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The game of chess has provided a proper domain to study central psychophysiological mechanisms underlying basic psychological processes such as stress, emotion, or decision-making. This chapter describes the studies about the psychophysiology and brain functioning of chess players mostly involving the application of electroencephalography (EEG), functional magnetic resonance, or positron emission tomography, even though it reports about findings analyzing other issues such as cardiac and hormonal responses, and the topic of doping in chess. In addition, the chapter addresses three central themes in the study of the brain of chess players: the activation of cerebral cortex areas, the hemispheric specialization, and the anatomical changes.
Exploring functional neuroimaging and brain dynamics, and introducing core concepts from each domain (both theoretical and experimental), this chapter will provide the first monograph treatment of the oscillatory basis of language. It will also outline an initial model for phrase structure building.
This chapter refines the oscillatory model of phrase structure building. Considerably, greater empirical coverage will be presented, but the narrow focus on syntactic and semantic comprehension is maintained. In addition, broader implications for neuroethology and theories of language evolution are discussed.
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a major impact on clinical practice. Safe standards of practice are essential to protect health care workers while still allowing them to provide good care. The Canadian Society of Clinical Neurophysiologists, the Canadian Association of Electroneurophysiology Technologists, the Association of Electromyography Technologists of Canada, the Board of Registration of Electromyography Technologists of Canada, and the Canadian Board of Registration of Electroencephalograph Technologists have combined to review current published literature about safe practices for neurophysiology laboratories. Herein, we present the results of our review and provide our expert opinion regarding the safe practice of neurophysiology during the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada.
Neuroimaging techniques have rapidly expanded our understanding of how the brain responds to addiction in humans. This chapter will discuss methods used to assess brain response, how the data is analyzed, and how it can be used to better understand addiction. Foundational to inferences drawn from these methods is study design. Common designs employed in human neuroimaging research are discussed, including cross-sectional designs, longitudinal/cohort designs, and experimental designs. A description of various neuroimaging methods and their strengths and weaknesses is included: functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron-emission tomography, electroencephalogram, magnetoencephalography, structural MRI, and resting state fMRI. Given its popularity in research, discussion of MRI includes details on paradigm design and data analysis of functional and structural MRI, as well as some common oversights in data processing and interpretation of results.
We examined how proficiency influences the processing of emotion words in Spanish–English bilinguals (22 balanced and 20 unbalanced). All unbalanced bilinguals were more proficient in English than Spanish. Participants rated the valence of negative, neutral, and positive words in both languages while EEG was being recorded. ERP latencies and amplitudes were analyzed for two components. The language effect was significant on the late positive component (LPC) amplitude, which was larger for emotion than for neutral words for both groups in English. The unbalanced group presented larger LPC amplitudes for positive than for neutral and for neutral than for negative words in Spanish, suggesting emotion processing differences in these participants’ less proficient language. Valence effects were consistent across languages for the balanced group, but not for the unbalanced group, perhaps reflecting differences in reactivity to emotion words in the less proficient language.
In this chapter, we provide an overview of how a strategy perspective fruitfully contributes to our understanding of aging effects on cognitive functioning and brain activations. We review previous research showing that people use a wide variety of strategies to accomplish cognitive tasks and how strategy use evolves during aging. Although strategic variations are modulated by individual differences and experimental conditions, older adults have been found to use fewer strategies, to use the more demanding strategies less often, to select the most appropriate strategy on each problem less often, and to be less efficient when executing a given strategy than young adults. Adopting a strategy approach enables better characterization of age-related changes observed in brain activations during task completion and contributes to specify the mechanistic and functional significance of age-related changes in neural recruitments. Finally, we review recent evidence suggesting that cognitive control processes underlie age-related changes in strategy use.
Evaluation the patients with various psychiatric diagnoses with criminal behavior with EEG registration. Aims of investigation are as follows:
1. To define the importance for the difference between the EEG changes at the patients with criminal behavior and the patients from the control group;
2. To examine the relationship between the EEG findings of the patients with criminal behavior and the diagnostic entities according to ICD - 10.
Material and methods
In this paper we shall present a simple prospective analysis of 158 EEG investigations made on patients examined at the Psychiatric Hospital in Demir Hisar for a period of 24 months, which are with aggressive and criminal behavior.
Results and discussion
In men normal EEG found (69.44%) prevails in relation with abnormal EEG found (30.56%). There was the significant difference between normal and abnormal EEG found and the diagnoses in hospital patients.There was the significant difference between EEG found in hospital patients and its criminal factor. The difference between the means age (37.73 god.) of patients in control group with abnormal EEG found and the mean age of patients with normal EEG found is significant. In patients (32.28%) in examiner group was registered abnormal EEG found more significant than in patients in control group(9.49%).
There was significant difference between EEG found in patients in control and examiner group. Suggested measures: More easily diagnosis providing of psychiatric disorders with aggressive and criminal behavior, with help of EEG method, and hereby would be facilitated the psychiatric expertise.
Lateral gaze aversions which follow reflective or thought provoking questions are called conjugated lateral eye movements (CLEMs). This response was studied in 20 schizophrenic patients, 20 depressive patients and 20 healthy controls. Frontal and parietal EEG measures were recorded simultaneously with the question/answer task. There were no differences in CLEMs among the 3 groups. Schizophrenic and depressive patients demonstrated a significantly reduced EEG-power on the left and an increased power on the right in comparison with healthy controls. This may point to a functional interhemispheric ‘disconnection’ in patients. Comparative correlations revealed EEG-power increase during the occurrence of contralateral CLEMs in the whole 10 min task.
Le « neurofeedback » est une technique de biofeedback, appelée également « EEG biofeedback », utilisant l’enregistrement électroencéphalographique (EEG). Cette technique existe depuis près de 30 ans. Deux grands types de protocoles de neurofeedback en fonction du type de traitement en temps réel réalisé sur le signal EEG sont retrouvés. Dans le premier, la puissance spectrale d’une bande fréquentielle EEG en regard d’une région cérébrale est calculée. Il peut être par exemple demandé au sujet d’augmenter la puissance spectrale de la bande bêta ou de diminuer celle de la bande thêta enregistrées sur l’électrode Cz, donc en regard de la région centrale médiale. Dans le second, l’amplitude d’un potentiel lent, appelé SCP pour Slow Cortical Potential, en Cz est calculé. Il est alors demandé au sujet soit d’augmenter, soit de diminuer l’amplitude du SCP. Le neurofeedback permet principalement de favoriser les capacités attentionnelles et d’éveil d’un sujet. Ainsi son application thérapeutique est principalement le trouble déficit de l’attention avec hyperactivité (TDAH), où il s’agit d’une technique désormais considérée comme valide. Il est également utilisé comme thérapeutique complémentaire non pharmacologique dans la prise en charge des troubles envahissant du développement et dans les épilepsies pharmacorésistantes. Ces applications dans d’autres troubles psychiatriques restent plus marginales. Le neurofeedback est très peu connu et développé en France. Pourtant, il permet un renouveau de la neurophysiologie clinique en psychiatrie en proposant une approche thérapeutique et ouvre des voies de recherches neurophysiologiques novatrices.
The results of a cross-sectional study on N = 212 elderly in- and outpatients are presented including sociodemographic data, physical findings, CAT-scan and EEG, as well as psychological tests for cognitive performance and affective symptoms. Forty-one percent of the patients showed mild and 13% severe cognitive deficits. Depression was diagnosed in 23% of the severely impaired and in 16% of the cognitively mildly impaired or unimpaired patients. Statistical analysis revealed that increasing age, female sex and low premorbid intellectual level were significantly associated with loss of cognitive function. Dementia and depression were not significantly associated with each other. The only risk factor for depression was a history of affective illness, but not cognitive deficits or social situation. CAT-scan and EEG were abnormal in 50% of the patients; however, this did not correlate with cognitive impairment or the presence of depression. From this study it is concluded that depression and dementia coincide frequently in elderly patients, but that they are associated with different risk factors It is suggested that dementia and depression are treated as two distinct disease entities.
This study assesses the relationship of EEG to several aspects of 3 year symptomatic and functional outcome in first episode psychosis.
One hundred and seventeen patients with first episode psychosis had their baseline EEG classified by modified Mayo Clinic criteria as normal, essentially normal or dysrhythmia. Socio-demographic variables, duration of illness and of untreated psychosis and premorbid adjustment were also recorded. Positive and negative symptoms of psychoses, depression, anxiety and global functioning were rated on entry and after three years of treatment.
Patients with a dysrhythmic EEG at entry into treatment showed significantly greater persistence in both positive and negative symptoms of psychoses as well as anxiety and depression over three years. These findings were independent of duration of untreated illness or premorbid adjustment.
An abnormal baseline EEG in patients with first episode psychosis is associated with a poorer symptomatic outcome at three year follow-up.
La dépression est une maladie hétérogène, au niveau clinique et physiopathologique. La recherche de biomarqueurs des troubles affectifs apporterait une meilleure compréhension des mécanismes sous-jacents et améliorerait la prise en charge. L’asymétrie de l’activité frontale de la bande de fréquence alpha (frontal alpha asymmetry [FAA]) basale est une mesure psychophysiologique issue de l’analyse spectrale de la bande de fréquence alpha à partir d’électroencéphalogrammes. Elle serait une mesure stable de la motivation (d’approche avec une hyperactivité frontale gauche relative et de retrait avec une hyperactivité droite frontale relative) et des émotions. Elle témoignerait aussi de dispositions individuelles émotionnelles et comportementales, et d’une vulnérabilité psychopathologique à la dépression . Une hyperactivité frontale droite (ou une hypoactivité gauche) relative basale serait associée à la dépression, particulièrement au site frontal médian F3/F4 , malgré une certaine inconsistance de la littérature.
Nous avons mesuré la FAA (calcul de la différence de puissance alpha entre 2 électrodes homologues) au site frontal médian F3/F4, dans un groupe de patients déprimés et un groupe contrôle. Nous attendions une différence significative entre ces 2 groupes, dans le sens d’une hypoactivité frontale gauche relative dans le groupe de patients.
Nous avons retrouvé une différence significative de FAA entre les 2 groupes, au site F3/F4 mais avec un pattern d’asymétrie opposé à celui attendu (hyperactivité corticale frontale gauche relative dans le groupe de patients).
Le pattern d’asymétrie retrouvé est en faveur d’une augmentation de la motivation d’approche. Il est similaire au pattern d’asymétrie de patients souffrant de troubles bipolaires . Le pattern qui était attendu dans le groupe de patients déprimés signait une diminution de la motivation d’approche, et donc une baisse de la sensibilité à la récompense dans la dépression (anhédonie) .
Deficits of mismatch negativity (MMN) in schizophrenia and individuals at risk for psychosis have been replicated many times. Several studies have also demonstrated the occurrence of subclinical psychotic symptoms within the general population. However, none has yet investigated MMN in individuals from the general population who report subclinical psychotic symptoms.
The MMN to duration-, frequency-, and intensity deviants was recorded in 217 nonclinical individuals classified into a control group (n = 72) and three subclinical groups: paranoid (n = 44), psychotic (n = 51), and mixed paranoid-psychotic (n = 50). Amplitudes of MMN at frontocentral electrodes were referenced to average. Based on a three-source model of MMN generation, we conducted an MMN source analysis and compared the amplitudes of surface electrodes and sources among groups.
We found no significant differences in MMN amplitudes of surface electrodes. However, significant differences in MMN generation among the four groups were revealed at the frontal source for duration-deviant stimuli (P = 0.01). We also detected a trend-level difference (P = 0.05) in MMN activity among those groups for frequency deviants at the frontal source.
Individuals from the general population who report psychotic symptoms are a heterogeneous group. However, alterations exist in their frontal MMN activity. This increased activity might be an indicator of more sensitive perception regarding changes in the environment for individuals with subclinical psychotic symptoms.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is debilitating for patients and society. There are a number of treatment methods albeit not all patients respond to these and an interesting method using electroencephalography-based neurofeedback (EEG-NF) has become more prominent in recent years. This systematic review aimed to assess whether EEG-NF, compared with sham NF, other treatment, or no treatment, is effective for PTSD. Primary outcomes were self-harm, PTSD symptoms, level of functioning and health-related quality of life.
Systematic literature searches for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were conducted in six databases. Random effects meta-analysis was performed. Certainty of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation.
Four RCTs were included (123 participants). Suicidal thoughts were significantly reduced after EEG-NF compared with a waiting list in a small study. PTSD symptoms were assessed in all studies with different instruments. Results were consistently in favor of EEG-NF with large effect sizes (standardized mean difference −2.30 (95% confidence interval: −4.37 to −0.24). One study reported significantly improved level of executive functioning and one study a reduction in use of psychotropic medication. Complications were scarcely reported. Certainty of evidence was assessed as very low for the four assessed outcomes.
Based on four RCTs, with several study limitations and imprecision, it is uncertain whether EEG-NF reduces suicidal thoughts, PTSD symptoms, medication use, or improves function. Although all studies showed promising results, further studies are needed to increase the certainty of evidence.
Simultaneous PET/MR/EEG (Positron Emission Tomography – Magnetic Resonance – Electroencephalography), a new tool for the investigation of neuronal networks in the human brain, is presented here within the framework of the European Union Project TRIMAGE. The trimodal, cost-effective PET/MR/EEG imaging tool makes use of cutting edge technology both in PET and in MR fields. A novel type of magnet (1.5T, non-cryogenic) has been built together with a PET scanner that makes use of the most advanced photodetectors (i.e., SiPM matrices), scintillators matrices (LYSO) and digital electronics. The combined PET/MR/EEG system is dedicated to brain imaging and has an inner diameter of 260 mm and an axial Field-of-View of 160 mm.
It enables the acquisition and assessment of molecular metabolic information with high spatial and temporal resolution in a given brain simultaneously. The dopaminergic system and the glutamatergic system in schizophrenic patients are investigated via PET, the same physiological/pathophysiological conditions with regard to functional connectivity, via fMRI, and its electrophysiological signature via EEG. In addition to basic neuroscience questions addressing neurovascular-metabolic coupling, this new methodology lays the foundation for individual physiological and pathological fingerprints for a wide research field addressing healthy aging, gender effects, plasticity and different psychiatric and neurological diseases.
The preliminary performances of two components of the imaging tool (PET and MR) are discussed. Initial results of the search of possible candidates for suitable schizophrenia biomarkers are also presented as obtained with PET/MR systems available to the collaboration.
Accurate perception of visual contours is essential for seeing and differentiating objects in the environment. Both the ability to detect visual contours and the influence of perceptual context created by surrounding stimuli are diminished in people with schizophrenia (SCZ). The central aim of the present study was to better understand the biological underpinnings of impaired contour integration and weakened effects of perceptual context. Additionally, we sought to determine whether visual perceptual abnormalities reflect genetic factors in SCZ and are present in other severe mental disorders.
We examined behavioral data and event-related potentials (ERPs) collected during the perception of simple linear contours embedded in similar background stimuli in 27 patients with SCZ, 23 patients with bipolar disorder (BP), 23 first-degree relatives of SCZ, and 37 controls.
SCZ exhibited impaired visual contour detection while BP exhibited intermediate performance. The orientation of neighboring stimuli (i.e. flankers) relative to the contour modulated perception across all groups, but SCZ exhibited weakened suppression by the perceptual context created by flankers. Late visual (occipital P2) and cognitive (centroparietal P3) neural responses showed group differences and flanker orientation effects, unlike earlier ERPs (occipital P1 and N1). Moreover, behavioral effects of flanker context on contour perception were correlated with modulation in P2 & P3 amplitudes.
In addition to replicating and extending findings of abnormal contour integration and visual context modulation in SCZ, we provide novel evidence that the abnormal use of perceptual context is associated with higher-order sensory and cognitive processes.
Depression even at the subclinical level is often accompanied by sleep disturbances, but little is known about the dynamics of the sleep stages in relation to depressive symptoms. We examined whether the amount, associations, and transition probabilities of various sleep stages were associated with depressive symptoms in a community sample of adolescents.
The participants (N = 172, 59% girls, mean age 16.9 years) underwent overnight polysomnography and provided data on depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory II). The association between depression status and total duration of each stage type was analyzed using ANOVA and survival analyses. The associations between the number of different sleep stage types were analyzed using graphical Gaussian models, mixed graphical models, and relative importance networks. A Markov chain algorithm was used to estimate the transition probabilities between each state and these probabilities were further compared between depression status groups.
The associations between N1 and N3 were significantly stronger in both directions of the association (p-values for interactions 0.012 and 0.006) in those with more depressive symptoms. Similarly, a stronger association was observed from N1 to wake stage in those with more depressive symptoms (p-value for interaction 0.002). In those with more depressive symptoms, it was more likely to transition from N2 to N3 and from REM to N2 compared to others.
These findings indicate that changes in sleep architecture are not limited to clinical depression and that the transitional dynamics of sleep stages are an important marker of subclinical depression.
Although child maltreatment is a major public health concern, which adversely affects psychological and physical development, we know relatively little concerning psychophysiological and personality factors that may modify risk in children exposed to maltreatment. Using a three-wave, short-term prospective design, we examined the influence of individual differences in two disparate psychophysiological measures of risk (i.e., resting frontal brain electrical activity and respiratory sinus arrhythmia) on the trajectories of extraversion and neuroticism in a sample of female adolescents (N = 55; M age = 14.02 years) exposed to child maltreatment. Adolescents exposed to child maltreatment with relatively higher left frontal absolute alpha power (i.e., lower brain activity) at rest exhibited increasing trajectories of extraversion, and adolescents exposed to child maltreatment with relatively lower respiratory sinus arrhythmia at rest displayed increasing trajectories of neuroticism over 1 year. Individual differences in psychophysiological measures indexing resting central and peripheral nervous system activity may therefore differentially influence personality characteristics in adolescent females exposed to child maltreatment.