To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Sugarcane brown rust, caused by Puccinia melanocephala, is one of the main diseases of sugarcane in China. The identification and discovery of new resistance genes have important theoretical and practical significance for preventing outbreaks of brown rust and ensuring the sustainable production of sugarcane. To screen for polymorphic simple-sequence repeat (SSR) molecular markers for localization of brown rust resistance genes, we used two populations that are suitable for genetic linkage map construction and mapping of new resistance genes to construct resistant and susceptible genetic pools. We then screened 449 pairs of primers to identify polymorphic SSR markers in the parental lines and the resistant/susceptible genetic pools. The results showed that 25 pairs of primers directed amplification of polymorphic DNA fragments between the parents of the cross combination ‘Yuetang 03-393’ × ‘ROC 24’, and 16 pairs of primers amplified polymorphic fragments between the parents of the cross combination ‘Liucheng 03-1137’ × ‘Dezhe 93-88’. Four pairs of primers (SMC236CG, SCESSR0928, SCESSR0636 and SCESSR2551) amplified polymorphic DNA fragments between the parental lines and the resistant/susceptible genetic pools in ‘Yuetang 03-393’ × ‘ROC 24’. The results of this study will establish a solid foundation for the mapping of new brown rust resistance genes, genetic linkage map construction and the development of closely-associated molecular markers in sugarcane.
The present study was performed on antigen-presenting cells (APCs) of Theileria annulata transformed dendritic cells (TaDCs) and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs) to compare differences in antigen presentation and stimulation of T lymphocyte proliferation. Antigen presentation for T lymphocyte proliferation was analysed by flow cytometry. Additionally, the level of mRNA transcription of small GTPases of the Rab family expressed in the TaDC cell line was analysed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-RT-PCR). The endocytosis rate of TaDCs was significantly (P < 0.01) lower than in MoDCs. In contrast, when T lymphocytes were co-cultured with TaDC-APCs T cell proliferation was similar, while co-culture with MoDC-APC stimulated proliferation of CD4+ cells to a greater degree than CD8+ cells. However, the efficacy of TaDC-APCs to stimulate T lymphocytes dropped as the number of passages of TaDC-APC increased. Likewise, the transcription level of Rab family genes also significantly (P > 0.001) declined with progressive passages (>50) of the TaDC cell line. We conclude that initially the TaDC cell line efficiently presents antigen to stimulate T lymphocyte proliferation to produce a cellular immune response against the presented antigen.
We assessed inheritance of resistance to sugarcane brown rust (Puccinia melanocephala) in selfing F1 populations of wild sugarcane germplasm Erianthus rockii ‘Yundian 95-19’ and E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-20’. We tested parent and selfing F1 individuals for the brown rust resistance gene, Bru1, that has been shown to confer resistance to brown rust in sugarcane. The Bru1 gene was not detected in E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-19’, E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-20’ or their selfing F1 individuals, and we found there was segregation of resistance in the two selfing F1 populations (segregation ratio: 3:1). The results confirmed resistance in E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-19’ and E. rockii ‘Yundian 95-20’ to sugarcane brown rust is controlled by a novel, single dominant gene.
The present study aimed to explore the associations between food away-from-home (FAFH) consumption and body weight outcomes among Chinese adults.
FAFH was defined as food prepared at restaurants and the percentage of energy from FAFH was calculated. Measured BMI and waist circumference (WC) were used as body weight outcomes. Quantile regression models for BMI and WC were performed separately by gender.
Information on demographic, socio-economic, diet and health parameters at individual, household and community levels was collected in twelve provinces of China.
A cross-sectional sample of 7738 non-pregnant individuals aged 18–60 years from the China Health and Nutrition Survey 2011 was analysed.
For males, quantile regression models showed that percentage of energy from FAFH was associated with an increase in BMI of 0·01, 0·01, 0·01, 0·02, 0·02 and 0·03 kg/m2 at the 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th and 95th quantile, and an increase in WC of 0·04, 0·06, 0·06, 0·04, 0·06, 0·05 and 0·07 cm at the 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th and 95th quantile. For females, percentage of energy from FAFH was associated with 0·01, 0·01, 0·01 and 0·02 kg/m2 increase in BMI at the 10th, 25th, 90th and 95th quantile, and with 0·05, 0·04, 0·03 and 0·03 cm increase in WC at the 5th, 10th, 25th and 75th quantile.
Our findings suggest that FAFH consumption is relatively more important for BMI and WC among males rather than females in China. Public health initiatives are needed to encourage Chinese adults to make healthy food choices when eating out.
Low-temperature stress is an important limiting factor to tobacco growth in early spring of south China. In this study, a low-temperature-resistant agent (LTRA) was employed to examine its ameliorating effect on the inhibition of tobacco growth triggered by low-temperature stress. Results indicated that low-temperature stress of 12 °C for 6 days reduced root number and biomass of tobacco seedling by 27.4% and 24.1%, while treatment with LTRA could recover the inhibitory effect of low-temperature stress on tobacco growth significantly. The content of ascorbic acid and the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase at low-temperature stress were 65.2%, 53.5% and 32.1% of those at normal temperature condition (26 °C), while the corresponding values with LTRA treatment were 89.2%, 88.9% and 74.2%, suggesting that LTRA treatment could enhance the activity of antioxidant enzyme and the synthesis of antioxidant compounds. Low-temperature stress increased the membrane permeability by 84.8%, while LTRA treatment recovered it by 77.4%. Furthermore, LTRA treatment contributed to increase chlorophyll synthesis and maintain the integrity of tobacco leaf structure. Effective component analysis indicated that the complex of ammonium calcium nitrate and glycine betaine was the main effective component of LTRA in maintaining membrane integrity. Its effective concentration was 1.0 g L−1. The above results suggested that LTRA could enhance the synthesis of chlorophyll, activate the activity of antioxidant enzyme, maintain the integrity of cell membrane, and thus elevate the tolerance of tobacco seedlings to low-temperature stress.
Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) have the ability to self-renew and offer a pathway for genetic engineering of the male germ line. Cryopreservation of SSCs has potential value for the treatment of male infertility, spermatogonial transplantation, and so on. In order to investigate the cryopreservation effects of different cryoprotectants on murine SSCs, 0.2 M of low-density lipoproteins (LDL), trehalose and soybean lecithin were added to the cryoprotective medium, respectively, and the murine SSCs were frozen at −80°C or −196°C. The results indicated that the optimal recovery rates of murine SSCs in the cryoprotective medium supplemented with LDL, trehalose and soybean lecithin were 92.53, 76.35 and 75.48% at −80°C, respectively. Compared with freezing at −196°C, the optimum temperature for improvement of recovery rates of frozen murine SSCs, cryopreservation in three different cryoprotectants at −80°C, were 17.11, 6.68 and 10.44% respectively. The recovery rates of murine SSCs in the cryoprotective medium supplemented with 0.2 M LDL were significantly higher than that of other cryoprotectants (P < 0.05). Moreover, the recovery rates were demonstrated to be greater at −80°C compared with at −196°C (P < 0.05). In conclusion, 0.2 M of LDL could significantly protect murine SSCs at −80°C. In the freezing–thawing process, LDL is responsible for the cryopreservation of murine SSCs because it can form a protective film at the surface of membranes. However, more research is needed to evaluate and understand the precise role of LDL during the freezing–thawing of SSCs.
Chen et al. (2011) found that the durations (timescales) of the normal and abnormal modes of PSR B0329+54 follow a gamma distribution, and constrained the parameters of the distribution function. In this paper, we perform a further analysis on the relationship between the timescales of the two modes. The ratio between the durations of a normal mode and the succeeding abnormal mode is calculated for 54 such pairs. It is found that the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the ratio is consistent with the CDF obtained by assuming random mode switching, suggesting that the two modes work independently.
Amyloid-β-induced neuroinflammation plays a central role in the extensive loss of cholinergic neurons and cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are the first class of drugs used to enhance surviving cholinergic activities. However, their limited effectiveness following long-term treatment raises a need for new multi-target therapies. We report herein a novel piperazine derivative compound PMS1339 possesses multifunctional properties including anti-platelet-activating factor, AChE inhibition, Aβ aggregation inhibition and cognitive improvement. PMS1339 could significantly inhibit both mice brain AChE (IC50=4.41±0.63 μm) and sera butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE, IC50=1.09±0.20 μm). PMS1339 was also found to inhibit neuronal AChE secreted by SH-SY5Y cell line (IC50=17.95±2.31 μm). Enzyme kinetics experiments performed on electric eel AChE indicated that PMS1339 acts as a mixed type competitive AChE inhibitor. Molecular docking studies using the X-ray crystal structure of AChE from Torpedo californica elucidated the interactions between PMS1339 and AChE: PMS1339 is well buried inside the active-site gorge of AChE interacting with Trp84 at the bottom, Tyr121 halfway down and Trp279 at the peripheral anionic site (PAS). Thioflavin T-based fluorimetric assay revealed the ability of PMS1339 to inhibit AChE-induced Aβ aggregation. In-vivo study indicated PMS1339 (1 mg/kg i.p.) reversed scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice. Overall, these findings indicated that PMS1339 exhibits tri-functional properties in vitro and cognitive improvement in vivo, and revealed the emergence of a multi-target-directed ligand to tackle the determinants of Alzheimer's disease.
The highly efficient plant binary expression vector pGBIF4ABCVHB was constructed using the artificially modified, synthesized VHb gene and fused insectidal gene (GFMcryIA and CPTI). Transgenic tobacco plants were obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. For 32 plants, the bivalent genes were inserted successfully into the tobacco genome and detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. Southern blot and Western blot analyses showed that VHb gene was expressed in the transgenic plants. Toxicity assay indicated that the fused insectidal gene expressed pesticidal toxin protein. The net weight of transgenic tobacco plants exceeded that of non-transgenic ones by 8%. Compared to non-transgenic tobacco plants, transgenic plants appeared to be high-yielding, insect-resistant varieties.
Expression of cell adhesion molecules by endothelium and the attachment of monocytes to endothelium may play a major role in atherosclerosis. Ellagic acid (EA) is a phenolic compound found in fruits and nuts including raspberries, strawberries, grapes and walnuts. Previous studies have indicated that EA possesses antioxidant activity in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the effects of EA on the formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species, the translocation of NFκB and expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and endothelial leucocyte adhesion molecule (E-selectin) induced by IL-1β in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). We found that EA significantly reduced the binding of human monocytic cell line, U937, to IL-1β-treated HUVEC. The production of reactive oxygen species by IL-1β was dose-dependently suppressed by EA. Supplementation with increasing doses of EA up to 50 μmol/l was most effective in inhibiting the expression of VCAM-1 and E-selectin. Furthermore, the inhibition of IL-1β-induced adhesion molecule expression by EA was manifested by the suppression of nuclear translocation of p65 and p50. In conclusion, EA inhibits IL-1β-induced nuclear translocation of p65 and p50, thereby suppressing the expression of VCAM-1 and E-selectin, resulting in decreased monocyte adhesion. Thus, EA has anti-inflammatory properties and may play an important role in the prevention of atherosclerosis.
The performance of a fluidized cracking catalyst additive prepared from caustic-modified kaolin microspheres for gasoline S reduction was investigated using N2 adsorption, infrared acid-site characterization, X-ray diffraction and small-scale fluid bed reactor tests. The additive exhibited improved coke selectivity and yield distribution, and the S content of cracked gasoline was reduced significantly. The results indicated that a reactive mesoporous structure was formed in the modified kaolin.
The chemical and mineralogical compositions, the pore-diameter distribution, and the X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and infrared spectroscopy of kaolin from Suzhou, China, and the physicochemical and catalytic properties of a catalyst prepared from that kaolin, are presented in this paper. Crystallized microspheres (CMR) containing ~30% NaY zeolite can be prepared from the Suzhou kaolin. The catalyst produced performs better than a standard commercial catalyst in terms of activity, attrition resistance, resistance to passivation by Ni and V and better gasoline and coke selectivity.
Growth and development of 207 children (49% males; mean age 5.4 years [SD 0.2], range 4 to 7.3 years whose mothers received iodine during pregnancy, and children who received iodine first in their 2nd year, were examined in 1996; 192 children (49% males; mean age 6.5 years[SD 0.2], range 5.8 to 6.9 years) whose mothers received iodine while pregnant were seen in 1998. Children were from the southern part of China's Xinjiang Province which has the lowest levels of iodine in water and soil ever recorded. Head circumference but not height was improved for those who received iodine during pregnancy (compared with those receiving iodine at age 2) and for those supplemented before the end of the 2nd trimester (relative to those supplemented during the 3rd trimester). Iodine before the 3rd trimester predicted higher psychomotor test scores for children relative to those provided iodine later in pregnancy or at 2 years. Results from the test for cognitive development resulted in trend only differences between those children supplemented during pregnancy versus later. The results address the question of when maternal iodine supplements should begin in public health programs world wide. Findings may be relevant to the treatment of maternal and newborn thyroid deficiency in industrialized countries, particularly for those infants delivered before the end of the second trimester.
It is found on the KT-5C tokamak that an edge fluctuation can be
a pair of floating Langmuir-probe pins. This fluctuation propagates along
magnetic field, with its amplitude decreasing drastically when it is off
magnetic field line, which is similar to the results obtained from experiments
the TEXT tokamak. Moreover, our experimental observations indicate that
excited fluctuation propagates with the electron directional motion, and
mainly manifested in an electron density fluctuation. Physically, this
fluctuation could be considered as modulation of the external electric
electrons, and is carried by the electron directional motion wherever it
These results are in good agreement with the proposed ballistic model that
be derived by solving the linearized Vlasov equation.