To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Until recently, Descartes’ idea that the human mind is, by definition, a non-extended entity, enclosed in the body but constitutionally different from common bodily and external realities, found wide acceptance among students of cognitive sciences. But in the past few years the barriers between outer and inner worlds have begun to blur, projecting the process of cognition as a complex distributed phenomenon. The case of Lucretius and Epicurean philosophy discussed in this paper aims to show that the narrow fortress of the knowing self is not as ancient as some present-day theorists are inclined to think, and that the very concept of distributed cognition, broadly construed, has a history of its own with deep roots in Greco-Roman physiology. Lucretius’ poem provides especially compelling evidence that, on the one hand, Epicurean epistemology conceives of cognition as a material process extended across the borders of atomic bodies, and that, on the other hand, true knowledge can be achieved only through cooperative didactic techniques. Standing at the crossroads between poetry and philosophy, Lucretius’ didactic method tries to involve the addressee (both intellectually and emotionally) in the cooperative construction of an internalized cognitive artefact: the image of the atomic cosmos, faithfully reflected in the text.
Jean de Meun introduces learned words into French or participates in their diffusion. One of these neologisms is worthy of attention: fantasie, which twice occurs in the romance in significant ways as well as two occurrences of sen commun. Inasmuch as it is an imaginative faculty, fantasie points to the influence of Aristotle’s De anima and commentaries on it by Aquinas and Avicenna, among other works in the same tradition. This mediating faculty between perception and knowledge, between body and soul, leads to a physio-psychology that produces both epistemological reflection and a conception of poetic language and literary theory. I will attempt to read the visual experiences evoked by Jean de Meun through a lexical approach to assess the role of fantasie in relation to knowledge, erotic experience, and allegorical fiction: if Jean de Meun seems to align fantasie with the errors of the senses and of pathology, he simultaneously puts faith in human cognitive faculties, describing human knowledge more broadly in terms of the cognitive processes of vision and optics. The writer thus emerges as a producer of images, while the reader is called upon to evaluate and interpret this visual language.
It is a given that Jean de Meun, like many other medieval authors of vernacular works received a university training in philosophy. This chapter’s aim is to reconstruct Jean de Meun’s implicit epistemology, i.e. to identify how the classic concepts of medieval epistemology are mobilised to give an account of the cognitive phenomena that are treated by the Rose’s different protagonists. Insofar as Jean subscribes to a classically Aristotelian framework marked by the difficulty of getting to grips with belief, particular importance will be given to the analysis of uncertain cognitive phenomena, especially in its anthropological dimensions, focusing notably on the famous passage concerning Dame Habonde. The aim of these analyses, finally, is to determine if Jean’s writing strategies are, in one way or another, linked to his epistemological choices.
Survivors of childhood brain tumors experience neurological sequelae that disrupt everyday adaptive functioning (AF) skills. The Neurological Predictor Scale (NPS), a cumulative measure of tumor treatments and sequelae, predicts cognitive outcomes, but findings on its relation to informant-reported executive dysfunction (ED) and AF are mixed. Given known effects of frontal-subcortical system disruptions on AF, this study assessed the NPS’ relationship with AF as mediated by frontal systems dysfunction, measured by the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe).
75 participants (Mage = 23.5, SDage = 4.5) were young adult survivors of childhood brain tumors at least 5 years past diagnosis. FrSBe and Scales of Independent Behavior-Revised (SIB-R), a measure of AF, were administered to informants. Parallel multiple mediator models included Apathy and ED as mediators, and age at diagnosis and time between diagnosis and assessment as covariates.
More complex treatment and sequelae were correlated with poorer functioning. Mediation models were significant for all subscales: Motor Skills (MS), p = .0001; Social Communication (SC), p = .002; Personal Living (PL), p = .004; Community Living (CL), p = .007. The indirect effect of ED on SC and CL was significant; the indirect effect of Apathy was not significant for any subscales.
More complex tumor treatment and sequelae were associated with poorer long-term AF via increased ED. Cognitive rehabilitation programs may focus on the role of executive function and initiation that contribute to AF, particularly SC and CL skills, to help survivors achieve comparable levels of independence in everyday function as their peers.
Sleep deprivation is common among both college students and athletes and has been correlated with negative health outcomes, including worse cognition. As such, the current study sought to examine the relationship between sleep difficulties and self-reported symptoms and objective neuropsychological performance at baseline and post-concussion in collegiate athletes.
Seven hundred seventy-two collegiate athletes completed a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery at baseline and/or post-concussion. Athletes were separated into two groups based on the amount of sleep the night prior to testing. The sleep duration cutoffs for these group were empirically determined by sample mean and standard deviation (M = 7.07, SD = 1.29).
Compared with athletes getting sufficient sleep, those getting insufficient sleep the night prior to baseline reported significantly more overall symptoms and more symptoms from each of the five symptom clusters of the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale. However, there were no significant differences on objective performance indices. Secondly, there were no significant differences on any of the outcome measures, except for sleep symptoms and headache, between athletes getting insufficient sleep at baseline and those getting sufficient sleep post-concussion.
Overall, the effect of insufficient sleep at baseline can make an athlete appear similar to a concussed athlete with sufficient sleep. As such, athletes completing a baseline assessment following insufficient sleep could be underperforming cognitively and reporting elevated symptoms that would skew post-concussion comparisons. Therefore, there may need to be consideration of prior night’s sleep when determining whether a baseline can be used as a valid comparison.
Research using single-word paradigms has established that forced language switching incurs processing costs for some bilinguals, yet, less research has addressed this phenomenon at the utterance level or considered real-world applications. The current study examined the impacts of forced language switching on spoken output and stress using a simulated virtual meeting. Twenty Spanish–English heritage bilinguals responded to general work-oriented questions in monolingual English (control) or language-switching (experimental) conditions. Responses were analyzed for mean length of utterance (MLU) and type-token-ratio (TTR). Multilevel modeling revealed an interaction effect of Condition (control vs. experimental) and question order on MLU, such that participants in the experimental condition produced significantly shorter utterances by the end of the task. Participants also had significantly lower lexical variation (TTR) overall in the experimental than the control condition. A 2 × 2 ANOVA revealed a significant effect of Condition and an interaction of Task (pre- vs. posttask) and Condition, such that participants in the control condition reported significantly lower stress after the activity. Results demonstrated the impact of a forced switching condition on production at the utterance level. Findings have implications for theory and scenarios in which heritage bilinguals are asked to use multiple languages in the workplace.
To date, there is a controversy on effects of cognitive intervention to maintain or improve hippocampal function for older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI).
The main objective of this study was to exam effects of virtual reality-based spatial cognitive training (VR-SCT) using VR on hippocampal function of older adults with MCI.
Fifty-six older adults with MCI were randomly allocated to the experimental group (EG) that received the VR-SCT or the waitlist control group (CG) for a total of 24 sessions. To investigate effects of the VR-SCT on spatial cognition and episodic memory, the Weschsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised Block Design Test (WAIS-BDT) and the Seoul Verbal Learning Test (SVLT) were used.
During the sessions, the training performances gradually increased (p < .001). After the intervention, the EG showed significant greater improvements in the WAIS-BDT (p < .001, η2 = .667) and recall of the SVLT (p < .05, η2 =.094) compared to the CG but in recognition of the SVLT (p > .05, η2 =.001).
These results suggest that the VR-SCT might be clinically beneficial to enhance spatial cognition and episodic memory of older adults with MCI.
Almeida-Meza et al found an inverse correlation between cognitive reserve (associated with educational level, complexity of occupations and leisure activities) and dementia incidence. We suggest clarifying studies using their data-set and consider what can be done to modify socioeconomic inequalities that affect cognitive reserve or to slow early dementia.
Associations between dietary factors and general cognition in the elderly have been documented; however, little is known about reaction time ability in relation to midlife diet. This study aimed to investigate associations between reaction time and midlife dietary factors, specifically foods, nutrients, and Mediterranean diet (MeDi) pattern. The UK Women’s Cohort Study UKWCS collected dietary information from middle-aged women (52 ± 9.4 years old) using a validated 217-item food frequency questionnaire in 1995-98. In 2010-11, a sub-group of 664 participants completed online reaction time ability tests including simple reaction time and choice reaction time, 503 participants were eligible for analysis. Participants were grouped into fast and slow groups by their median reaction time. The intake of particular foods, nutrients, adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MeDi) and cooking methods (roasting/baking, frying, and BBQ/grilling) were explored in relation to reaction times. We did not find any significant associations between reaction times and investigated foods, nutrients, or adherence to the MeDi in adjusted models. However, consumers of roasted/baked fish and fried vegetables were associated with slower simple reaction time (adjusted OR=1.46, 95% CI, 1.00 - 2.13, P=0.049; and adjusted OR=1.64, 95% CI, 1.12 - 2.39, P=0.010; respectively) compared with non-consumers of that particularly cooked food. Overall, our findings show no significant associations between midlife diet and reaction time ability 10-15 years later.
Cognitive deficits affect a significant proportion of patients with bipolar disorder (BD). Problems with sustained attention have been found independent of mood state and the causes are unclear. We aimed to investigate whether physical parameters such as activity levels, sleep, and body mass index (BMI) may be contributing factors.
Forty-six patients with BD and 42 controls completed a battery of neuropsychological tests and wore a triaxial accelerometer for 21 days which collected information on physical activity, sleep, and circadian rhythm. Ex-Gaussian analyses were used to characterise reaction time distributions. We used hierarchical regression analyses to examine whether physical activity, BMI, circadian rhythm, and sleep predicted variance in the performance of cognitive tasks.
Neither physical activity, BMI, nor circadian rhythm predicted significant variance on any of the cognitive tasks. However, the presence of a sleep abnormality significantly predicted a higher intra-individual variability of the reaction time distributions on the Attention Network Task.
This study suggests that there is an association between sleep abnormalities and cognition in BD, with little or no relationship with physical activity, BMI, and circadian rhythm.
The Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI) is a screening test of global cognitive function used in research and clinical settings. However, the CASI was developed using face validity and has not been investigated via empirical tests such as factor analyses. Thus, we aimed to develop and test a parsimonious conceptualization of the CASI rooted in cognitive aging literature reflective of crystallized and fluid abilities.
Secondary data analysis implementing confirmatory factor analyses where we tested the proposed two-factor solution, an alternate one-factor solution, and conducted a χ2 difference test to determine which model had a significantly better fit.
Data came from 3,491 men from the Kuakini Honolulu-Asia Aging Study.
The Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument.
Findings demonstrated that both models fit the data; however, the two-factor model had a significantly better fit than the one-factor model. Criterion validity tests indicated that participant age was negatively associated with both factors and that education was positively associated with both factors. Further tests demonstrated that fluid abilities were significantly and negatively associated with a later-life dementia diagnosis.
We encourage investigators to use the two-factor model of the CASI as it could shed light on underlying cognitive processes, which may be more informative than using a global measure of cognition.
We spend large portions of our inner lives imagining social events and situations that fall under the umbrella of moral cognition. For example, we may simulate in our mind a future scenario in which we have to decide whether to withhold the truth to protect a colleague or a friend and wonder if it is the right thing to do or not. Or we may do the same for a past event or situation. This chapter briefly introduces the field of moral cognition with a focus on dual processing approaches, and then provides a critical review of recent empirical studies about the effect of various forms of mental simulations on a subset of moral cognitive processes. A number of behavioral studies show that imagination can affect moral cognitive processes in multiple ways, from enhancing our emotional responses to personal moral dilemmas and guiding our moral judgments, to facilitating theory of mind simulations and perspective-taking in prosocial scenarios. Ideas for future directions in the field are discussed in the final section.
Musical imagery – the mental experience of music – is a common occurrence for both musical experts and nonexperts alike. A diverse range of experiences can be classified as musical imagery, from the replaying of a tune in a listener’s head after hearing it on the radio to a composer conjuring up the next notes of a new symphony. Overall, research in this domain has indicated that incidences of musical imagery often replicate a perceptual experience with a high degree of fidelity, and similar neural resources are recruited in both music perception and imagery. The diversity and fidelity of musical imagery experiences can be affected by expertise, suggesting imaginative processes related to music may be developed through dedicated, long-term practice. Both everyday and expert experiences of musical imagery can vary widely in terms of both intentionality and modality of recall, with some episodes comprising aspects of auditory, motor, and visual imagery. Implications for our understanding of creativity and suggestions for cross-disciplinary approaches to integrating psychological research findings with creative practice are discussed.
Humans can see the world around them, imagine how it might be different, and translate those imaginings into reality ‥ or at least try to. This ability plays a significant role in our lineage’s evolutionary success. Meaning, imagination, and hope are as central to the human evolutionary story as are bones, genes, and ecologies. Paleoanthropological, archaeological, and biological data make it abundantly clear that the human lineage, over the last 2 million years, has undergone specific morphological changes alongside less easily measurable, but significant behavioral and cognitive shifts as it has forged and been shaped by a new niche, a highly distinctive way of being in the world – a human niche, a niche in which imagination is a key factor. This chapter offers a brief overview of this history and highlights how developmental processes of the human body and brain evolve as a system that is always in concert with, and mutually co-constitutive of, the linguistic, socially mediated and constructed structures, institutions, and beliefs that make up key aspects of the human niche.
Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with social cognition (SC) impairments even during remission periods although a large heterogeneity has been described. Our aim was to explore the existence of different profiles on SC in euthymic patients with BD, and further explore the potential impact of distinct variables on SC.
Hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted using three SC domains [Theory of Mind (ToM), Emotional Intelligence (EI) and Attributional Bias (AB)]. The sample comprised of 131 individuals, 71 patients with BD and 60 healthy control subjects who were compared in terms of SC performance, demographic, clinical, and neurocognitive variables. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the effect of SC-associated risk factors.
A two-cluster solution was identified with an adjusted-performance group (N = 48, 67.6%) and a low-performance group (N = 23, 32.4%) with mild deficits in ToM and AB domains and with moderate difficulties in EI. Patients with low SC performance were mostly males, showed lower estimated IQ, higher subthreshold depressive symptoms, longer illness duration, and poorer visual memory and attention. Low estimated IQ (OR 0.920, 95% CI 0.863–0.981), male gender (OR 5.661, 95% CI 1.473–21.762), and longer illness duration (OR 1.085, 95% CI 1.006–1.171) contributed the most to the patients clustering. The model explained up to 35% of the variance in SC performance.
Our results confirmed the existence of two discrete profiles of SC among BD. Nearly two-thirds of patients exhibited adjusted social cognitive abilities. Longer illness duration, male gender, and lower estimated IQ were associated with low SC performance.
Leukoaraiosis, or white matter rarefaction, is a common imaging finding in aging and is presumed to reflect vascular disease. When severe in presentation, potential congenital or acquired etiologies are investigated, prompting referral for neuropsychological evaluation in addition to neuroimaging. T2-weighted imaging is the most common magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach to identifying white matter disease. However, more advanced diffusion MRI techniques may provide additional insight into mechanisms that influence the abnormal T2 signal, especially when clinical presentations are discrepant with imaging findings.
We present a case of a 74-year-old woman with severe leukoaraoisis. She was examined by a neurologist, neuropsychologist, and rheumatologist, and completed conventional (T1, T2-FLAIR) MRI, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and advanced single-shell, high b-value diffusion MRI (i.e., fiber ball imaging [FBI]).
The patient was found to have few neurological signs, no significant cognitive impairment, a negative workup for leukoencephalopathy, and a positive antibody for Sjogren’s disease for which her degree of leukoaraiosis would be highly atypical. Tractography results indicate intact axonal architecture that was better resolved using FBI rather than DTI.
This case illustrates exceptional cognitive resilience in the face of severe leukoaraiosis and the potential for advanced diffusion MRI to identify brain reserve.
Improving functioning in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) is one of the main objectives in clinical practice. Of the few psychosocial interventions that have been specifically developed to enhance the psychosocial outcome in BD, functional remediation (FR) is one which has demonstrated efficacy. The aim of this study was to examine which variables could predict improved functional outcome following the FR intervention in a sample of euthymic or subsyndromal patients with BD.
A total of 92 euthymic outpatients were included in this longitudinal study, with 62 completers. Partial correlations controlling for the functional outcome at baseline were calculated between demographic, clinical and neurocognitive variables, and functional outcome at endpoint was assessed by means of the Functioning Assessment Short Test scale. Next, a multiple regression analysis was run in order to identify potential predictors of functional outcome at 2-year follow-up, using the variables found to be statistically significant in the correlation analysis and other variables related to functioning as identified in the previous scientific literature.
The regression model revealed that only two independent variables significantly contributed to the model (F(6,53): 4.003; p = 0.002), namely verbal memory and inhibitory control. The model accounted for 31.2% of the variance. No other demographic or clinical variable contributed to the model.
Results suggest that patients with better cognitive performance at baseline, especially in terms of verbal memory and executive functions, may present better functional outcomes at long term follow-up after receiving functional remediation.
Prospective memory (PM) is the memory used when intentions are to be carried out in the future. Little research has been conducted examining PM after stroke. This study aimed to determine if PM is impaired after stroke through comparison of individuals with stroke to healthy controls. Additionally, it aimed to explore the predictors of PM performance post-stroke.
Twenty-eight individuals with stroke and 27 neurologically healthy controls completed the Cambridge Prospective Memory Test (CAMPROMPT), 2 self-report PM questionnaires, and multiple cognitive measures.
Individuals with stroke performed significantly lower on both event- and time-based PM than controls on the CAMPROMPT, indicating PM impairment. Event-based PM after stroke was significantly predicted by age, retrospective memory (RM), and global cognitive function, whereas time-based PM was only predicted by the metacognitive skill of note-taking. Age and note-taking predicted time-based PM for controls, whereas only age predicted event-based PM for control participants.
The findings of this study have helped to confirm that PM impairment does exist after stroke, particularly when using a standardised PM measure. Furthermore, PM impairment may be predicted by variables, such as age, strategy use, RM, and cognitive ability.