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Deep learning (DL) has seen tremendous recent successes in many areas of artificial intelligence. It has since sparked great interests in its potential use in power systems. However, success from using DL in power systems has not been straightforward. Even with the continuing proliferation of data collected in the power systems from, e.g., synchrophasors and smart meters, how to effectively use these data, especially with DL techniques, remains a widely open problem. This chapter shows that the great power of DL can be unleashed in solving many fundamentally hard high-dimensional real-time inference problems in power systems. In particular, DL, if used appropriately, can effectively exploit both the intricate knowledge from the nonlinear power system models and the expressive power of DL predictor models. This chapter also shows the great promise of DL in significantly improving the stability, resilience, and security of power systems.
This chapter reviews the methods used to estimate the state of a power system and its network model based on the measurements provided by supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems and/or by phasor measurement units (PMU). Initially, it provides an overview of the commonly implemented SCADA-based state estimators. Network observability and bad data processing functions are brieﬂy described. This is followed by a description of the changes in the problem formulation and solution introduced by the incorporation of PMU measurements as well as the associated opportunities and challenges. Finally, detection, identification, and correction of network model errors and impact of such errors on system reliability as well as market operations are presented.
Adaptivity, flexibility, and transformability are fundamental features of resilience governance. These features represent the need for governance to match the constant movements of the ecosystem and the effects of pressures on the ecosystem. It is also through adaptive and flexible features that transformability can be created. Adaptive or flexible mechanisms within law matching such governance features, could be described as legal structures and measures that create space for adaptive procedures and flexible responses also within the legal regime. However, it must be noted that law could also create a kind of resistance to flexible changes in the social-ecological system. This could be regarded as one main function connected to the institutional structure and the social resilience that law creates, where stability over time and the potential to anticipate and prevent certain developments are central. International and EU law can be seen as rather adaptive and flexible in their inherent design.
How can we make sure that states do not only sign international anti-corruption conventions, but also comply with them once the ink has dried? Peer review among states offers one answer to this question. This article develops a theoretical framework to study the different processes and mechanisms through which peer reviews can contribute to state compliance. It focuses on three processes: transparency, pressure, and learning. The article subsequently applies this framework to the OECD Working Group on Bribery (WGB) in order to identify how far participants in this peer review perceive the WGB as capable of organising these processes, and to what extent they consider these processes relevant for promoting state compliance. Data come from an online survey (74 observations) and 17 in-depth interviews. The findings reveal that this peer review exercise is perceived as effective in creating transparency about state behaviour, mobilising pressure, and stimulating learning. However, the extent to which these processes can promote compliance is more limited. For these processes to work, political will is crucial.
Educators/teachers are required to determine what children know and understand so that they can effectively enhance children’s learning opportunities. Evidence of learning is usually obtained through a process of observation, anecdotal note-taking, journal entries, checklists and folios of children’s work. However, this data needs to be analysed by considering the full picture – who the child was playing with, what they were doing, what science underpinned the play activities and the children’s dispositions at the time. In early childhood centres, this understanding of a child’s learning is often determined through a democratic process (Dahlberg & Moss, 2008) that involves the collaboration of educators/teachers. This chapter describes and provides examples of children’s learning in science with reference to the Early Years Learning Framework (EYLF) (DEEWR, 2009a) and the Australian Curriculum: Science (ACARA, 2015).
Due to the remote location of colonies of Antarctic shags (Phalacrocorax (atriceps) bransfieldensis) in Antarctica, there is only sparse data on the abundance of this species. An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) survey for known and unknown Antarctic shag colonies along the coasts of Nelson Island and western King George Island, Antarctica, was conducted in December 2016. Four colonies, one of them previously unknown, were detected. For the first time since the 1980s, the total population size of the colonies in that area was determined. A comparison with previous estimates revealed evidence of a population increase by a factor of 2.86. To support future survey campaigns, several characteristic features of Antarctic shag colonies, nests and individuals in aerial imagery were identified. This makes possible more reliable detection and determination of population size in Antarctic shag colonies. These characteristic features were compared with those of chinstrap penguin colonies (Pygoscelis antarcticus) because these species often overlap spatially and are difficult to distinguish. In addition, the optimal weather conditions and flight parameters for an aerial survey were specified.
In this chapter it is argued that a significant part of the reason for private equity’s outperformance is its superior and sophisticated governance structures, as described in this book, with lessons for private equity practitioners, investors and policymakers, as well as academics and others with a general interest in corporate governance and corporate performance.
This chapter first considers the existing academic evidence that private equity-backed companies outperform their peers and then looks at standard explanations for this outperformance. It is argued that existing explanations are inadequate.
Correct choice and use of drugs is fundamental to airway management success and safety. This is true for both elective and emergency anaesthesia and at the start and end of anaesthesia. This chapter describes the key elements of drug selection for safe, effective airway management in both the awake and anaesthetised patient. Drugs can importantly facilitate airway management and influence conditions for tracheal intubation or inserting a supraglottic airway. Depression of reflexes and muscle tone can be provided by several hypnotics, but propofol is usually most effective. Neuromuscular blocking agents are not needed for many forms of airway management but can optimise conditions when necessary. The anaesthetist must be familiar with dosing and timing and with quantitative monitoring during reversal. Local anaesthesia may be the only safe choice in managing the difficult airway and sedation can enhance patient tolerance but maintaining adequate spontaneous ventilation is sometimes a challenge.
To successfully reduce overall invasive plant cover over time, an effective treatment plan must be established such that mortality exceeds new colonization and resprouting growth rates. However, few evaluations of the effects of long-term, consistent treatment at different intervals exist. We report the effects of treatment intensity on Old World climbing fern [Lygodium microphyllum (Cav.) R. Br.], Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi), and punktree [Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S. F. Blake] as part of a large restoration project that has been underway for 6 yr in Telegraph Swamp at Babcock Ranch Preserve, a 27,520-hectare (68,000-acre) conservation area in Florida, USA. We found that at the end of the 6-yr period, for all three species, average live cover did not exceed 5% across all transects. In addition, dead foliar cover was higher than live cover for all three invasive plants, indicating progress toward restoration goals. We also found that percent live cover of L. microphyllum was significantly reduced only after four or more treatments were applied during the 6-yr period, as opposed to when three or fewer treatments were applied. Reductions in percent cover of live foliage were apparent only when the treatments were applied more often than biennially, as opposed to less often than biennially. Additionally, we found higher L. microphyllum cover in clear-cut and replanted cypress stands than in natural stands. Based on these findings, we conclude that treatments applied four or more times, or more often than biennially, were more effective at significantly reducing advanced invasions of L. microphyllum, S. terebinthifolia, and M. quinquenervia, especially where previous management activities or their effects may have increased the cover of invasive plants.
In this case study, we used point mapping data to evaluate long-term treatment of invasive tree-of-heaven [Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle]. This study at the Buffalo National River included 21 project areas ranging in size from 0.02 to 11.3 ha and spanned 5 to 8 yr depending on the site. The control techniques varied depending on the year and included the application of herbicide, which also varied over the course of the study and included imazapyr, triclopyr, and triclopyr+fluroxypyr. Treatments during the first year reduced local A. altissima populations by an average of 66%. Long-term repeated treatments led to decreases of at least 90% in 70% of the project areas and at least 73% in 95% of the project areas. Only one project area was found to support no plants during the final treatment year. Ailanthus altissima increased at most project areas during an unusually wet year and was more likely to increase than decrease in intervals >1 yr with no treatment. Over the temporal and spatial scales of this case study, we observed high levels of control that will likely meet the specified levels and ecological benefits required in many similar efforts. Land managers must, however, make a long-term commitment of resources to achieve lasting control of this invasive species.
The paper discusses the (unsteady) evolution of multilateral processes on migration since the 1980s, with a focus on immigration detention as a growing response to migratory movements. It identifies distinct periods leading up to the Global Compact for Migration (GCM). The paper exposes double standards in the treatment of migration at the UN and beyond, connected with states’ view of migration as a toxic topic. While the GCM put the issue of migration back on the global agenda, the paper argues against the claim that the GCM is the first-ever inter-governmentally negotiated agreement covering all dimensions of international migration. This description better fits the 1990 Migrant Workers Convention. Furthermore, the paper illustrates how the GCM poses a threat to human rights protection in the area of migration: given its focus on co-operation and a state-led non-binding approach, it may overshadow existing international norms and widely endorsed standards monitored by UN bodies.
Substance use disorders affect physicians at a prevalence like the general population, yet they are difficult to detect and are inextricably linked to job dissatisfaction and burnout. Often physicians develop complex denial strategies and rationalizations, and shame and stigma prevent them from seeking help. However, when engaged in treatment and monitored through state-level Physicians Health Programs (PHPs), including long term monitoring and systems of accountability, approximately 80 percent will stay sober for and return to work in five years. This continuing care model with long-term monitoring and follow up, if adopted for the general population, may provide a paradigm shifting approach for the treatment of substance addictions, and might be extended to behavioral addictions.
Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is recognized as an invasive pest in Europe and North America. In Mexico, it is one of the main insect pests of soft-skinned fruits such as blueberries, strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, plums, and guava. Previous studies have shown that D. suzukii uses visual and chemical cues during host plant searching. This knowledge has been used to develop traps and attractants for monitoring D. suzukii. In this study, five trap designs were evaluated to monitor D. suzukii under field conditions. Traps were baited with SuzukiiTrap®, Z-Kinol, an attractant based on acetoin and methionol, or apple cider vinegar (ACV) enriched with 10% ethanol (EtOH) with the synergistic action of carbon dioxide (CO2). Our results suggested that the attractant was the determining factor in capturing D. suzukii, while trap design seemed to play a modest role. We found that traps baited with Z-Kinol captured the highest number of D. suzukii compared to that caught by traps baited with SuzukiiTrap®, or ACV + EtOH + CO2. The highest catch numbers occurred in blackberry, followed by strawberry, raspberry, and blueberry. Traps captured more females than males. The results obtained may be useful for monitoring D. suzukii populations in Mexico and elsewhere, particularly in states where soft fruit crops are a component of agricultural activities.
The direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are a relatively new class of drug. This chapter provides prescribers with some general rules for their use, describes which patients are eligible and which are not, and discusses dosing regimens for atrial fibrillation and venous thromboembolism. In addition, the reader can learn about monitoring, interactions and reversal.
Therapeutic drug monitoring is performed to ensure drug levels in the blood are in the therapeutic (not toxic) range, thus imporving efficacy of the drug and patient outcomes. While not all drugs require this, those that do have a recognised desired serum concentration which provides optimal effect. The chapter describes some general rules, including when to take levels and how to calculate ideal and corrected body weight, and runs through some common examples, including gentamicin, phenytoin and aminophylline.
Existing research has suggested children of caregivers with histories of exposure to trauma are at heightened risk for victimization, but few studies have explored potential mechanisms that explain this intergenerational transmission of risk. With data from peri-urban households in Lima, Peru (N = 402), this study analyzes parenting behaviors in the relation between caregivers’ trauma history and child victimization for children aged 4–17. Results indicated caregivers’ trauma history and negative parenting behaviors related to child victimization, and negative parenting behaviors mediated this relation. Positive parenting behaviors did not have significant direct effects and were not mediators of risk transmission. Parenting behaviors did not moderate the relation between caregiver and child victimization, suggesting parenting behaviors may not buffer or exacerbate intergenerational transmission. Post-hoc analyses revealed family type (e.g., single, cohabitating/married) exerted significant direct and moderating effects on child risk, interacting with positive parenting. Families with married/cohabitating caregivers reported overall lower levels of child victimization; however, the relation between positive parenting and victimization was slightly stronger for children in single-parent families. Results highlight potential pathways of the intergenerational cycle of victimization and suggest high-risk families in Peru may benefit from parenting supports, especially pertaining to remediation of negative parenting behaviors.
The monitoring of the populations’ iodine status is an essential part of successful programmes of iodine deficiency elimination. The current study aimed at the evaluation of current iodine nutrition in school children, pregnant and lactating women as a marker of the effectiveness and sustainability of mandatory iodine prophylaxis in Poland.
The following iodine nutrition indicators were used: urinary iodine concentration (UIC) (all participants) and serum thyroglobulin (pregnant and lactating women).
The study was conducted in 2017 within the National Health Programme in five regions of Poland.
The research included 300 pregnant women, 100 lactating women and 1000 school children (aged 6–12 years).
In pregnant women, median UIC was 111·6 µg/l; there was no significant difference in median UIC according to the region of residence. In 8 % of pregnant women, thyroglobulin level was >40 ng/ml (median thyroglobulin 13·3 ng/ml). In lactating women, median UIC was 68·0 µg/l. A significant inter-regional difference was noted (P = 0·0143). In 18 % of breastfeeding women, thyroglobulin level was >40 ng/ml (median thyroglobulin 18·5 ng/ml). According to the WHO criteria, the investigated sample of pregnant and lactating women was iodine-deficient. Median UIC in school children was 119·8 µg/l (with significant inter-regional variation; P = 0·0000), which is consistent with iodine sufficiency. Ninety-four children (9·4 %) had UIC < 50 µg/l.
Mandatory iodisation of household salt in Poland has led to a sustainable optimisation of iodine status in the general population. However, it has failed to assure adequate iodine nutrition during pregnancy and lactation.
Chapter 6 explores the relation between scale and particularism, defined as targeted efforts by politicians to cultivate the support of specific citizens or groups of citizens (aka clients), and the allegiance of those citizens to their leader (aka patron). We begin by sketching a theory of how scale might impact particularism, arguing that scale affects the efficiency of particularistic strategies, politicians’ opportunities to monitor compliance, mutual feelings of obligation between patron and client, and opposition to particularistic politics. On the basis of these assumptions, we expect higher levels of particularism in smaller communities. Next, we examine the question empirically using a variety of indicators including partisanship, targeted campaign expenditures, pork or earmarks, constituency service, vote-buying, clientelism, and corruption. Our analysis tends to confirm the notion that smaller polities, and smaller districts, are especially prone to the development of particularistic ties between leaders and their constituents. We however do not regard extant studies of size and corruption as dispositive. A brief conclusion draws together the results of these analyses.