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The pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) remains unclear despite extensive neuroimaging work on the disorder. Exposure to medication and comorbid mental disorders can confound the results of OCD studies. The goal of this study was to explore differences in brain functional connectivity (FC) within the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) loop of drug-naïve and drug-free OCD patients and healthy controls (HCs).
A total of 29 drug-naïve OCD patients, 22 drug-free OCD patients, and 25 HCs matched on age, gender and education level underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning at resting state. Seed-based connectivity analyses were conducted among the three groups. The Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and clinical inventories were used to assess the clinical symptoms.
Compared with HCs, the drug-naïve OCD patients had reduced FC within the limbic CSTC loop. In the drug-naïve OCD participants, we also found hyperconnectivity between the supplementary motor area and ventral and dorsal putamen (p < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons).
Exposure to antidepressants such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors may affect the function of some brain regions. Future longitudinal studies could help to reveal the pharmacotherapeutic mechanisms in these loops.
Porous silicon nitride ceramics are attracting extensive attention due to its high strength and low dielectric loss. However, further strength enhancement at elevated temperatures is hindered by its intergranular phase, forming from sintering additives. This paper describes the fabrication of porous silicon nitride ceramic materials, by using a replacement method of carbothermal nitridation. The initial samples which were obtained from the sintering of mixed powder consisted of 95 wt% Si3N4 and 5 wt% Y2O3. After the removal of the oxide intergranular phase and the infiltration of mixtures of phenolic resins and silica sols, carbothermal nitridation process was carried out at 1550 °C for 2 h under nitrogen. X-ray diffraction and microstructural analysis revealed a complete replacement of oxide intergranular phases by the newly formed Si3N4 intergranular phase. The unmodified ceramic exhibited lower flexural strength at 1400 °C, which was only 50% of the room-temperature strength. Although the modified ceramic attained a slightly lower flexural strength at room temperature after the replacement of intergranular phase, its strength measured at 1400 °C could attain 90% of room-temperature strength.
Brief cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) is an emerging treatment for
schizophrenia in community settings; however, further trials are needed,
especially in non-Western countries.
To test the effects of brief CBT for Chinese patients with schizophrenia
in the community (trial registration: ChiCTR-TRC-13003709).
A total of 220 patients with schizophrenia from four districts of Beijing
were randomly assigned to either brief CBT plus treatment as usual (TAU)
or TAU alone. Patients were assessed at baseline, post-treatment and at
6- and 12-month follow-ups by raters masked to group allocation.
At the post-treatment assessment and the 12-month follow-up, patients who
received brief CBT showed greater improvement in overall symptoms,
general psychopathology, insight and social functioning. In total, 37.3%
of those in the brief CBT plus TAU group experienced a clinically
significant response, compared with only 19.1% of those in the TAU alone
group (P = 0.003).
Brief CBT has a positive effect on Chinese patients with schizophrenia in
Several divergent sympatry mtDNA lineages have been described in redlip mullet Liza haematocheilus, and this high inter-lineage divergence raises questions about the taxonomic status of L. haematocheilus lineages in the north-western Pacific. In this study, the amplified fragment length polymorphism technique was employed to examine genetic structure of L. haematocheilus and estimate the level of independence of the different mtDNA lineages in the north-western Pacific. A total of 186 bands were amplified from 91 individuals among 8 populations by 4 primer combinations and the percentage of polymorphic bands was 91.74%. The Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean tree based on Nei genetic distance revealed two clusters (North Clade and South Clade). Molecular variance analysis and pairwise FST supported the separation of north and south populations of L. haematocheilus in the north-western Pacific. The incongruence between nuclear groups and mitochondrial lineages suggests the three distinct lineages do not represent cryptic species and the presence of divergent mitochondrial lineages in the same sample is a result of secondary contact after an extended period of isolation. The Pleistocene isolation and biological characteristics of species may be responsible for the genetic differentiation of L. haematocheilus.
We present astrometric results on two millisecond pulsars, PSR B1257+12 and PSR J1022+1001, as carried out through VLBI. For PSR B1257+12, a model-independent distance of 710−38+43 pc and proper motion of (μα = 46.44 ± 0.08 mas/yr, μδ=−84.87 ± 0.32 mas/yr) were obtained from 5 epochs of VLBA and 4 epochs of EVN observations, spanning about 2 years. The two dimensional proper motion of PSR J1022+1001 (μα~−10.13 mas/yr, μδ~16.89 mas/yr) was also estimated, using 3 epochs of EVN observations. Based on our results, the X-ray efficiency of PSR B1257+12 should be in the same range as other millisecond pulsars, and not as low as previously thought.
This paper is concerned with the stability and instability of standing waves for the quasilinear Schrödinger equation of the form
which has been derived in many models from mathematical physics. We find the exact threshold depending upon the interplay of quasilinear and nonlinear terms that separates stability and instability. More precisely, we prove that for α ∈ and odd p ∈ , when , the standing wave is stable, and when (where for N ≥ 3 and 2 α ċ 2* = +∞ for N = 2), the standing wave is strongly unstable. Our results show that the quasilinear term 2 α(△|φ|2α)|φ|2α−2φ makes the standing waves more stable, which is consistent with the physical phenomena.
Ubiquitin proteasome system dysfunction is believed to play an important role in the development of Parkinson's disease (PD), and almost all studies till now have mainly focused on the susceptibility of dopaminergic neurons to proteasome inhibition. However, in fact, there are many other types of neurons such as cholinergic ones involved in PD. In our present study, we attempt to figure out what effect the failure of ubiquitin proteasome function would execute on cholinergic cells in culture.
We treated cholinergic cells in culture with various doses of lactacystin. Then MTT assay was used to evaluate the cellular viability and the Annexin V-PI method was used to detect apoptosis. Both cellular soluble and insoluble polyubiquitinated proteins were detected by western blot. Furthermore, the mitochondrial membrane potential was analyzed using JC-1 and the intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was determined using the fluorescent probe CM-H2DCFDA.
We found that low doses of lactacystin were enough to induce significant apoptotic cell death, disturb the mitochondrial membrane potential, and cause oxidative stress. We also found that the amounts of polyubiquitinated proteins dramatically increased with high doses, although the loss of cells did not increase accordingly.
Our results suggest that cholinergic cells are sensitive to ubiquitin proteasome system dysfunction, which exerts its toxic effect by causing mitochondrial dysfunction and subsequent oxidative stress, not through polyubiquitinated proteins accumulation.
Cryopreservation can cause cumulus cell damage around the immature oocytes, which may result in poor subsequent development. To evaluate the effect of the meiosis stage on the cumulus cell cryoinjury and determine the suitable stage for cryopreservation in immature oocytes, mouse oocytes at germinal vesicle (GV) and germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) stages were vitrified using open pulled straw (OPS) method. Cumulus cells damage was scored immediately after thawing by double-fluorescent staining. The survival rate of the oocytes was evaluated and the subsequent development of oocytes was assessed through in vitro culture (IVC) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) separately. After vitrification, a higher proportion of cumulus cells of GV oocytes were damaged than those of GVBD and untreated control groups. The survival rate of vitrified GVBD oocytes (94.1%) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that of GV oocytes (85.4%). Oocytes vitrified at GVBD stage (55.7%) showed similar cleavage rate compared to those at GV stage (49.2%), but significantly higher (p < 0.05) blastocyst rate (40.9% vs. 27.4%). These results demonstrate that oocytes at GVBD stage remain better cumulus membrane integrity and developmental ability during vitrification than those at GV stage, indicating they are more suitable for immature oocytes cryopreservation in mice.
We prove the existence of multiple bound states of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation −Δu + V(x)u = f(u). Here the linear potential V is continuous and bounded from below, and the nonlinearity f is of asymptotically linear type. We show that, under certain assumptions on the spectrum of the Schrödinger operator −Δ + V and the asymptotic behaviour of f(u)/u, the above equation has at least four non-trivial solutions, two of them sign changing.
We prove the existence of a positive solution for the Schrödinger-type equation on RN,−Δu + V(x)u = f(u) for u ∈ H1(RN), provided that
The result is obtained in two cases. (a) lim|x|→ ∞V(x) = V (∞) ∈ (0,∞), f is subcritical and supt>0 2F(t)t−2 < V (∞). (b) There exist V > 0 and R* > 0 such that f(t)t−1 < V ∞ ≤ V (x) for all t > 0 and |x| ≥ R*.
Three-dimensional temperature (T)–pressure (P)–composition (X) phase diagrams of binary carbon-hydrogen (C–H) and carbon-oxygen (C–O) systems for activated low pressure diamond growth have been calculated. Based on an approximation of linear combination between C–H and C–O systems, a projective ternary carbonhydrogen-oxygen (C–H–O) phase diagram has also been obtained. There is always a diamond growth region in each of these phase diagrams. Once a supply of external activating energy stops, the diamond growth region will not exist. Nearly all of the reliable experimental data reported in the literature drop into the possible diamond growth region of the calculated projective ternary C–H–O phase diagram under the conditions of 0.01–100 kPa and above 700 K.
We establish the existence of positive solutions with two peaks being located on the boundary of the domain for the problem −Δu + λu = up in antipodal invariant domains including ball domains with Neumann boundary conditions. Here p is the critical Sobolev exponent (N + 2)/(N − 2). The shape of the solutions and the location of the peaks are also studied.
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