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To examine the contributions of two aspects of executive functioning (executive cognitive functions and behavioral control) to changes in diabetes management across emerging adulthood.
Two hundred and forty-seven high school seniors with type 1 diabetes were assessed at baseline and followed up for 3 years. The baseline assessment battery included performance-based measures of executive cognitive functions, behavioral control, IQ estimate (IQ-est), and psychomotor speed; self-report of adherence to diabetes regimen; and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) assay kits as a reflection of glycemic control.
Linear and quadratic growth curve models were used to simultaneously examine baseline performance on four cognitive variables (executive cognitive functions, behavioral control, IQ, and psychomotor speed) as predictors of indices of diabetes management (HbA1c and adherence) across four time points. Additionally, general linear regressions examined relative contributions of each cognitive variable at individual time points. The results showed that higher behavioral control at baseline was related to lower (better) HbA1c levels across all four time points. In contrast, executive cognitive functions at baseline were related to HbA1c trajectories, accounting for increasingly more HbA1c variance over time with increasing transition to independence. IQ-est was not related to HbA1c levels or changes over time, but accounted instead for HbA1c variance at baseline (while teens were still living at home), above and beyond all other variables. Cognition was unrelated to adherence.
Different aspects of cognition play a different role in diabetes management at different time points during emerging adulthood years.
To determine the frequency, factors and reasons of patient non-adherence to radiotherapy (RT) in a tertiary cancer centre.
Inadvertent treatment interruptions often lead to prolongation of planned treatment time. In the case of RT with a curative intent, prolongation of planned treatment has been associated with inferior clinical outcomes. Delay or prolongation of treatment is associated with a relative risk of local recurrence by up to 2% per day for specific malignancies. Thus, it is critical to understand key factors that influence non-adherence to RT.
Methods and Materials:
A retrospective observation audit was conducted comprising patients treated with radical, adjuvant or palliative RT at our centre from January 2018 to December 2018. Non-adherence was defined as premature permanent termination of planned treatment by the patient without recommendation or consultation from the treating clinician. All data were collected and analysed (retrospectively) with the help of Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22.
A total of 1,548 patients were included in the study of which 105 (6·7%) were non-adherent to planned RT. Of the total 105 patients, 44 (42%) were elderly (60 years and above). Treatment non-adherence was predominant in males (male:female = 1·85:1). More than 90% of non-adherent patients had stage III and IV cancer. A total of 77 patients (74%) out of 105 were more than 50 km away from our centre. A total of 66 (63%) out of 105 patients had completed more than 2 weeks of radiation (40% of planned RT) and then defaulted for radiation due to acute toxicities.
Treatment adherence is a major factor in determining successful outcomes among cancer patients treated with RT. This study reveals several factors that contribute to non-adherence to treatment.
Food insecurity, or self-reports of inadequate food access due to limited financial resources, remains prevalent among people living with HIV (PLHIV). We examined the impact of food insecurity on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) adherence within an integrated care programme that provides services to PLHIV, including two meals per day.
Adjusted OR (aOR) were estimated by generalized estimating equations, quantifying the relationship between food insecurity (exposure) and cART adherence (outcome) with multivariable logistic regression.
We drew on survey data collected between February 2014 and March 2016 from the Dr. Peter Centre Study based in Vancouver, Canada.
The study included 116 PLHIV at baseline, with ninety-nine participants completing a 12-month follow-up interview. The median (quartile 1–quartile 3) age was 46 (39–52) years at baseline and 87 % (n 101) were biologically male at birth.
At baseline, 74 % (n 86) of participants were food insecure (≥2 affirmative responses on Health Canada’s Household Food Security Survey Module) and 67 % (n 78) were adherent to cART ≥95 % of the time. In the adjusted regression analysis, food insecurity was associated with suboptimal cART adherence (aOR = 0·47, 95 % CI 0·24, 0·93).
While food provision may reduce some health-related harms, there remains a relationship between this prevalent experience and suboptimal cART adherence in this integrated care programme. Future studies that elucidate strategies to mitigate food insecurity and its effects on cART adherence among PLHIV in this setting and in other similar environments are necessary.
Group-based physical activity (PA) in community-based settings represents a promising avenue for promoting healthy ageing, however, lower levels of adherence have been found to be associated with aspects of social disadvantage. Providers are in a key position to provide important insights about strategies to improve adherence, however, few studies have examined their perspectives. In this study, 30 community service providers were interviewed, and 42 older people participated in focus groups to identify actions perceived as effective for promoting adherence to organised PA, with a focus on factors relevant to older people experiencing socio-economic disadvantage, social isolation, living with a disability or from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. Data were analysed thematically. Adherence barriers included deteriorating health, lack of belonging and loss of motivation. Helpful strategies for addressing deteriorating health included maintaining programme flexibility, facilitating access to health and other services, and supporting participants to adapt to acquired limitations. Belonging can be fostered by creating positive and inclusive experiences, ensuring safe and stigma-free environments, providing opportunities to forge personal connections and demonstrating care. Motivation may be enhanced by ensuring activities are of interest and functional benefit, programme settings are suitable and appealing, and enjoyment is prioritised. In conclusion, a range of strategies is likely to be necessary to mitigate risks to adherence and support continued participation in organised PA among socially disadvantaged older people.
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the gender differences in hypertension awareness, antihypertensive use and blood pressure (BP) control among the adult Nepalese population (≥18 years) using data from the nationally representative Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2016. A weighted sample of 13,393 adults (5620 males and 7773 females) was included in the final analysis. After conducting descriptive analyses with the selective explanatory variable, multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the association between the outcome variable and the explanatory variables. The strength of the association was expressed in adjusted odds with 95% confidence intervals. A higher proportion of women had their BP checked (87.7% females vs 73.0% males, p<0.001) and were aware of their raised BP (43.9% females vs 37.1% males, p<0.001) compared with men. Although female hypertensive individuals had a higher prevalence of antihypertensive medication use than their male counterparts (50.1% females vs 47.5% males), a higher proportion of male hypertensive participants had their BP controlled (49.2% females vs 53.5% males). Women with the poorest wealth index had a lower prevalence of antihypertensive use than their male counterparts. The odds of having their own BP measured increased with age among men but decreased with age among women. The household wealth index was positively associated with the odds of BP measurement, awareness of own BP and antihypertensive use. This study revealed that although women had a higher prevalence of hypertension awareness and antihypertensive medication use, the practice did not translate into better BP control. Inequality in antihypertensive medication use was observed among the poorest wealth quintiles. Public health programmes in Nepal should focus on reducing these inequalities. Further research is needed to learn why females have poorer control of BP, despite having higher antihypertensive medication use.
Cognitive behaviour therapy for insomnia (CBTi) has emerged as the first-line treatment for insomnia where available. Clinical trials of digital CBTi (dCBTi) have demonstrated similar efficacy and drop-out rates to face-to-face CBTi. Most patients entering clinical trials are carefully screened to exclude other sleep disorders. This is a case series review of all those referred to a dCBTi within an 18-month time period. Those initially screened, accepted after exclusion of other sleep disorders, commencing and completing therapy were assessed to understand patient population referred from general practice in the UK. 390 patient referrals were analysed. 135 were suitable for dCBTi with a high rate of other sleep disorders detected in screening. 78 completed therapy (20.0%) and 44.9% had significant improvement in sleep outcomes, achieving ≥20% improvement in final sleep efficiency. dCBTi can be used within the UK NHS with good benefit for those who are selected as having insomnia and who then complete therapy. Many referrals are made with those likely to have distinct primary sleep disorders highlighting the need for education regarding sleep and sleep disorders prior to dCBTi therapy.
Key learning aims
(1)The use of unsupported digital cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia (dCBTi) requires proper patient selection.
(2)There are many insomnia mimics and also previously unrecognized sleep and psychiatric disturbances that are under-diagnosed in the primary care setting that are contraindications for unsupported dCBTi.
(3)The use of a stepped care approach similar to the UK’s Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) model using dCBTi could be feasible in the public health setting.
The SUPEREDEN3 study, a phase II randomized controlled trial, suggests that social recovery therapy (SRT) is useful in improving functional outcomes in people with first episode psychosis. SRT incorporates cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) techniques with case management and employment support, and therefore has a different emphasis to traditional CBT for psychosis, requiring a new adherence tool.
This paper describes the SRT adherence checklist and content of the therapy delivered in the SUPEREDEN3 trial, outlining the frequency of SRT techniques and proportion of participants who received a full therapy dose. It was hypothesized that behavioural techniques would be used frequently, consistent with the behavioural emphasis of SRT.
Research therapists completed an adherence checklist after each therapy session, endorsing elements of SRT present. Data from 1236 therapy sessions were reviewed to determine whether participants received full, partial or no therapy dose.
Of the 75 participants randomized to receive SRT, 57.3% received a full dose, 24% a partial dose, and 18.7% received no dose. Behavioural techniques were endorsed in 50.5% of sessions, with cognitive techniques endorsed in 34.9% of sessions.
This report describes an adherence checklist which should be used when delivering SRT in both research and clinical practice. As hypothesized, behavioural techniques were a prominent feature of the SRT delivered in SUPEREDEN3, consistent with the behavioural emphasis of the approach. The use of this adherence tool would be considered essential for anyone delivering SRT looking to ensure adherence to the model.
Following the revision of the French dietary guidelines in 2017, the Programme National Nutrition Santé – guidelines score (PNNS-GS), built upon previous recommendations released in 2001, needed to be updated. This cross-sectional study thus aimed to develop and validate the PNNS-GS2, a predefined food-based dietary index based on the 2017-revised French nutritional guidelines. A total of 80 965 participants recruited among French adults (≥18 years old) in the NutriNet-Santé web-based prospective cohort were included. Collected data included repeated 24 h-dietary records over a 2-year period, sociodemographic and, for 16 938 subjects, clinical and biological data. Weighting and cut-offs of the PNNS-GS2 components were collegially arbitrated by nutrition experts who participated in the 2017 revision of the guidelines. Sociodemographic, nutritional and clinical and biological factors were investigated according to quintiles (Q) of PNNS-GS2 (theoretical ranging −17 to +13·5). Mean PNNS-GS2 was 2·1 (sd 3·1) in women and −0·3 (sd 3·6) in men. Higher PNNS-GS2 (higher adherence to 2017 dietary guidelines) was positively associated with (mean difference between Q5 and Q1 in women/men) age (+8·4/+4·7 years), education (+3·9/+7·4 % of university level), physical activity (+13·3/+3·5 % of ≥60 min/d) and non-smoking (+9·7/+13·7 %), and was negatively associated with mean blood pressure (−3·0/−2·8 mmHg), plasma LDL-cholesterol (−0·07/−0·06 g/l) and TAG (−0·10/−0·16 g/l) concentrations. Higher PNNS-GS2 was also associated with higher intake of favourable nutrients, e.g. n-3 PUFA (+0·2/+0·2 % of energy intake), fibres (+8·7/+10·7 g) and vitamin C (+36·6/+43·8 mg). Associations between PNNS-GS2 and sociodemographic and nutritional factors arguing for its validation are coherent. Further studies are needed to evaluate its association with mortality and morbidity.
Drop-out from mental health services is a significant problem, leading to inefficient use of resources and poorer outcomes for clients. Adapted dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT), often termed Emotional Coping Skills (ECS) programmes, show some of the highest rates of drop-out from therapy recorded in the literature. The present study aimed to add to the evidence base, by evaluating predictors of drop-out from an ECS programme in a UK-based Community Mental Health Team (CMHT). An existing data set of 49 clients, consisting of clients’ responses on a number of questionnaires, was evaluated for predictors of drop-out. Predictors of drop-out included symptom severity, substance use and client demographics. Independent-samples t-tests and chi-square cross tabs analyses revealed no significant differences between drop-outs and completers of therapy on any of the variables. This suggests that contrary to common assumptions and previous findings, clients using substances, who are highly anxious, or who experience a greater degree of emotion dysregulation, are not more likely to drop out from ECS programmes compared with other individuals. The clinical implications of these findings and future research are discussed within the wider context of the evidence base.
Key learning aims
(1)To be familiar with common predictors of drop-out from psychological therapies, as indicated by the literature.
(2)To understand the theories underlying factors that impact drop-out and the associated consequences for mental health services.
(3)To understand the potential impact of staff assumptions of factors that affect drop-out on client retention.
(4)To have an understanding of initiatives and strategies that may improve client-retention and engagement in services.
Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is the most efficacious and effective psychological intervention for treating anxiety disorders. Behavioural techniques, in particular exposure-based techniques, are fundamental to positive outcomes. However, research suggests that these techniques are either not used or are under-used when treating anxiety disorders. This study assesses therapists’ reported use of CBT techniques in the treatment of anxiety disorders, and explores which therapist variables influence technique use. A total of 173 CBT therapists completed measures on their demographics, routine therapy practices in treating anxiety disorders, and internal states (e.g. self-esteem). These data were analysed to see how often therapists employed particular techniques and the correlates of the use of those techniques. Behavioural techniques (e.g. exposure) were the least utilized set of core CBT skills, being used less often than non-CBT techniques. The under-utilization of these key techniques was associated with greater levels of increased inhibitory anxiety amongst therapists. Supervision and therapists’ self-esteem were both positively associated with the use of non-CBT techniques. While this study established what CBT therapists purport to use in routine practice with anxious populations, further research is needed to assess the association between adherence (or lack thereof) and client outcomes, and the factors that drive non-adherence.
Key learning aims
As a result of reading this paper, the reader should:
(1)Learn about what psychotherapists report as occurring in routine care for individuals with anxiety and related disorders.
(2)Know the potential therapist traits that influence the use of CBT techniques.
(3)Gain knowledge to help explain to clients why previous therapy may not have been effective.
(4)Develop a richer understanding of what factors may influence their own therapeutic practice.
There is uncertainty about the incidence of breakthrough psychosis in treatment adherent patients, and the role that factors, such as cumulative antipsychotic exposure, play in this phenomenon.
In a nationwide cohort of individuals treated for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders in Finland between 1 January 1996 and 31 December 2015, ‘Breakthrough Psychosis on Antipsychotic Maintenance Medication’ (BAMM) was defined as hospitalization for psychosis despite ongoing continuous treatment with long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs) or oral antipsychotics (OAPs) for ⩾8 weeks. Incidence rates, survival curves, and risk factors were presented.
In a cohort of 16 031 continuous LAI treatment episodes with virtually assured adherence [median duration = 441 days, interquartile range (IQR) = 155–1277], BAMM incidence was 31.5%. For 42 867 OAPs treatment episodes (median duration = 483 days, IQR = 167–1491), for whom adherence was modeled by the PRE2DUP method, BAMM incidence was 31.1%. Factors related to illness instability at treatment onset were associated with BAMM, although median time to BAMM was 291 days (IQR = 121–876) for LAIs and 344 days (IQR = 142–989) for OAPs, and 27.4% (N = 1386) of the BAMM events in the LAI, and 32.9% (N = 4378) in the OAP group occurred despite >1 year since last hospitalization at treatment onset. Cumulative antipsychotic exposure was not a consistent risk factor.
BAMM was relatively common even when adherence was confirmed with LAIs. Illness instability at treatment onset accounted for most cases, but relapse after years of continuous treatment was still prevalent. There was insufficient evidence to support causality between cumulative antipsychotic exposure and BAMM. Future research needs to address the role of symptom severity and neurobiology in BAMM.
Families with neurodevelopmental disorders engage in varied types of therapies to address behavioural, communication and cognitive challenges. Research suggests that consistent therapy adherence predicts positive therapy outcomes. The present study examined therapy adherence in 55 parent-child dyads where all children had been diagnosed with ASD, ADHD, and/or ID. Parents completed questionnaires assessing demographics, therapy type, adherence to child treatment, parental stress, and challenging child behaviour. The researchers proposed a new scale, the Child Therapy Adherence Scale (CTAS), which initial testing supported as a reliable measure of therapy adherence. Significant relationships were found between parental stress, annual household income and therapy adherence, with parental stress being a notably strong predictor of therapy adherence. No significant relationships were observed between child challenging behaviour, single parent status and therapy adherence. These findings have implications for practitioners, in that parent levels of stress and demographic influences may impact capacity to adhere to recommended home practice and interventions for children with neurodevelopmental disorders.
Outpatient diversion programs present an opportunity for severely mentally ill defendants to receive psychiatric treatment and have alleged offenses dismissed by the court. Moreover, the successful completion of pretrial diversion is associated with fewer post-program arrest and jail days. The target patient population for such programs is typically people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, but the care of such patients in outpatient settings presents challenges for monitoring treatment fidelity, specifically antipsychotic adherence, as low adherence rates are associated with increased rates of recidivism. Presented here is a review of evidence-based strategies that must be employed to track antipsychotic adherence in outpatient diversion programs, including pill counts, use of long-acting injectable antipsychotics, and determination of plasma antipsychotic levels to assess adherence and the adequacy of antipsychotic treatment. Antipsychotic therapy remains the foundation of schizophrenia treatment, but only through the use of all available modalities can clinicians maximize the odds that schizophrenia patients in pretrial diversion maintain psychiatric stability and successfully complete mental health court mandates.
One of the challenges with initiating long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotic regimens is achieving relevant drug levels quickly. After first injection of the LAI antipsychotic aripiprazole lauroxil (AL), the lag to reaching relevant plasma aripiprazole levels was initially addressed using supplemental oral aripiprazole for 21 days. A 1-day AL initiation regimen using a NanoCrystal® Dispersion formulation of AL (ALNCD; Aristada Initio®) combined with a single 30 mg dose of oral aripiprazole has been developed as an alternative approach. We compared the 1-day AL initiation regimen (ALNCD + 30 mg oral aripiprazole for 1 day) with the 21-day AL initiation regimen (AL + 15 mg/day of oral aripiprazole for 21 days) using kinetic modeling. Observed and modeled data demonstrate that the 1-day AL initiation regimen provides continuous aripiprazole exposure comparable to the 21-day AL initiation regimen. Each component of the 1-day AL initiation regimen (30 mg oral aripiprazole, ALNCD, and AL) contributes to aripiprazole plasma levels at different times, with oral aripiprazole predominating in the first week, then ALNCD and AL over time. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1 study in patients with schizophrenia, the 1-day initiation regimen resulted in rapid achievement of relevant plasma aripiprazole levels comparable to those from the 21-day initiation regimen. Safety and tolerability of the 1-day regimen were consistent with the known profile of aripiprazole. Each part of the 1-day initiation regimen, together with AL, is necessary for continuous aripiprazole exposure from treatment initiation until the next regularly scheduled AL injection is administered.
Moral disagreement is sometimes thought to pose problems for moral realism because it shows that we cannot achieve knowledge of the moral facts the realists posit. In particular, it is ‘fundamental’ moral disagreement—that is, disagreement that is not due to distorting factors such as ignorance of relevant nonmoral facts, bad reasoning skills, or the like—that is supposed to generate skeptical implications. In this paper, we show that this version of the disagreement challenge is flawed as it stands. The reason is that the epistemic assumptions it requires are incompatible with the possibility of fundamental disagreement. However, we also present an alternative reconstruction of the challenge that avoids the problem. The challenge we present crucially invokes the principle that knowledge requires ‘adherence’. While that requirement is usually not discussed in this context, we argue that it provides a promising explanation of why disagreement sometimes leads to skepticism.
Background: Psychotherapy homework completion is associated with positive treatment outcomes, but many patients show low adherence to prescribed assignments. Whether text-message prompts are effective in increasing adherence to assignments is unknown. Aims: To evaluate whether tailored daily text-message prompts can increase homework adherence in a stress/anxiety treatment. Method: This study used a randomised controlled single-case alternating treatment design with parallel replication in seven participants. Participants received a five-week relaxation program for stress and anxiety with daily exercises. The intervention consisted of daily text messages tailored for each participant. Phases with or without text messages were randomly alternated over the study course. Randomisation tests were used to statistically analyse differences in mean number of completed relaxation exercises between phases. Results: There was a significant (combined p = .018) effect of daily text messages on homework adherence across participants with weak to medium effect size improvements. No negative effects of daily text messages were identified. Conclusions: Tailored text messages can marginally improve adherence to assignments for patients in CBT. Further studies may investigate how text messages can be made relevant for more patients and whether text messages can be used to increase homework quality rather than quantity.
To investigate the diversity and specificity of the determinants of immigrant caregivers’ adherence to child primary care (CPC) health recommendations.
Immigrant caregiver’s adherence to CPC health recommendations is of utmost importance to minimize their children’s health-related vulnerabilities. Some research has been conducted on the determinants of immigrants’ access to health services, but much less is known about the determinants of their adherence to health professionals’ recommendations once they get there, especially in a primary health care context. This study contributes to bridge these gaps.
Interviews and focus groups were conducted, with immigrant and non-immigrant caregivers living in Portugal (n=35), from heterogeneous socioeconomic backgrounds. Focus group and individual interview scripts were developed to explore caregivers’ understanding and use of CPC services and, particularly, their adherence to CPC recommendations. A socio-demographic questionnaire was also administered. Qualitative data were analyzed using a grounded theory methodology.
‘Adherence to CPC health recommendations’ is a core and multidimensional concept. Several determinants were identified at individual, interpersonal, organizational and structural levels. Some determinants were highlighted both by immigrant and non-immigrant caregivers: valuing children’s health, usefulness of recommendations, perceived health-care professionals’ competence, central role of vaccination in CPC and caregivers’ socio-economic conditions. Other determinants were specifically mentioned by immigrant caregivers: expectations about traditional versus pharmacological treatments, cultural mismatches in children’s care practices, perceived quality of Portuguese CPC services versus CPC from countries of origin. These results provide innovative theoretical and empirical contributions to the field of primary health care and, particularly, to immigrant caregivers’ adherence behaviors. Implications for research on treatment adherence in primary care contexts, the development of interventions that promote caregivers’ adherence to CPC health recommendations and for child protection will be discussed.
Because ethically and practically a randomized control trial of antipsychotics will never be done, we recently conducted and reported a 8- to 50-year, naturalistic follow-up from an academic clinic of patients with chronic schizophrenia on antipsychotic medication. We found that better medication adherence was a statistically significant predictor of better long-term global outcome and life satisfaction. Because there were important limitations on our findings, we now in this communication, using similar methodology, detail outcomes for a very different sample—inner city patients with chronic schizophrenia with a long past history of antipsychotic treatment, who were enrolled in clinical trials for new medications for schizophrenia.
This is a retrospective, naturalistic, longitudinal 6- to 49-years antipsychotic treatment (mean average, 20) follow-up of a consecutive series of patients volunteering for screening for studies with schizophrenia. Lifetime data were collected on (1) their medication adherence, (2) long-term global outcome, and (3) life satisfaction. Outcomes were rated by 2 different clinicians, 1 with information on medication adherence (nonblind rater) and 1 without (blind rater). We used linear regression models adjusted for age, family support, substance use disorder, race, marital status, and number of years in treatment to estimate the association between adherence and each outcome.
A total of 34 patients were assessed. Medication adherence was positively associated with the blind clinician’s rating of global outcome (P value=0.03) and the global assessment of functioning (P value=0.05). In the nonblinded clinician rating, medication adherence was unrelated to global outcome (P value=0.26) and to patients’ report of life satisfaction (P value=0.54).
This replication study, like our previous study, is not inconsistent with the recommendation for continuous, long-term treatment for chronic schizophrenia unless medically contraindicated.
Although the quantity of gluten that a well-instructed coeliac patient can involuntarily ingest is <10 mg of gluten/d which cannot induce significant villous damage, coeliac patients often attribute the origin of symptoms to the involuntary ingestion of trace quantities of gluten, either certain or hypothetical. Our aim was to evaluate whether the occurrence of symptoms in coeliac patients who histologically responded to a strict gluten-free diet was related to the involuntary consumption of minimal quantities of gluten. A case–control study to assess the association between gluten exposure and the occurrence of symptoms was designed. Between January 2017 and May 2018, coeliac patients attending our outpatient clinic were interviewed to detect the presence of symptoms. Based on a specifically designed form, patients were also divided into different risk groups of gluten exposure. A total of ninety-five coeliac patients on a strict gluten-free diet and with known histological recovery were enroled. Of them, fifty-two of them reported symptoms and they were enroled as cases; the remaining forty-three patients denied symptoms and were enroled as controls. Although this was not statistically significant, gluten exposure was more frequent in controls (Fisher’s exact test, P=0·07). Our results show no relationship between exposure to minimal quantities of gluten and onset of symptoms in coeliac patients. Symptoms are more frequent in patients who have no risk of gluten exposure. It is possible that the presence of these symptoms leads the patients to avoid situations that may place them at risk of gluten exposure.
Coeliac disease (CD) is an autoimmune gastrointestinal disorder whereby the ingestion of gluten, a storage protein found in wheat, barley and rye, causes damage to intestinal mucosa with resultant malabsorption, increased risk of anaemia and osteoporosis. Worldwide estimates suggest 1% of the population have CD. With no cure, the only treatment is a gluten-free diet (GFD). Adhering to a GFD can be very challenging; it requires knowledge, motivation and modified behaviours. Assessing adherence to a GFD is methodologically challenging. This review aims to provide an overview of the literature reporting adherence to a GFD in people with CD and the methodological challenges encountered. From six studies it has been reported that rates of adherence to a GFD range between 45 and 90% in patients of different ethnicities with CD. GF dietary adherence can be influenced by age at diagnosis, coexisting depression, symptoms on ingestion of gluten, nutrition counselling, knowledge of GF foods, understanding of food labels, cost and availability of GF foods, receiving GF foods on prescription and membership of a coeliac society. To date only five intervention studies in adults with CD have been undertaken to improve GF dietary adherence. These have included dietary and psychological counselling, and the use of online training programmes, apps, text messages and telephonic clinics. Future interventions should include people of all ethnicities, consider patient convenience and the cost-effectiveness for the healthcare environment.