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In this chapter we discuss the link between intelligence and problem-solving. To preview, we argue that the ability to solve problems is not just an aspect or feature of intelligence – it is the essence of intelligence. We briefly review evidence from psychometric research concerning the nature of individual differences in intelligence, and then review evidence for how intelligence relates to complex problem-solving. We also consider the question of what mechanisms might underlie both problem-solving and intelligence, focusing on fluid intelligence and some of our own research on placekeeping ability. We then discuss the predictive validity of intelligence as it relates to job performance, mortality, expertise, and academic achievement. We also discuss practical uses of intelligence tests. Finally, we consider the question of whether intelligence as problem-solving ability can be improved through training. We close with directions for future research.
This chapter shows that the rate of return to academic achievement (for students) or professional achievement (for faculty) does not differ across key demographic categories, by race/ethnicity or gender. That is, whites, blacks, Hispanics, Asians, and Native Americans all receive commensurate increases in likelihood of selection in our experiments for similar increases in academic achievement. Women, men, and gender non-binary faculty candidates are rewarded at commensurate rates for stronger professional achivement. The rates of return to achievement do not differ across demographic groups.
This chapter includes an overview of achievement assessments that are designed to measure performance across multiple academic domains or a single domain. First, commonly used comprehensive achievement tests, such as the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement – Fourth Edition, the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test – Third Edition, and the Kaufman Tests of Educational Achievement – Third Edition, are reviewed. Next, several single subject area tests in reading, writing, or mathematics are presented. Next curriculum-based measurements (CBMs), designed to provide ongoing evaluation of a student’s progress toward curriculum-based achievement goals, are described. We also discuss advances in technology, issues related to achievement testing, considerations of culture and diversity, and misuses and misinterpretations of achievement testing. Finally, we include several interpretive and practical recommendations for achievement testing.
We engage with the nature and the value of achievement through a critical examination of an argument according to which biomedical “enhancement” of our capacities is impermissible because enhancing ourselves in this way would threaten our achievements. We call this the argument against enhancement from achievement. We assess three versions of it, each admitting to a strong or a weak reading. We argue that strong readings fail, and that weak readings, while in some cases successful in showing that enhancement interferes with the nature or value of achievement, fail to establish that enhancement poses an unusual threat to achievement.
This paper is a revised and updated edition of a previous description of the Quebec Newborn Twin Study (QNTS), an ongoing prospective longitudinal follow-up of a birth cohort of twins born between 1995 and 1998 in the greater Montreal area, Québec, Canada. The goal of QNTS is to document individual differences in the cognitive, behavioral, and social-emotional aspects of developmental health across childhood, their early genetic and environmental determinants, as well as their putative role in later social-emotional adjustment, school, health, and occupational outcomes. A total of 662 families of twins were initially assessed when the twins were aged 6 months. These twins and their family were then followed regularly. QNTS now has 16 waves of data collected or planned, including 5 in preschool. Over the last 24 years, a broad range of physiological, cognitive, behavioral, school, and health phenotypes were documented longitudinally through multi-informant and multimethod measurements. QNTS also entails extended and detailed multilevel assessments of proximal (e.g., parenting behaviors, peer relationships) and distal (e.g., family income) features of the child’s environment. QNTS children and a subset of their parents have been genotyped, allowing for the computation of a variety of polygenic scores. This detailed longitudinal information makes QNTS uniquely suited for the study of the role of the early years and gene–environment transactions in development.
This study explored factors that influence academic achievement and hence, future career prospects. The relationships between the factors, academic trait boredom, approach to learning and academic achievement were examined using data collected from university students at a small English university and from their student records. The initial statistical analysis revealed significant effects of gender on learning approach and two of the three academic trait boredom subscales. Female students proved to be less prone to academic trait boredom than their male counterparts. A model was then developed that showed how a student’s choice of learning approach was influenced by academic trait boredom and impinged on academic achievement. This modelling also confirmed that students who are more prone to academic trait boredom are also more likely to adopt a surface approach to learning rather than a deep or strategic one. The results of this investigation have implications for students, lecturers, course designers and learning support staff both here in this one location as well as elsewhere across the higher education sector.
Youth's academic and emotional functioning are closely related, yet little is known about the timing and direction of relationships involving internalizing problems, which are characterized by over control of emotions, anxiety, and depression as well as multiple aspects of academic achievement. This study addresses these gaps using data from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,048) to examine the processes by which problems in one domain of functioning lead to problems in another, known as a “cascade effect.” Results of longitudinal structural equation modeling indicate (a) a direct and indirect negative cascade effect from girls’ internalizing problems to their school achievement in high school, (b) a positive contemporaneous association of 9th grade boys’ internalizing problems with their cognitive achievement; and (c) ways in which demographic characteristics and adolescent social and maturational processes account for variation in functioning yet do not alter the processes by which the emotional and academic functioning interact. Results are discussed with regard to identifiying adolescents’ internalizing problems, gender differences in the effects of internalizing problems on academic functioning, timing of evidence-based interventions, and implications for mental health promotion among girls.
This chapter argues that disciplining of bilingual education as a scholarly field served to divorce discussions of bilingual education from broader political and economic struggles in favor of the seemingly objective pursuit of the benefits of bilingual education. This disciplining of bilingual education was part of a larger discursive shift that reframed discussions of racial inequality from a focus on unequal access and the need for structural change to a focus on the deficiencies of racialized communities and the need for modifying these deficiencies. The chapter ends with a call for bilingual education scholars to situate issues of language inequality within the broader white supremacist and capitalist relations of power. This will offer bilingual education scholars tools for rejecting deficit perspectives of language-minoritized children and pointing to the broader racial stratification that makes these deficit perspectives possible to begin with.
Minnesota has a decades-long history of welcoming and resettling refugees, but there exists a longstanding gap in programming for minority language students and an absence of instruction to develop and build upon students’ native languages. To address these educational inequities, the 2014 Learning English for Academic Proficiency and Success (LEAPS) Act was written and passed in the Minnesota state legislature. This sweeping state law revises many statutes to draw greater attention to English learner education, including recommendations for increased support for native languages. Drawing on interviews with key policy officials, close analysis of the text of the law, we examine the development and implementation of the law. We demonstrate how local culture, in particular what has been termed ‘Minnesota Nice,’ has shaped both the law’s development and implementation path. This chapter demonstrates the utility of narrative analysis in yielding insights into how language policies are developed, interpreted, and prioritized.
How does being a knower and possessing knowledge contribute to living well? Some have assumed that the eudaimonic value of knowledge is exhausted by its role as either a means or a final end. On this basis, it has been concluded that knowledge is not always valuable since its value will depend upon the ends that one has. I propose to expand our exploration by considering how knowledge might be valuable in virtue of being constitutive of certain eudaimonic goods. Using achievement as an example of an eudaimonic good, I argue, by way of considering its relations to credit and luck, that knowledge is necessary for achievement.
Achievements are among the things that make a life good. Assessing the plausibility of this intuitive claim requires an account of the nature of achievements. One necessary condition for achievement appears to be that the achieving agent acted competently, i.e. was not just lucky. I begin by critically assessing existing accounts of anti-luck conditions for achievements in both the ethics and epistemology literature. My own proposal is that a goal is reached competently (and thus an achievement), only if the actions of the would-be-achiever make success likely, and that this is the reason why she acts that way.
We examined morphological awareness and reading achievement in university students in two ways. First, students with and without a self-reported history of reading difficulties were compared on word reading and text reading achievement, and on the reading-related skills of morphological awareness, orthographic processing, and phonological processing. Second, the unique contribution of morphological awareness to reading achievement was examined for a larger sample of first-year university students. Students with a self-reported history of reading difficulties (n = 54) showed moderate to large gaps in each area of reading achievement, and timed reading comprehension appeared more severely impaired than word-reading efficiency. These students had a deficit in morphological awareness that persisted even when (a) phonological awareness and orthographic processing skills, or (b) word-reading accuracy were statistically controlled. In the larger first-year sample (N = 211), morphological awareness contributed to variance in word reading beyond that accounted for by phonological awareness and orthographic processing. Furthermore, of the reading-related skills, only morphological awareness made a unique contribution to reading comprehension beyond variance accounted for by word reading. Taken together, these results demonstrate that morphological awareness makes unique contributions to university students’ reading achievement and is an additional difficulty for students with a self-reported history of reading difficulties.
The main aim of this study was to explore the mediating role of learning engagement on the relationship between social networking site (SNS) addiction and academic achievement among 406 university students. The Social Networking Site Addiction Scale, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale for Students, and Chinese Students Academic Achievement Scale were used to evaluate students’ SNS addiction, learning engagement, and academic achievement. Correlation analysis indicated that SNS addiction, learning engagement, and academic achievement were significantly correlated with each other. The causal steps regression and bootstrap analysis show that learning engagement mediated the relationship between SNS addiction and academic achievement. Implications for research and instructions for how to improve university students’ academic achievement are discussed.
The present study used a person-centered approach to identify math motivation profiles under self-determination theory, and examine whether math achievement varies across different profiles. Data were collected from 2,137 children. Five student motivation profiles were identified: a “high quality” profile characterized by high levels of intrinsic and identiﬁed motivation and a low level of controlled motivation, a “high quantity” profile characterized by high levels of these three kinds of motivation, a “low quantity” profile characterized by low levels of these three kinds of motivation, a “poor quality” profile characterized by a high level of controlled motivation and low levels of intrinsic and identiﬁed motivation, and a “low autonomous motivation” profile characterized by very low levels of intrinsic and identiﬁed motivation. These five profiles differed in math achievement. We found that students in the high quality profile had the highest level of math achievement compared to those in the other profiles. This result indicated that the quality of motivation was more important than the amount of motivation.
We examined whether undergraduates’ achievement goal orientations could be represented as profiles and whether profiles were linked to self-reported motivation, epistemic beliefs and academic achievement. Data collected during an undergraduate course were analyzed using a clustering technique. Using the 2 × 2 goal model (Elliot & McGregor, 2001), we identified five achievement goal profiles. Our findings suggest the interaction of goal orientations supports varying interpretations of students’ motivation and learning beliefs. Although no statistically significant differences in achievement were found across clusters, a High-Approach-Low-Avoidance cluster displayed an adaptive profile that was most positive towards learning and self but least anxious about exams. In contrast, a Performance-Avoidance-Dominant cluster demonstrated a maladaptive pattern of lowest self-efficacy and task value, and higher anxiety. Further, High-Approach-Low-Avoidance and Low-Performance-Avoidance clusters recognized that knowledge is not simple and authority could be questioned, compared to the other groups.
This essay explores the features in virtue of which games are valuable or worthwhile to play. The difficulty view of games holds that the goodness of games lies in their difficulty: by making activities more complex or making them require greater effort, they structure easier activities into more difficult, therefore more worthwhile, activities. I argue that a further source of the value of games is that they provide players with an experience of freedom, which they provide both as paradigmatically unnecessary activities and by offering opportunities for relatively unconstrained choice inside the ‘lusory’ world that players inhabit.
The main aim of the present study was to examine the association between the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®) and academic performance in children.
School-based cross-sectional study. The DII was calculated based on dietary information obtained from a single 24h dietary recall. Academic performance was assessed by school records provided by the administrative services (i.e. Maths and Language).
Porto area (Portugal).
A total of 524 children (277 girls) aged 11·56 (sd 0·86) years.
The DII was associated with academic indicators (standardized β values ranging from −0·121 to −0·087; all P<0·05). Significant differences were found between quartiles of the DII (P<0·05); children in the fourth quartile had significantly lower scores in all academic indicators compared with children in the first quartile (score differences ranging from −0·377 to −0·292) after adjustment for potential confounders.
The inflammatory potential of diet may negatively influence academic performance. Children should avoid the consumption of a pro-inflammatory diet and adhere to a more anti-inflammatory diet to achieve academic benefits.
Prior studies have indicated that both high and low school grades are associated with development of bipolar disorder (BD), but these studies have not adjusted for parental history of mental disorder, which is a likely confounder. Furthermore, the association between school grades and bipolar I disorder (BD-I) has not been studied. Therefore, we aimed to study the association between school exam grades and subsequent development of BD and BD-I while adjusting for parental history of mental disorder.
We conducted a register-based nationwide cohort study following 505 688 individuals born in Denmark between 1987 and 1995. We investigated the association between school exam grades and development of BD or BD-I with a Cox model adjusting for family history of mental disorder and other potential confounders.
During follow-up, 900 individuals were diagnosed with BD and 277 of these with BD-I. The risk for BD and BD-I was significantly increased for individuals not having completed the exams at term [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) for BD (aHR=1.71, 95% CI: 1.43–2.04) and for BD-I (aHR=1.57, 95% CI: 1.13–2.19)]. Also, having low exam grades in mathematics was associated with increased risk of both BD (aHR=2.41, 95% CI: 1.27–4.59) and BD-I (aHR=2.71, 95% CI: 1.41–5.21). Females with very high exam grades in Danish (percentile group>97.7) had a significantly increased risk of BD-I (aHR=2.49, 95% CI: 1.19–5.23).
The potential to develop BD seems to affect the school results of individuals negatively even before BD is diagnosed – with females having the potential to develop BD-I as a possible exception.