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Chapter 5 examines the shifting landscape of the legal precedents controlling the use of race-conscious admissions policies in higher education. It begins with an in-depth examination of Bakke, which allowed such admissions policies for the sole purpose of pursuing the educational benefits of diversity. The chapter then traces the applications of Justice Powell’s framework announced in Bakke, and includes analyses of Grutter, Gratz, Fisher I, and Fisher II. Taken together, these cases reveal a tenuous adoption of Justice Powell’s approach which serves to prevent a robust pursuit of diversity and racial equity in higher education. The chapter features a discussion of recent ballot measures banning the use of race-conscious admisssions policies in certain states. The Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of these measures in Schutte. The chapter concludes with an examination of Justice Sotomayor’s thought-provoking dissent in Schutte as well as a summary of the proven neuroscientific benefits of a diverse learning environment.
Recent advances in nucleic acid extraction and sequencing have changed and expanded our understanding of the diversity of life in the terrestrial and marine subsurface. This chapter highlights recent developments in sequencing genetic material from the deep biosphere (spurred in part by the Census of Deep Life) and new bioinformatics approaches to present a synthesis of our current understanding of the biogeography of life in the deep biosphere. Building from this data framework, this chapter also explores emerging trends in understanding the ecology and evolution of subsurface life.
Mobility or physical movement contributes to health and wellbeing in later life. Most studies have focused on the contribution of outdoor mobility to active ageing, but physical and cognitive impairments restrict the mobility of many older adults. This article aims to explore the gaps in the current literature on mobility in later life, and identify required innovations in the field through laying out key areas for future research. It discusses two, largely separate, areas of research, namely on mobility patterns and mobility experiences. The first focuses on quantitative and spatial research on outdoor mobility patterns in terms of routes, timing and transport modes. The second mainly concerns qualitative research on how older adults perceive mobility in their everyday lives. This article identifies three areas for future research on mobility in later life: (a) beyond outdoor movement; (b) diversity in mobility; and (c) the role of time in mobility. To conclude, addressing these areas jointly will contribute to further unpacking the concept of mobility as meaningful practice and to integrating quantitative and qualitative methods when studying mobility in later life. This will result in policy inputs on the mobility and wellbeing of our ageing population.
Current debates about decolonisation and diversification raise practical issues for librarians. The Bodleian Law Library is engaging with these challenges, in co-operation with the Oxford Law Faculty, the wider Bodleian Library and the collegiate university. This article by Margaret Watson describes how the Library is taking a fresh look at its collections and their organisation, with a view to acquiring, revealing and collocating material that might otherwise by overlooked.
The rocky shores of New Zealand (NZ) and Australia provide many interesting comparisons in their intertidal species and structuring processes. Both countries are in the biogeographic realm of temperate Australasia and share many common species and closely related taxa. Here we review similarities and contrasts in communities and structuring processes, especially involving grazing invertebrates and macroalgae. We consider the similarity of the structure of intertidal shores of NZ and south-eastern Australia, a suite of important trophic interactions within and between regions, the utility of local-scale experiments in understanding large-scale processes and how we might better plan for and manage our coasts. The major comparisons are between warm-temperate areas of northern NZ and New South Wales, and the cooler areas of southern NZ and south-eastern Australia. In the quest for ‘ecosystem’-level understanding, which perforce involves large-scale events, there is an increasing tendency to minimise or ignore the hard-won insights gained from well-structured experiments across multiple sites. Because all large-scale effects must be manifested at local sites, it is incumbent on us to determine what scales up or down, and the caveats that make comparisons across biogeographic regions challenging. Here, we discuss these issues using austral shores as models.
The first time Walt Whitman ever left the New York area and experienced the wide-open countryside of the United States in the late 1840s, he did so with the objective of arriving in New Orleans, where he lived and worked for three months for a newspaper. The rumor that Whitman had a child out of wedlock in New Orleans first took hold and held sway among the poet’s readers as the earliest iterations of the legend of his life took shape. Even more importantly, Whitman experienced in New Orleans such an extraordinary diversity of peoples mingling on the streets that he began to devise a new aesthetic of urban democracy, of strangers from radically different worlds mingling if only for a moment on crowded streets, a vision that would shape his poetry ever after and become a towering monument in American poetry in general.
The undocumented youth movement is diverse in terms of race, ethnicity, and immigration status. I argue that racial and immigration status diversity has a direct impact on the movement's ability to “expand the scope of conflict,” that is to say recruiting new members, reaching out to elected officials, and establishing representative leadership—elements that are critical to the sustainability and effectiveness of a movement. Findings also indicate that immigration status diversity plays a complex role. The presence of citizen allies brings both risks and benefits to the movement, as they reinforce the electoral connection sought by elected officials while at the same time jeopardizing the authenticity of the movement. Results are based on field research conducted between 2012 and 2015 in NJ and NY, including participant observation in state-level campaigns and interviews with over 130 immigrant youths, allies, and elected officials. This article contributes to the social movement literature by providing empirical evidence of the challenges present within diverse coalitions. It addresses the question of immigration status diversity, an issue that affects the immigration movement but speaks more broadly to the role of allies in social movements.
Mary Ann Glendon is a prolific and broad-ranging scholar who has also made important forays into public service on behalf of the United States and the Holy See. Her scholarly work can be best understood not as the systematic development or application of a particular jurisprudential school of thought, but rather as the painstaking work of pursuing a series of insights into the transitions to be made in law and in society, across a broad range of discrete topics, around the turn of the twenty-first century. Certain persistent and coherent themes have animated and united her work, especially ideas that resonate deeply with Catholic social thought. Across her scholarly writing on labor and property law, family law, the legal profession, constitutional law, and international human rights, she has remained persistently concerned with the role and importance of mediating institutions of civil society, especially families, with the systemic relationships between law and society, and with the unique importance of comparative methods to help arrive at a sound balance between universal ideals of justice, liberty, and dignity, on the one hand, and the value of the diversity and particularity of local communities, on the other.
To determine whether neighbourhood supermarket and convenience store availability and broader built environment context are associated with food purchasing behaviour in a national population.
We used observational data to perform a cross-sectional study of food purchases for US households in 2010. We used three-level mixed-effect regression models to determine whether the associations between the number of neighbourhood supermarkets and convenience stores and the self-reported annual household expenditures for fruits and vegetables were affected by regional destination accessibility, neighbourhood destination diversity, availability of neighbourhood destinations and neighbourhood street connectivity.
Metropolitan statistical areas (n 378) in the USA.
Households (n 22 448).
When we controlled for broader built environment context, there was no significant association between availability of neighbourhood supermarkets and expenditures on fruits and vegetables; instead, we observed an inverse association between the number of convenience stores and expenditures for fruits (P = 0·001). The broader built environment context was associated with food purchase, although the magnitude was small: (i) higher regional destination accessibility was associated with higher expenditures for fruits (P < 0·001); (ii) higher neighbourhood destination diversity was associated with lower expenditures for vegetables (P = 0·002); and (iii) higher neighbourhood street connectivity was associated with higher expenditures for fruits (P < 0·001).
The broader built environment factors contributed to understanding how people use neighbourhood food stores. However, there was only a small relationship between the broader environment context and fruit and vegetable expenditures. Policy interventions that focus exclusively on increasing the availability of neighbourhood supermarkets likely will not promote fruit and vegetable consumption.
As the number of older immigrants in Europe rises, dementia within minority ethnic populations warrants attention as a significant public health problem. Equitable health and care services constitute a prioritised health policy aim on both supranational and national levels in Europe and is formulated in the Norwegian health legislation. Through interviews and focus groups with older immigrants, relatives of immigrants with dementia and health personnel, we explored the perceptions of dementia among ethnically diverse groups in Norway. The findings show that many interpret symptoms such as memory loss and disorientation as a natural part of ageing. Others consider dementia symptoms to have a psycho-social origin, deriving from social isolation. Some describe symptoms as an expression of a potentially transient sign of madness, while others point to destiny and God's will, representing basic and unalterable causes. However, another pattern of perception includes viewing dementia as a potentially transient physical illness, including a belief in a medical cure. By investigating how people with dementia and their families understand and manage the condition, one may facilitate access to relevant and adapted information. Furthermore, by exploring how people relate to their illness, health personnel may challenge explanatory models that create unrealistic expectations of cure, as well as models that, due to stigma or normalisation of symptoms, prevent the use of public care.
Inclusive approaches to archaeology (including queer, feminist, black, indigenous, etc. perspectives) have increasingly intersected with coding, maker, and hacker cultures to develop a uniquely ‘Do-It-Yourself’ style of disruption and activism. Digital technology provides opportunities to challenge conventional representations of people past and present in creative ways, but at what cost? As a critical appraisal of transhumanism and the era of digital scholarship, this article outlines compelling applications in inclusive digital practice but also the pervasive structures of privilege, inequity, inaccessibility, and abuse that are facilitated by open, web-based heritage projects. In particular, it evaluates possible means of creating a balance between individual-focused translational storytelling and public profiles, and the personal and professional risks that accompany these approaches, with efforts to foster, support, and protect traditionally marginalized archaeologists and communities.
Genebanks offer vast amounts of traditional germplasm with potential sources of novel genes against biotic and abiotic stresses. In order to utilize the germplasm in rice breeding programmes, there should be a fast screening approach such as the use of molecular markers. Thus, the current study aimed to evaluate the use of tsv1 resistance-linked simple sequence repeat markers (SSR) for the preliminary screening of Philippine traditional rice germplasm against rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV). The tsv1 resistance-linked SSR markers consisted of two to four repeat motifs with 5–24 base repeats. Expected sizes ranged from 123 to 465 base pairs (bp) with polymorphism information content ranging from 0.23 to 0.73. Genetic analysis showed six major clusters at 50%: Clusters A, B and C had individual accessions, Cluster D had three accessions, Cluster E had 55 and Cluster F had 42 accessions. The study showed the germplasm with alleles linked to tsv1 but should be validated in the future with induced screening. In general, the material consisted of selected germplasm showing the presence of alleles linked to the tsv1 gene. These rice accessions could be a source of resistance to RTSV following further validation. Furthermore, molecular markers provide a useful tool to accelerate the screening of genetic resources for biotic and abiotic stress tolerance.
GenomeAsia100K is a human genome project based at Nanyang Technological University in Singapore that aims to sequence one hundred thousand Asian genomes in an effort that addresses an ethnic bias towards Western populations in previous genomic research. GenomeAsia100K consists of a team of bioinformaticians, statisticians and population geneticists, and was initiated by the Nanyang Technological University in collaboration with industrial partners MedGenome (an Indian R&D company specializing in genomic data) and the California Biotech company Genentech. The GenomeAsia100K project is amongst the most ambitious precision medicine projects to date but it is not clear how the project will challenge or reshape understandings of ethnic and racial differences in Asian populations. Ian McGonigle, a scientist and cultural anthropologist, sat down with geneticist Stephan C. Schuster, the scientific chairman of GenomeAsia100K, to discuss the project and the implications of genomics for social identity in the 21st century.
Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important grain legume nutritionally balanced for human consumption. The physical properties of chickpea seeds are important for processing and storage as well as for assessing seed quality and the hydration properties related to cooking quality. The chickpea mini core collection (211 accessions) and four control cultivars were evaluated for seed morphological (seed colour, shape, dots on seed coat and surface texture); physical (seed moisture content, 100-seed weight, seed coat content, length, width, thickness, geometric mean diameter (GMD), surface area, sphericity, shape aspect, volume, bulk density, true density and porosity); and hydration traits (hydration capacity, hydration index, swelling capacity and swelling index). Highly significant differences were observed for all the seed traits in the mini core collection. Correlation coefficients indicated that accessions with high or more seed weight, GMD, sphericity, seed shape aspect, swelling capacity and swelling index would be useful for utilization in research. The results of this study have refined the seed traits of chickpea and resulted in identifying several desirable accessions in the mini core. Some of these accessions were previously identified as promising sources for important agronomic and nutritional traits and for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses and will be useful sources to develop high-yielding cultivars with desirable seed physical and hydration quality.
In eastern deciduous forests of North America, invasive shrubs are increasing in richness and abundance at the expense of native species across taxa. Invasive shrubs create an understory that is more dense than both recent and historical preinvasion conditions. Interest in invasive shrub removal to restore native habitat is growing, but our understanding of natural regeneration following treatment of a diverse invasive shrub community is lagging. Using an invasive shrub removal experiment, we provide insight into the effect of repeated removal of a suite of 18 invasive shrub species dominated by border privet (Ligustrum obtusifolium Siebold & Zucc.). In 2009, invasive shrubs were removed from five 20-m-diameter treatment plots, each with a paired control plot. Seven years later, we find an increase in plant diversity, native understory species abundance, and overstory tree species regeneration for individuals under a meter in height. For plants 1 to 4 m in height, the removal treatment has a positive effect on understory woody species, but there has been no change in regenerating overstory trees. A lack of overstory tree regeneration to greater heights is not surprising, given the time frame and the closed-canopy conditions. However, other factors, such as white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann) browse, could be serving as an impediment to taller tree regeneration in the forest understory. An ambient sampling approach in unmanaged, invaded, and uninvaded forest has been used in other studies to estimate the potential impacts of invasive shrub species to native plant communities. However, in this study the ambient sampling approach underestimated the impacts of invasive shrubs compared to their experimental removal. Overall, invasive shrub removal increased plant diversity and allowed passive natural regeneration of native plants that exceeded native cover in the unmanaged, ambient forest under minimal invasive shrub abundance.