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We give a review of all published Palaeogene snake taxa from all localities worldwide. Several conceptual and material advances in the past two decades—a focus on apomo+P31rphies, greater attention to variation, quantification of morphology, and new fossil discoveries—have vivified the fossil record. Particularly noteworthy have been new fossils from Gondwanan continents and complete, articulated skeletons. Species known only from vertebrae are unlikely to be placed precisely phylogenetically, but a high number of vertebrae is a strong indication that cranial remains are present, which in turn allow more precise phylogenetic placement. Extrapolations of snake palaeodiversity are of the same order of magnitude as rough calculations of cumulative lineage diversity in the Palaeogene, raising the prospect that palaeontological morphospecies may more closely approximate biological species than is commonly conceived. As their interrelationships become better known, Palaeogene fossils will increasingly help elucidate the early evolution of snakes.
Democracy, sovereignty, citizenship, and the rule of law are foundational yet contested concepts. Their foundational role has been extensively discussed with reference to modern nation-states and global order, and their contested quality has come to the fore through norm contestation. This chapter suggests that contestation’s move into the limelight represents an opportunity to address the future of democracies. It argues that first, norm contestedness is expected due to its value- and practice-based roots. Second, contestedness has implications for everyday norm-use and academic norm-conceptualization. This chapter conceives norms and their multiple contestations as the constitutive ‘glue’ of global ordering rather than as a ‘means’ towards implementing governance rules. This chapter identifies a conceptual gap between state-negotiated norms of global governance and societal contestation of norms. It recalls Tully’s ‘Unfreedom of the Moderns’ claim and the central role of agonism in including the multitude of affected stakeholders in establishing norms of governance. Using the cycle-grid model, this chapter frames democracy from below.
This chapter shows versatility in career options for psychology master’s and doctoral degree holders. It describes overall employment patterns in the field of psychology, such as top occupations, work activities, and the degree of relatedness of the job to psychology. It also provides information about major workforce segments, including health service psychologists and those working in academia. A section on “essential” skills gives examples of skills critical to the successful performance of all jobs. The chapter also examines demographic characteristics with special attention to shifting trends that position psychology to better respond to population needs and characteristics of early career psychologists. Possible future trends are highlighted, including a greater role for technology, the use of applied psychology to inform real-world issues, and opportunities to address equity. The chapter concludes with resources and recommendations to engage in one’s own career exploration journey.
Pablo Ouziel offers his reflections on the Workshop and volume. He describes the development of some of the main themes. Next, he presents six distinct types of working relationships among democratic citizens that he first developed in his research with citizens involved in Spain’s 15M movement. Then, he shows the presence of these six ‘joining hands’ relationships in the various chapters. This exercise enables us see how the diverse democratic citizens of each and every chapter can work together in context-specific, integrative relationships of democratic cooperation and contestation. As the chapter illustrates these relationships of democratic “joining hands” or integration are not only possible, but actual, here and now, in the local and global field of democratic diversity. The further growth of these action-coordination relationships has the potential to generate and integrate robust democracies with the capacity to respond to our ecosocial crises and co-create a sustainable, democratic future.
This chapter explores how we might, by our practice, give more vigor to the democratic aspiration that a people should rule themselves. It does so in two steps. First, it examines the form of governance of the Gitxsan people, a First Nation of northern British Columbia. The traditional governance of the Gitxsan, like that of most Indigenous peoples, is not organized in the manner of a state. The nature of Gitxsan members’ attachment to their legal and political order is not masked, then, by the heavy institutionalization of a state, and the characteristics of their adherence can be perceived and weighed more easily. Second, the chapter reflects upon how a similar quality of adherence might be achieved within state-structured polities. In short, this chapter uses the Gitxsan comparison to seek more precision in how we ought to understand citizens’ attachment to – their “consent” to – their legal and political order, and it suggests practical steps that might promote that end in contemporary states.
This chapter studies the balancing entrenched in unique national rules of the Member States. Those national balancing tools bear significantly on balancing in the decentralised enforcement era, during which almost 90 per cent of Article 101 TFEU enforcement actions have taken place in front of NCAs. This chapter highlights the doubts about the compatibility of those national tools with EU competition law, a topic that has been largely overlooked by legal scholarship.
The tempered radical enjoys their work and is committed to their organisation. Yet, something important to them, like their values or identity, makes them feel different from their workplace's dominant culture. This sense of difference, and their tempered approach to radical change, allow them to work unnoticed in organisations as invisible champions of inclusion. This study examines how tempered radicals use their abilities as change agents to foster inclusion. It takes advantage of manufacturing industries' highly collaborative, richly diverse and rapidly changing employment environment. Drawing participants from all organisational levels demonstrates the broad influence of the tempered radical. Twenty-four qualitative interviews were conducted using a narrative inquiry methodology and interpreted through thematic analysis. This study builds on current theory and makes a valuable contribution by proposing a framework to illustrate the key characteristics of the tempered radical incorporating inclusion in the workplace.
The issue of cultural relativism has been a major one for theorists of human rights. Arguments about cultural difference represent perhaps the strongest criticisms of the idea of human rights, and for many they are the most difficult to deal with (Brown 1999, 2020). This is especially true for social workers from Western traditions, who are generally aware of the role of the West in colonising other world-views and who wish to value cultural diversity. This results in Western social workers (among many others) feeling somewhat guilty about supporting something called ‘human rights’ and being particularly susceptible to the criticisms of human rights as a Western concept and therefore somehow not to be trusted. The aim of this chapter is to explore this difficult area, with a view to developing an approach to human rights that overcomes these dilemmas. Herein lies the key to dealing with cultural difference: the capacity to look critically at all cultural traditions is contextualised differently in different cultures, and to see that human rights violations and the struggle for human rights occur in all cultural contexts.
This chapter is about the relationship between needs and rights, and what that means for social work practice. Social workers can be regarded as professional need-definers. They are constantly in the process of identifying, and then trying to meet, human needs, as described back in 1945 by Charlotte Towle (Towle 1987). Scarcely a day would pass in any social worker’s life when the word ‘need’ is not used on dozens of occasions. Social workers do ‘needs assessments’, talk about the needs of individuals, of families, of client groups (e.g. the aged), of communities, of agencies, of service delivery systems (e.g. the health care system) and of the whole society (e.g. the need for a better income security system). Social workers talk about ‘unmet need’, ‘needing more resources’, ‘doing a needs survey’, ‘needing more social workers’ and ‘needing supervision’. ‘Need’ is one of the most commonly used words in the social work vocabulary, and it is significant that more often than not it is used, in the words of Noel and Rita Timms, ‘in the absence of any deep sense of puzzlement about the concept’ (Timms & Timms 1977: 141).
How can we judiciously tell the many continuous, discontinuous, overlapping, persistent, and simultaneous, tales that constitute German history? Taking as an example James J. Sheehan’s engagement with the question: “what is German history?”, the introduction argues that the conceit inherent in the question is the belief that a unitary history must exist, even when the decades of scholarship Sheehan inspired indicated that it does not. In actuality, German history can only ever be regarded as an aggregate of Germans’ histories, and it is critical that we begin by recognizing that a great many of the people who lived those histories did so without regarding difference and unity as antinomies or hybridities as problems. Adopting that position has a number of advantages. It not only allows us to better understand the actions of the great variety of people who thought of themselves and were regarded by others as German during the modern era, it also helps us to gain a better understanding of the roles Germans and German things have played in the history of the modern world.
A first shock of the Paradiso is to discover that it has difference, diversity and degrees. Dante questions Piccarda, the lovely sister of his childhood pal, as to whether she doesn’t yearn to have a more exalted station and to be friends with people in higher places. Her response is that the virtue of charity quiets their will so that they do not want anything other than what they have. Since Piccarda was taken against her will by her powerful brother’s henchmen from the convent where she had wanted to sleep and wake with Christ her whole life, and forced into a marriage she did not want, her acquiescence to the will of others seems to endure even in heaven. Yet appeasement in the face of violent threats turns out to be the opposite of resting in the truth of one’s own particular capacity for goodness, in a spectrum of possible goodness that soars way over our heads.
In this chapter we address structural (long-term) factors that may affect the fate of regimes across the world in the modern era. This includes geography (e.g., climate, soil, topography, and waterways), Islam, European influence (via colonialism, religion, language, and demography), population, and diversity (ethnic, linguistic, or religious).
This chapter focuses on the institutionalization and professionalization of preservation and representation of the material past in the present. Museums, government agencies, preservation organizations, and various social and community groups collect, conserve, interpret, and present material culture of their own and of others’ past. Questions surrounding values, meanings, authority, ownership, and stewardship are examined.
This chapter explores the cleaners’ relationships and interactions within their microcosm. It examines how cleaners show little interest in defining themselves as one group and articulating common interests. Friendships and coalitions as well as divisions and strife characterize the cleaners’ microcosm. Cleaners form alliances and divisions as they seek to establish a status hierarchy, by creating and enforcing markers of difference. These markers range from age, gender and ethnicity to fashion, cultural tastes and educational backgrounds. Some are subtle, some are stark. But despite these differentiations, a sense of equivalence persists, posing a threat to any sense of specialness. It is a negative equivalence of belonging to a stigmatized group of “anyones”. Cleaners wish to believe that their work and their presence are on some level unique and valued as such, that they are not interchangeable and replaceable; and to fortify their sense of worth they resort to the creation and enforcement of status hierarchies. Such constructions all too often rest on the most fragile of foundations, and the risk of collapse plays no small role in cleaners’ dramas of dignity.
This final chapter uses the shift metaphor to suggest that change might be limited if not explicitly anti-racist. In the absence of this consciousness, a shift can be sidewards rather than forwards. I argue that empirical studies in EU law can only take a shift forwards when the principle and practice of decolonialism is embedded in it. This requires recognition of Europe's colonial past as well as racism in the present. The assumption that all Europeans are White, and all Blacks are migrants has to be debunked – Black European scholars need to be encouraged to take their place in the field and given access to resources to ensure that empirical research in EU law also focuses on experiences important to their lives.
Culture can mean several things when referring to a group: identity, values, goals, principles. Culture can be defined from the inside or outside – how is your group viewed by others, either at your institution or outside? Is your group viewed as “functional,” in which the members get along with each other, work as a team, and accomplish important goals? Or does it carry a reputation of being a “difficult place to work”? Usually a culture is a mix, some elements hardworking and driven, some supportive and nurturing. This chapter talks directly about how to develop a positive culture for your group, and how to be explicit in the process. It starts with recognizing and acknowledging the elements of your core identity as a group – what are your guiding values and behaviors? It dives into the difference between acceptable behaviors that can stimulate the group and be positively provocative, versus those that can be negative, destructive, and unacceptable, and how to deal with them when they occur. It describes the principle of accountability and how all group members are responsible for the overall health of the group. It discusses how to handle difficult interpersonal interactions once they’ve taken place, and how to reset the team after a negative culture event. It reminds the reader of the importance of embracing diversity, that differing opinions are necessary and important, but negativity and destructive behavior is never helpful.
Retraces how Cassirer transforms Kant’s transcendental philosophy into a philosophy of culture in The Philosophy of Symbolic Forms. First, Cassirer abandons Kant’s notion of the category and instead models his conception of the symbol on the schema from The Critique of Judgment (2.1). Second, he understands such symbols as constituting not only the theoretical, practical, and aesthetic sphere, but all cultural domains, including myth, language, and the human sciences (2.2). This forces Cassirer to adopt two conceptions of objectivity: a constitutive conception that pertains to each cultural domain (or ‘symbolic forms’) and a regulative conception that befits human culture as a whole (2.3).
In medicine, the goals are different based on the individual group; thus, establishing the vision and goals for your group is essential, so that they know the scope, steps, and potential obstacles. All too often, teams are left to make assumptions as to what the goals are; this leads to uncertainty, questioning, and a lack of faith or trust in you as a leader. Setting the goals, and reminding people of them periodically, will help keep your group oriented and focused. This chapter focuses on how to assemble a well-running team, whether you need to get to know who is on it already or if you’re assembling it from scratch. It dives into how to gain a better understanding of your team members, what motivates them, and their potential strengths and weaknesses. It also goes into how to identify the personality traits that may make them a more or less effective team member. We describe the great importance of diversity for your team, as it is a key source for innovation, creativity, and perspective. It discusses the importance of midlevel leadership and when it is necessary. Mentorship is discussed in detail, as a key component to the development of your group members. Principles of recruiting and retaining good group members are reviewed, as well as operating principles for your team.
This chapter describes how to continue to develop as a leader. Great leadership is not something you ever really attain, but something you are constantly striving toward. Innovation and creativity help nurture your leadership potential; resting on your laurels leads to complacency and stale leadership. As with all things, this does not come without some work and introspection. Introspection is the work, and most leaders fail to develop because they’re unwilling or unable to take the extra steps to examine themselves and their group deeply, find out what’s working and what’s not, and come up with fixes. We discuss the importance of getting evaluations and feedback on your performance as a leader, and how to incorporate that feedback in a healthy manner. We discuss the importance of availability and accessibility. We talk about the importance of leading by example, “walking the walk.” We go into the importance of clear, concise, and honest messaging, as well as embracing change and learning from your mistakes. We reemphasize the importance of diversity and conclude with some core principles and values.
A detailed study of rice genetic resources in Bangladesh's coastal areas is necessary. This understanding is a necessary requirement for its utilization in selective breeding. The study reports on the qualitative morphological trait-based assessment of 150 local rice samples collected from Bangladesh's coastal zone, including 50 advanced lines developed from coastal germplasm. Six of the thirteen analysed characters had a substantial gene contribution, whereas the average was 0.694. The most impressive diversity was in leaf blade intensity of green colour (LBIGC: 0.705). The total morpho-qualitative diversity was calculated to be 0.412. The character efficiency content ranged from 0.655 (LBIGC) to 0.136 (Leaf Sheath: Anthocyanin colouration, Leaf Blade: Presence/Absence, and Leaf Blade: Anthocyanin. Colouration). As per the morphological variance study, 93% of morphological changes were detected within individuals, whereas 7% were found in populations. The 150 germplasm samples were divided into four subpopulations using STRUCTURE-based population analysis. A moderate genotypic difference was detected amongst all groups, with an Fst value of 0.111. The G statistic backed up the record as well. The Shannon mutual information index reached a value of 1.252 between populations 2 and 3. In terms of gene exchange, the highest value was found between populations 3 and 4. Our data indicate a high degree of diversity in Bangladesh's coastline rice germplasm. The findings will aid in conferring the farmers' Intellectual Property Rights on the investigated rice germplasm.