues during pregnancy have garnered a closer look at the impact of maternal surgical weight loss on the pre- and postpartum periods. Offspring of dams having received vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) are born small-for-gestational age and have increased risk for metabolic syndrome later in life. Here, we aimed to determine whether the postnatal catch-up growth trajectory of bariatric offspring may be affected by milk composition. Milk samples were collected at postnatal day 15/16 from dams having received VSG surgery and fed a high-fat diet (HFD) (H-VSG), Sham surgery and fed chow (C-Sham), or Sham surgery and fed HFD (H-Sham). Milk obtained from H-VSG dams had elevated glucose (P < 0.05) and significantly reduced triglyceride content (P < 0.01). Milk from H-Sham dams had the lowest amount of milk protein (P < 0.05). Fatty acid composition measured by fractionation was largely not affected by surgery but rather maternal diet. No difference was observed in milk leptin levels; however, insulin, adiponectin, and growth hormone levels were significantly increased in milk from H-VSG animals. H-Sham had the lowest level of immunoglobulin (Ig)A, whereas IgG was significantly reduced in H-VSG. Taken together, the quality of milk from H-VSG dams suggests that milk composition could be a factor in reducing the rate of growth during the lactation period.
To assess the associations between single foods, nutrients, dietary patterns and dietary scores, and inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-6, TNF-α and leucocyte count).
Cross-sectional, population-based study.
City of Lausanne, Switzerland, years 2009–2012.
Adults (n 4027; 46·5 % men), mean age 57·2 (sd 10·2) years. Dietary intake was collected using a semi-quantitative FFQ. Single foods and nutrients, three dietary patterns (‘Meat & fries’; ‘Fruits & vegetables’; ‘Fatty & sugary’) and three dietary scores (two Mediterranean; Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI)) were used. Associations were assessed using correlation and multivariable linear regression.
After adjusting for total energy intake, gender and other sociodemographic factors, no individual macro- or micronutrient was associated with inflammatory markers. Among single foods, only fruit intake was negatively associated with CRP levels (standardized regression score=−0·043, P<0·01). The ‘Fruits & vegetables’ pattern, the Mediterranean and the AHEI scores were negatively associated with CRP levels (standardized regression score=−0·079, −0·043 and −0·067, respectively, all P<0·01). When entered simultaneously with fruit intake, the ‘Fruits & vegetables’ pattern, the Mediterranean and the AHEI scores tended to remain significantly and negatively associated with CRP levels, while the association with fruit intake was no longer significant. No association between all dietary markers and IL-6, TNF-α or leucocyte count was found.
Dietary scores, but not individual foods, are associated with inflammatory markers in the general population.
Growing evidence has emerged about the role of dietary patterns and components in heart failure (HF) incidence and severity. The objective here is to provide a comprehensive summary of the current evidence regarding dietary patterns/components and HF. A comprehensive search of online databases was conducted using multiple relevant keywords to identify relevant human studies. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and Mediterranean diets have consistently been associated with decreased HF incidence and severity. Regarding specific dietary components, fruit, vegetables, legumes and whole grains appear beneficial. Current evidence suggests that red/processed meats, eggs and refined carbohydrates are harmful, while fish, dairy products and poultry remain controversial. However, there is a notable lack of human intervention trials. The existing but limited observational and interventional evidence from human studies suggests that a plant-based dietary pattern high in antioxidants, micronutrients, nitrate and fibre but low in saturated/trans-fat and Na may decrease HF incidence/severity. Potential mechanisms include decreased oxidative stress, homocysteine and inflammation but higher antioxidant defence and NO bioavailability and gut microbiome modulation. Randomised, controlled trials are urgently required.
Emerging literature suggests that diet constituents may play a modulatory role in chronic pain (CP) through management of inflammation/oxidative stress, resulting in attenuation of pain. We performed a narrative review to evaluate the existing evidence regarding the optimum diet for the management of CP, and we built a food pyramid on this topic. The present review also describes the activities of various natural compounds contained in foods (i.e. phenolic compounds in extra-virgin olive oil (EVO)) listed on our pyramid, which have comparable effects to drug management therapy. This review included 172 eligible studies. The pyramid shows that carbohydrates with low glycaemic index should be consumed every day (three portions), together with fruits and vegetables (five portions), yogurt (125 ml), red wine (125 ml) and EVO; weekly: legumes and fish (four portions); white meat, eggs and fresh cheese (two portions); red or processed meats (once per week); sweets can be consumed occasionally. The food amounts are estimates based on nutritional and practical considerations. At the top of the pyramid there is a pennant: it means that CP subjects may need a specific customised supplementation (vitamin B12, vitamin D, n-3 fatty acids, fibre). The food pyramid proposal will serve to guide dietary intake with to the intent of alleviating pain in CP patients. Moreover, a targeted diet can also help to solve problems related to the drugs used to combat CP, i.e. constipation. However, this paper would be an early hypothetical proposal due to the limitations of the studies.
Many parts of the world rely on nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus to improve farming production and increase yields. There are significant food security as well as socio-economic issues at stake. However, it is also clear that fertilizer loads are particularly damaging to aquatic environments, including lakes, rivers, coral reefs, and wetlands. This article explores governance approaches to fertilizer practices that impact on aquatic environments (eutrophication) by examining a case study of the Great Barrier Reef. Governance involves any and all forms of state and non-state control over a given set of issues. It can include, but is not limited to, rule-based approaches like regulation, although it can also involve market-driven measures like nutrient trading schemes, government grants and other financial incentives. So, which approach to governance works best to combat this particular policy question? What other insights into the design of effective regulation and governance can be gathered? In this article, the authors make three broad arguments for change: firstly, it is crucial that regulation features within government strategies; secondly, there must be a rigorous systematic evaluation of the strategies to ensure that the desired behavioural change is achieved along with the desired outcomes; thirdly, and most importantly, the strategies and the evaluation methods must be appropriate for the culture of the industry they are designed to regulate.
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit quality and yield are highly dependent on adequate uptake of nutrients. Potassium, magnesium and calcium are essential elements that influence fruit quality traits such as colour, uniformity of ripening, hollow fruit, fruit shape, firmness and acidity. Sodium is not an essential element for tomato and can detrimentally compete with the absorption of potassium and calcium. Daily intakes of potassium, magnesium and calcium in human diets are typically below healthful levels, while sodium intake is often excessive. The objective of this study was to compare 52 diverse commercially important varieties of tomato for concentrations of potassium, magnesium, calcium and sodium in fruits. The tomatoes were produced in replicated plots in Geneva, NY in 2010 and 2011. Multiple fruits per plot were harvested vine-ripe, homogenized and assayed for cations. Analysis of variance showed significant differences among the 52 varieties for all four traits, i.e. cation concentrations (df = 51, P < 0.0001–0.0034) and no significant differences between years for any trait (df = 1, P = 0.3432–0.6770). Factor analysis showed a strong interrelationship between potassium and magnesium that was independent of calcium and sodium. Potassium and magnesium were highly significantly correlated with each other (r = 0.64, P < 0.0001). No other correlations between pairs of traits were observed. Results supported a genetic basis for potassium, magnesium, calcium and sodium concentrations that was consistent across environments (i.e. years). Results can contribute to the development of cultivars with favourable cation profiles in terms of human health and fruit quality.