Please note, due to essential maintenance online transactions will not be possible between 02:30 and 04:00 BST, on Tuesday 17th September 2019 (22:30-00:00 EDT, 17 Sep, 2019). We apologise for any inconvenience.
To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
To evaluate the dietary diversity and the nutrient contribution of traditional foods (locally cultivated and wild) by conducting a food intake study in rural Ecuador.
Repeated 24 h recalls over a 14 d interval and frequency of consumption served to simulate the usual diet by the Multiple Source Method. Data on missing visits (n 11) were imputed using multivariate imputation by chained equations. The intakes of three macro- and six micronutrients were reported. Nutrient Adequacy Ratios, Mean Adequacy Ratio (MAR), Dietary Species Richness (DSR) and Minimum Dietary Diversity for Women were used as measures of dietary quality. A linear quantile mixed model was used to investigate the association between DSR, local species, MAR, age, education and occupation.
Guasaganda, Cotopaxi (Ecuador).
Rural, indigenous adult women, non-pregnant and not breast-feeding.
The studied diet had MAR of 0·78. Consumption of traditional foods contributed 38·6 % of total energy intake. Daily requirements for protein, carbohydrates, Fe and vitamin C were reached. An extra level of consumption of local species was associated with an increase in median MAR for macronutrients of 0·033 (P < 0·001). On the other hand, an extra level of consumption of local species was associated with an increase in median MAR for micronutrients of 0·052 (P < 0·001).
We found statistical evidence that traditional foods contribute to adequate intakes of macro- and micronutrients and dietary diversification in the studied population. Future public health interventions should promote the cultivation and consumption of traditional foods to increase the quality of the local diet.
Although bariatric surgery is approved for a woman of child-bearing age with an interest in subsequent pregnancy, reports of in utero growth issues during pregnancy have garnered a closer look at the impact of maternal surgical weight loss on the pre- and postpartum periods. Offspring of dams having received vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) are born small-for-gestational age and have increased risk for metabolic syndrome later in life. Here, we aimed to determine whether the postnatal catch-up growth trajectory of bariatric offspring may be affected by milk composition. Milk samples were collected at postnatal day 15/16 from dams having received VSG surgery and fed a high-fat diet (HFD) (H-VSG), Sham surgery and fed chow (C-Sham), or Sham surgery and fed HFD (H-Sham). Milk obtained from H-VSG dams had elevated glucose (P < 0.05) and significantly reduced triglyceride content (P < 0.01). Milk from H-Sham dams had the lowest amount of milk protein (P < 0.05). Fatty acid composition measured by fractionation was largely not affected by surgery but rather maternal diet. No difference was observed in milk leptin levels; however, insulin, adiponectin, and growth hormone levels were significantly increased in milk from H-VSG animals. H-Sham had the lowest level of immunoglobulin (Ig)A, whereas IgG was significantly reduced in H-VSG. Taken together, the quality of milk from H-VSG dams suggests that milk composition could be a factor in reducing the rate of growth during the lactation period.
To assess the associations between single foods, nutrients, dietary patterns and dietary scores, and inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-6, TNF-α and leucocyte count).
Cross-sectional, population-based study.
City of Lausanne, Switzerland, years 2009–2012.
Adults (n 4027; 46·5 % men), mean age 57·2 (sd 10·2) years. Dietary intake was collected using a semi-quantitative FFQ. Single foods and nutrients, three dietary patterns (‘Meat & fries’; ‘Fruits & vegetables’; ‘Fatty & sugary’) and three dietary scores (two Mediterranean; Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI)) were used. Associations were assessed using correlation and multivariable linear regression.
After adjusting for total energy intake, gender and other sociodemographic factors, no individual macro- or micronutrient was associated with inflammatory markers. Among single foods, only fruit intake was negatively associated with CRP levels (standardized regression score=−0·043, P<0·01). The ‘Fruits & vegetables’ pattern, the Mediterranean and the AHEI scores were negatively associated with CRP levels (standardized regression score=−0·079, −0·043 and −0·067, respectively, all P<0·01). When entered simultaneously with fruit intake, the ‘Fruits & vegetables’ pattern, the Mediterranean and the AHEI scores tended to remain significantly and negatively associated with CRP levels, while the association with fruit intake was no longer significant. No association between all dietary markers and IL-6, TNF-α or leucocyte count was found.
Dietary scores, but not individual foods, are associated with inflammatory markers in the general population.
Growing evidence has emerged about the role of dietary patterns and components in heart failure (HF) incidence and severity. The objective here is to provide a comprehensive summary of the current evidence regarding dietary patterns/components and HF. A comprehensive search of online databases was conducted using multiple relevant keywords to identify relevant human studies. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and Mediterranean diets have consistently been associated with decreased HF incidence and severity. Regarding specific dietary components, fruit, vegetables, legumes and whole grains appear beneficial. Current evidence suggests that red/processed meats, eggs and refined carbohydrates are harmful, while fish, dairy products and poultry remain controversial. However, there is a notable lack of human intervention trials. The existing but limited observational and interventional evidence from human studies suggests that a plant-based dietary pattern high in antioxidants, micronutrients, nitrate and fibre but low in saturated/trans-fat and Na may decrease HF incidence/severity. Potential mechanisms include decreased oxidative stress, homocysteine and inflammation but higher antioxidant defence and NO bioavailability and gut microbiome modulation. Randomised, controlled trials are urgently required.
Emerging literature suggests that diet constituents may play a modulatory role in chronic pain (CP) through management of inflammation/oxidative stress, resulting in attenuation of pain. We performed a narrative review to evaluate the existing evidence regarding the optimum diet for the management of CP, and we built a food pyramid on this topic. The present review also describes the activities of various natural compounds contained in foods (i.e. phenolic compounds in extra-virgin olive oil (EVO)) listed on our pyramid, which have comparable effects to drug management therapy. This review included 172 eligible studies. The pyramid shows that carbohydrates with low glycaemic index should be consumed every day (three portions), together with fruits and vegetables (five portions), yogurt (125 ml), red wine (125 ml) and EVO; weekly: legumes and fish (four portions); white meat, eggs and fresh cheese (two portions); red or processed meats (once per week); sweets can be consumed occasionally. The food amounts are estimates based on nutritional and practical considerations. At the top of the pyramid there is a pennant: it means that CP subjects may need a specific customised supplementation (vitamin B12, vitamin D, n-3 fatty acids, fibre). The food pyramid proposal will serve to guide dietary intake with to the intent of alleviating pain in CP patients. Moreover, a targeted diet can also help to solve problems related to the drugs used to combat CP, i.e. constipation. However, this paper would be an early hypothetical proposal due to the limitations of the studies.
Many parts of the world rely on nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus to improve farming production and increase yields. There are significant food security as well as socio-economic issues at stake. However, it is also clear that fertilizer loads are particularly damaging to aquatic environments, including lakes, rivers, coral reefs, and wetlands. This article explores governance approaches to fertilizer practices that impact on aquatic environments (eutrophication) by examining a case study of the Great Barrier Reef. Governance involves any and all forms of state and non-state control over a given set of issues. It can include, but is not limited to, rule-based approaches like regulation, although it can also involve market-driven measures like nutrient trading schemes, government grants and other financial incentives. So, which approach to governance works best to combat this particular policy question? What other insights into the design of effective regulation and governance can be gathered? In this article, the authors make three broad arguments for change: firstly, it is crucial that regulation features within government strategies; secondly, there must be a rigorous systematic evaluation of the strategies to ensure that the desired behavioural change is achieved along with the desired outcomes; thirdly, and most importantly, the strategies and the evaluation methods must be appropriate for the culture of the industry they are designed to regulate.
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit quality and yield are highly dependent on adequate uptake of nutrients. Potassium, magnesium and calcium are essential elements that influence fruit quality traits such as colour, uniformity of ripening, hollow fruit, fruit shape, firmness and acidity. Sodium is not an essential element for tomato and can detrimentally compete with the absorption of potassium and calcium. Daily intakes of potassium, magnesium and calcium in human diets are typically below healthful levels, while sodium intake is often excessive. The objective of this study was to compare 52 diverse commercially important varieties of tomato for concentrations of potassium, magnesium, calcium and sodium in fruits. The tomatoes were produced in replicated plots in Geneva, NY in 2010 and 2011. Multiple fruits per plot were harvested vine-ripe, homogenized and assayed for cations. Analysis of variance showed significant differences among the 52 varieties for all four traits, i.e. cation concentrations (df = 51, P < 0.0001–0.0034) and no significant differences between years for any trait (df = 1, P = 0.3432–0.6770). Factor analysis showed a strong interrelationship between potassium and magnesium that was independent of calcium and sodium. Potassium and magnesium were highly significantly correlated with each other (r = 0.64, P < 0.0001). No other correlations between pairs of traits were observed. Results supported a genetic basis for potassium, magnesium, calcium and sodium concentrations that was consistent across environments (i.e. years). Results can contribute to the development of cultivars with favourable cation profiles in terms of human health and fruit quality.
To identify optimal food choices that meet nutritional recommendations to reduce prevalence of inadequate nutrient intakes.
Linear programming was used to obtain an optimized diet with sixty-eight foods with the least difference from the observed population mean dietary intake while meeting a set of nutritional goals that included reduction in the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intakes to ≤20 %.
Participants (men and women, n 25 324) aged 20 years or more from the first National Dietary Survey (NDS) 2008–2009.
Feasible solution to the model was not found when all constraints were imposed; infeasible nutrients were Ca, vitamins D and E, Mg, Zn, fibre, linolenic acid, monounsaturated fat and Na. Feasible solution was obtained after relaxing the nutritional constraints for these limiting nutrients by including a deviation variable in the model. Estimated prevalence of nutrient inadequacy was reduced by 60–70 % for most nutrients, and mean saturated and trans-fat decreased in the optimized diet meeting the model constraints. Optimized diet was characterized by increases especially in fruits (+92 g), beans (+64 g), vegetables (+43 g), milk (+12 g), fish and seafood (+15 g) and whole cereals (+14 g), and reductions of sugar-sweetened beverages (−90 g), rice (−63 g), snacks (−14 g), red meat (−13 g) and processed meat (−9·7 g).
Linear programming is a unique tool to identify which changes in the current diet can increase nutrient intake and place the population at lower risk of nutrient inadequacy. Reaching nutritional adequacy for all nutrients would require major dietary changes in the Brazilian diet.
Approximately 6·5 million US children live in food-insecure households, meaning that they have restrained access to the types and amounts of foods they usually eat. The nutrient demands of growth and general sub-par dietary intake of US children by age highlight the importance and difficulty of attaining recommended amounts of critical dietary components to promote health and prevent disease. Evaluation of the evidence for a relationship of food insecurity with key dietary outcomes for the specific stages of child growth at 1–5 years, 6–11 years and 12–19 years has not been previously documented. Bradford Hill criteria of strength, consistency and dose–response were applied to aid evaluation. A comprehensive search of original research on US children using food-security assessment measures indexed to January 2017 was completed and identified sixteen studies that evaluated the relationship of food insecurity with key dietary outcomes. Evidence for a strong, consistent and dose–response relationship of food insecurity with lower vegetable intake compared with food security was determined among children aged 1–5 years and strong and consistent evidence of higher added sugar intake among food-insecure children aged 6–11 years compared with food-secure children was apparent. Adolescent-focused evidence was sparse but revealed adolescence as the paediatric age stage where food insecurity has the most potential for negative impact on child dietary intake. A discussion of future research opportunities includes strengthening the evidence through longitudinal study designs, inclusion of additional nutrients of concern, and stronger mitigation of bias and error.
Pregnancy and lactation deplete nutrients essential to the neurotransmission system. This may be one reason for the increased risk of depression during the perinatal period. The objective of the present review was to systematically review the literature and summarise evidence on whether blood nutrient levels influence the risk of perinatal depression. PubMed, EMBASE and CINAHL databases were searched for studies of any design. A total of twenty-four articles of different designs were included, representing 14 262 subjects. We extracted data on study population, depression prevalence, nutrients examined, deficiency prevalence, timing of assessment, reporting, analysis strategy and adjustment factors. In all, fourteen studies found associations of perinatal depression with lower levels of folate, vitamin D, Fe, Se, Zn, and fats and fatty acids, while two studies found associations between perinatal depression and higher nutrient levels, and eight studies found no evidence of an association. Only ten studies had low risk of bias. Given the methodological limitations and heterogeneity of study approaches and results, the evidence for a causal link between nutritional biomarkers and perinatal depression is still inconclusive. High-quality studies in deficient populations are needed.
Macroalgal fouling communities are potentially useful as bioindicators in environmental monitoring as they are considered to be sensitive to changes in environmental conditions and the use of artificial substrata facilitates the implementation of standardized sampling strategies. The response of macroalgal fouling communities on buoys to changes in water quality was investigated with a view to the possible utilization of these assemblages in environmental monitoring programmes. Seven study sites were selected based on previously collected environmental data and Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was used to order sites according to beam attenuation coefficient (BAC) and concentration of dissolved nitrates and phosphates, relative to a minimally impacted reference site. At each site, all fouling macroalgae were collected from 10 buoys of standard shape and size, and were identified to the lowest possible taxonomic level. Species composition and species dominance were highly variable among impacted sites, indicating that qualitative aspects of community structure may not be useful as indicators of changes in water quality. However, higher levels of nutrient enrichment and turbidity were associated with lower macroalgal species richness, lower overall abundances, and decreased diversities, and therefore these quantitative aspects of community structure are potentially useful as indicators of environmental change. Intermediate levels of turbidity and nutrient enrichment were associated with lower evenness, but did not influence species richness, suggesting that macroalgal abundances respond to changes in environmental conditions before species replacement occurs.
To determine if processed and ultra-processed foods consumed by children in Colombia are associated with lower-quality nutrition profiles than less processed foods.
We obtained information on sociodemographic and anthropometric variables and dietary information through dietary records and 24 h recalls from a convenience sample of the Bogotá School Children Cohort. Foods were classified into three categories: (i) unprocessed and minimally processed foods, (ii) processed culinary ingredients and (iii) processed and ultra-processed foods. We also examined the combination of unprocessed foods and processed culinary ingredients.
Representative sample of children from low- to middle-income families in Bogotá, Colombia.
Children aged 5–12 years in 2011 Bogotá School Children Cohort.
We found that processed and ultra-processed foods are of lower dietary quality in general. Nutrients that were lower in processed and ultra-processed foods following adjustment for total energy intake included: n-3 PUFA, vitamins A, B12, C and E, Ca and Zn. Nutrients that were higher in energy-adjusted processed and ultra-processed foods compared with unprocessed foods included: Na, sugar and trans-fatty acids, although we also found that some healthy nutrients, including folate and Fe, were higher in processed and ultra-processed foods compared with unprocessed and minimally processed foods.
Processed and ultra-processed foods generally have unhealthy nutrition profiles. Our findings suggest the categorization of foods based on processing characteristics is promising for understanding the influence of food processing on children’s dietary quality. More studies accounting for the type and degree of food processing are needed.
Major changes in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) food packages that were implemented in 2009 included reductions in the amount of milk and 100% juices, as well as the removal of whole milk from food packages. In analyzing the effect of these changes on the beverage consumption of Texas WIC children ages two to four, we found a significant decrease in the amount of whole milk consumed, and this decrease was partially offset by the increase in the amount of lower-fat milks consumed. Intakes of both desirable and undesirable nutrients from milk were decreased.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease characterised by multiple organ involvement and a large number of complications. SLE management remains complicated owing to the biological heterogeneity between patients and the lack of safe and specific targeted therapies. There is evidence that dietary factors can contribute to the geoepidemiology of autoimmune diseases such as SLE. Thus, diet therapy could be a promising approach in SLE owing to both its potential prophylactic effects, without the side effects of classical pharmacology, and its contribution to reducing co-morbidities and improving quality of life in patients with SLE. However, the question arises as to whether nutrients could ameliorate or exacerbate SLE and how they could modulate inflammation and immune function at a molecular level. The present review summarises preclinical and clinical experiences to provide the reader with an update of the positive and negative aspects of macro- and micronutrients and other nutritional factors, including dietary phenols, on SLE, focusing on the mechanisms of action involved.
To improve production efficiency, the sheep meat industry has increased flock prolificacy. However, multiple-born lambs have lower birth weights, increased mortality and reduced growth rate compared with single-born lambs. Lamb mortality is a major issue for livestock farming globally and solutions are required to increase survival to realise the value of increased flock fecundity. Nutrition during gestation can influence maternal–foetal placental nutrient transfer and thus foetal growth and organ/tissue development, as well as improve postnatal productivity. This review covers the challenges and opportunities associated with increased prolificacy, highlights gaps in our knowledge and identifies some opportunities for how targeted intervention with specific nutrients during mid-to-late pregnancy may influence lamb survival and productivity with a specific focus on pasture-based systems. This time frame was selected as intervention strategies in short-time windows post-pregnancy scanning and before lambing to improve lamb survival in high-risk groups (e.g. triplets) are likely to be the most practical and economically feasible options for pasture-based extensive farming systems.
In England, standards for school meals included both foods and nutrients until 2015. School policies for packed lunches are generally food based; research is needed to determine whether these are adequate or whether a small number of nutrients would potentially improve their quality.
From dietary data obtained using a weighed dietary assessment tool, a diet quality score (DQS) for packed lunches was calculated using the number of standards met out of twenty-one (eight foods and thirteen nutrients). Multilevel regression analysis determined the foods and nutrients contributing to variation in the DQS.
Eighty-nine primary schools across the four regions of the UK (England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland).
British schoolchildren (n 1294), aged 8–9 years, taking a packed lunch.
The optimal model included all eight foods and seven of the thirteen nutrients, explaining 72 % of the variance in DQS. Folate, Fe and vitamin C, together with the eight food groups, explained 70 % of DQS variation.
Ideally, policies for school packed lunches should include food-based standards plus recommendations based on a small number of nutrients.
Nutritional impact of the Tick front-of-pack labelling programme was evaluated by investigating nutrient changes to the purchased food supply and the nutritional quality of Tick v. non-Tick products. Factors influencing manufacturers’ decisions to develop and license Tick products were also explored.
Observational, cross-sectional and change over time data.
New Zealand food supply, 2011–2013.
Forty-five newly licensed Tick products from five food categories were analysed: Edible Oil Spreads, Yoghurt & Dairy Desserts, Frozen Desserts, Ready Meals and Processed Poultry. Four manufacturers of these products were interviewed.
Eligible products (31 % of all Tick products in these categories) removed 4·1 million megajoules of energy, 156·0 tonnes of saturated fat, 15·4 tonnes of trans-fat and 4·0 tonnes of sodium from food products sold in New Zealand over three years. In each food category, these Tick products were, on average, 14–76 % lower in energy, saturated fat, trans-fat and sodium than non-Tick products, indicating healthier options. Participating manufacturers reported that international market trends and consumer demand for tasty, healthy foods primarily influenced Tick product development and sales. Tick was used as part of their marketing strategy as it was perceived as a credible, well-recognised logo for New Zealand consumers. Tick was cited as the primary initiative encouraging saturated fat reduction.
The Tick Programme is continuing to encourage manufacturers to make meaningful improvements to the nutritional quality of the New Zealand food supply. Over time, these changes are likely to influence population nutrient intakes and reduce CVD risk factors.
Maternal nutrient intake during pregnancy and lactation potentially influences the development of allergic diseases. Cows’ milk allergy (CMA) is often the first manifestation of atopic diseases, but the impact of early nutritional influences on CMA has not been explored. The associations between maternal intakes of folate, folic acid and vitamin D during pregnancy and lactation were addressed in a prospective, population-based birth cohort within the Finnish Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Study. Mothers of 4921 children during pregnancy and 2940 children during lactation provided information on maternal dietary intake during the 8th month of pregnancy and the 3rd month of lactation using a detailed, validated FFQ. Information on diagnosed CMA in the offspring was obtained from a medical registry as well as queried from the parents. The Finnish food composition database was used to calculate nutrient intake. Logistic regression was applied for statistical analyses. Folate intake and folic acid and vitamin D supplement use were associated with an increased risk of CMA in the offspring, whereas vitamin D intake from foods during pregnancy was associated with a decreased risk of CMA. Thus, maternal nutrient intake during pregnancy and lactation may affect the development of CMA in offspring. Supplementation with folic acid may not be beneficial in terms of CMA development, especially in children of allergic mothers. The association between dietary supplement use and CMA risk can at least partly be explained by increased health-seeking behaviour among more educated mothers who also use more dietary supplements.
Soybean meal (SBM) remains the most important and preferred protein feed source for poultry. However, the supply and quality of SBM fluctuates, and the meal is expensive due to processing and transportation costs. Although there is a growing interest in the use of raw SBM for birds, its nutritive value is negatively affected by the presence of anti-nutritive factors (ANF). Heat treatment is applied to alleviate some ANF, such as trypsin inhibitors and lectins, but both under- and over-processing of soybeans can reduce the digestibility of key components in the meal. Feed supplementation with exogenous enzymes, such as phytase and protease enzymes, is a biotechnological option for improving the nutritional values of SBM and other protein-rich ingredients. Proteases break down both stored proteins and proteinaceous anti-nutrients in feeds. Various studies have shown that the performance of birds can be improved through dietary supplementation with new-generation protease enzymes. Phytase is also effective in breaking down phytate (phytic acid), which chelates with mineral cations and other nutrients in soybeans. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that an enzyme cocktail (combined use of protease and phytase) is more effective in reducing ANF in soybean meal for birds than the use of single enzyme products. This review provides information on how microbial enzymes, particularly protease and phytase, contribute to the improvement of the nutritional values of different types of SBM for poultry.
Until recently, much of the research exploring the role of nutrition on bone mass accrual has focused on single nutrients. Although randomised controlled trials have provided key information about the effects of calcium and vitamin D on bone, they also have limitations, e.g. generalisation, implementation of the results and long-term consequences. Human subjects do not eat single nutrients, but foods, and describing healthy food patterns for optimising bone mineral accrual is warranted. Recent advances in research suggest that the effects of whole diet are larger than those of single nutrients on bone health. Research should focus on younger age groups to identify the life-course determinants of osteoporosis during prenatal, infancy, childhood and adolescence that would help to maximise peak bone mass. Food patterns that describe the variability, quality and choices of individuals give broader insight and may provide new strategies for preventing osteoporosis.