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Image stitching is important for the perception and manipulation of undersea robots. In spite of a well-developed technique, it is still challenging for undersea images because of their inevitable appearance ambiguity caused by the limited light in the undersea environment, and local disturbance caused by moving objects, ocean current, etc. To get a clean and stable background panorama in the undersea environment, this paper proposes an undersea image-stitching method by introducing graph-based registration and blending procedures. Specifically, in the registration procedure, matching the features in each undersea image pair is formulated and solved by graph matching, to incorporate the structural information between features. In the blending procedure, an energy function on the indirect graph Markov random field is proposed, which takes both image consistency and neighboring consistency into consideration. Coincidentally, both graph matching and energy minimization can be mathematically formulated by integer quadratic programming problems with different constraints; the recently proposed graduated nonconvexity and concavity procedure is used to optimize both problems. Experiments on both synthetic images and real-world undersea images witness the effectiveness of the proposed method.
The accuracy and fault tolerance of filters are directly affected by the filter architecture and algorithm, thus influencing navigation performance. The chi square detection used in the conventional reset federated filter is not sensitive to soft faults, and it is easy to cause the health subsystem to be polluted through information sharing. It is a challenge to design an adaptive reset federated filter to improve the performance of the navigation system. Therefore, taking the Strapdown Inertial Navigation System/Global Positioning System/Celestial Navigation System/Synthetic Aperture Radar (SINS/GPS/CNS/SAR) integrated navigation system as an example, an adaptive federated filter architecture for vector-formed information sharing without a fault isolation module is designed in this paper. The proposed method uses the two-state chi square detection algorithm to calculate the parameters corresponding to each state, making the state with higher accuracy obtain a greater information distribution coefficient. In addition, according to the value of vector-formed information sharing, an adaptive coefficient of measurement noise is designed. This improves the adaptability of the navigation system to soft faults. Simulation results show that the accuracy of the proposed algorithm has the same performance compared with the conventional method under normal circumstances. When the sensor has a soft fault, the adaptive federated filter algorithm proposed in this paper can adaptively adjust the distribution coefficients, eliminate the influence of the fault information and improve the precision of the navigation system. The approach described in this paper can be used in multi-sensor integrated navigation. It will have better performance in engineering applications.
Wave radiation and diffraction by a circular cylinder submerged below an ice sheet with a crack are considered based on the linearized velocity potential theory together with multipole expansion. The solution starts from the potential due to a single source, or the Green function satisfying both the ice sheet condition and the crack condition, as well as all other conditions apart from that on the body surface. This is obtained in an integral form through Fourier transform, in contrast to what has been obtained previously in which the Green function is in the series form based on the method of matched eigenfunction expansion in each domain on both sides of the crack. The multipole expansion is then constructed through direct differentiation of the Green function with respect to the source position, rather than treating each multipole as a separate problem. The use of the Green function enables the problem of wave diffraction by the crack in the absence of the body to be solved directly. For the circular cylinder, wave radiation and diffraction problems are solved by applying the body surface boundary condition to the multipole expansion, through which the unknown coefficients are obtained. Extensive results are provided for the added mass and damping coefficient as well as the exciting force. When the cylinder is away from the crack, a wide spacing approximation method is used, which is found to provide accurate results apart from when the cylinder is quite close to the crack.
With the improvement of the bias instability of Micro-Electromechanical Systems (MEMS) gyroscopes, the g-sensitivity error is gradually becoming one of the more important factors that affects the dynamic accuracy of a MEMS gyroscope. Hence there is a need for correcting the g-sensitivity error. However, the traditional calibration of g-sensitivity error uses a centrifuge. The calibration conditions are harsh, the process is complex and the cost is relatively high. In this paper, a fast and simple method of g-sensitivity error calibration for MEMS gyroscopes is proposed. With respect to the bias and random noise of a MEMS gyroscope, the g-sensitivity error magnitude is relatively small and it is simultaneously coupled with the Earth's rotation rate. Therefore, in order to correct the g-sensitivity error, this work models the calibration for g-sensitivity error coefficients, designs an (8+N)-position calibration scheme, and then proposes a fitting method for g-sensitivity error coefficients based on the Newton iteration and least squares methods. Multi-group calibration experiments designed on a MEMS Inertial Measurement Unit (MEMS IMU) product demonstrate that the proposed method can calibrate g-sensitivity error coefficients and correct the g-sensitivity error effectively and simply.
Business leaders constitute a powerful driving force for the miraculous growth of the Chinese economy in the past few decades. However, scholars have not developed theories accounting for the unique leadership phenomenon in the Chinese context, characterized by high uncertainty, intense market competition, and constant changes in government regulations and policies. This special issue aims at offering insights regarding business leadership in China. In this paper, we first introduce the three streams of Chinese leadership research, varying in the degree of Chinese context being considered in theory development. We then discuss how Chinese leadership has co-evolved with the transformation of firms and the institutional environment in China. The new values of young employees, born after 1980, are driving the need for leaders to adjust their leadership practices once again. After that, we present a summary of the four papers in this special issue, and the insights they provide to our understanding of leadership and its effectiveness in the Chinese context. Finally, we suggest future research directions for Chinese leadership research.
Carnitine has been reported to improve growth performance and reduce body lipid content in fish. Thus, we hypothesised that carnitine supplementation can improve growth performance and reduce lipid content in the liver and muscle of yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco), a commonly cultured freshwater fish in inland China, and tested this hypothesis in the present study. Diets containing l-carnitine at three different concentrations of 47 mg/kg (control, without extra carnitine addition), 331 mg/kg (low carnitine) and 3495 mg/kg (high carnitine) diet were fed to yellow catfish for 8 weeks. The low-carnitine diet significantly improved weight gain (WG) and reduced the feed conversion ratio (FCR). In contrast, the high-carnitine diet did not affect WG and FCR. Compared with the control diet, the low-carnitine and high-carnitine diets increased lipid and carnitine contents in the liver and muscle. The increased lipid content in the liver could be attributed to the up-regulation of the mRNA levels of SREBP, PPARγ, fatty acid synthase (FAS) and ACCa and the increased activities of lipogenic enzymes (such as FAS, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme) and to the down-regulation of the mRNA levels of the lipolytic gene CPT1A. The increased lipid content in muscle could be attributed to the down-regulation of the mRNA levels of the lipolytic genes CPT1A and ATGL and the increased activity of lipoprotein lipase. In conclusion, in contrast to our hypothesis, dietary carnitine supplementation increased body lipid content in yellow catfish.
As traditional poly-silicon gated MOSFET devices scale, the additional series capacitance due to poly-silicon depletion becomes an increasingly large fraction of the total gate capacitance, excessive boron penetration causes threshold voltage shifts, and the gate resistance is elevated. To solve these problems and continue aggressive device scaling we are studying metal electrodes with suitable work-functions and sufficient physical and electrical stability. Our studies of metal gates on HfO2 indicate that excessive inter-diffusion, inadequate phase stability, and interfacial reactions are mechanisms of failure at source drain activation temperatures that must be considered during the electrode selection process. Understanding the physical properties of the metal gate – HfO2 interface is critical to understanding the electrical behavior of MOS devices. Of particular interest is Fermi level pinning, a phenomenon that occurs at metal – dielectric interfaces which causes undesirable shifts in the effective metal work function. The magnitude of Fermi level pinning on HfO2 electrodes is studied with Pt and LaB6 electrodes. In addition, the intrinsic and extrinsic contributions to Fermi level pinning of platinum electrodes on HfO2 gate dielectrics are investigated by examining the impact of oxygen and forming gas anneals on the work function of platinum-HfO2-silicon capacitors. The presence of interfacial oxygen vacancies or Pt-Hf bonds is believed to be responsible for a degree of pinning that is stronger than predicted from the MIGS model alone. Interface chemistry and defects influence the effective metal work function.
Films (with thicknesses about thousands A) of a new form of carbon allotrope, CIO also known as Fullerenes, are deposited on Si(111) substrates using ionized cluster beam deposition (ICBD) technique at low (65V) accelerating voltage V. X-ray &-20 diffraction (XRD) have been used to investigate the structural properties of C6Ofi lms, indicating hexagonal close-packed structure with strong (002) XRD assignment together with weak (100), (112) and(004) assignments. Raman spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) are carried out to make detailed studies of the electronic properties of the films and to illustrate differences between CO films and amorphous carbon films which are deposited by ICBD at high accelerating voltage V >400V. Cio soccer-balls are found to be broken into fragments as accelerating field overtakes about 400V, indicated by the results of XPS, Raman spectra, XRD, and UV/visible absorption spectra.
C50 films, are deposited on Si(111) substrates using neutral cluster beams of fullerenes generated from a crucible with a special nozzle. X-ray diffraction (XRD) have been used to investigate the structural properties of C50 films, which indicate highly textural films as close-packed structure with strong (110) XRD assignment and 400Å for correlation length. Raman spectrum indicates the existence of stable C60 films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) measurements are carried out to analyze the electronic properties of the films. The resistivity to contamination of C50 film deposited here is better than that deposited by MBE. Different kinds of oxygen contamination on the surfaces of C50 films and HDPG are detected by the results of O 1s XPS analyses.
Bombardment of silicon surfaces by low-energy nitrogen ions has been investigated as a possible process for growing films of silicon nitride at relatively low temperature(<500°C). Broad ion beams of energy 300–1200eV have been used to grow ultrathin silicon nitride films. Film thickness and chemical states are analyzed using ellipsometery, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Auger electron spectroscopy(AES). As a result, thicknesses dependence on ion energy, substrate temperature and implantation time have been investigated. The thicknesses of films obtained appear to increase with ion energy in the range from 300 to 1200eV, and with time of bombardment. The thicknesses are also observed to vary slightly with substrate temperature. The growth mechanism has also been investigated and discussed. The average activation energy of nitridation rates is about 3.5meV which indicates nonthermal process kinetics, compared to an activation energy of 0.2–0.6eV for thermal nitridation. AES results show that the atomic ratio [N]/[Si] is about 1.5, larger than that of pure Si3N4. All the analyses show that silicon nitride films of about 60Å thickness have been grown on silicon by low-energy ion beam nitridation.
CN1 thin films have been synthesized by ion-beam-assisted laser ablation of graphite. Films with N-concentration of 45% are obtained, indicated by high energy backseattering spectrum (HEBS). Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data confirm the existence of carbon-nitrogen bonds. Polycrystallites beta-CjNi structure has been detected in the amorphous matrix of the films, as indicated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron diffraction. Qualitative tests indicate that the films are relatively hard and adhesive.
C60 films, which are deposited by partially ionized beam deposition (PIBD), are doped by 100 keV boron ion implantation at dose ranging from 3*1014 to 1*1016 cm2 The implantation process has been studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectra and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. Almost all C60 soccer-balls in the doped region in the films are found to be broken at dose of 1*1016 cm2, while at dose less than 6*1014 cm2 a few C60 molecules remain undestroyed and maintain the original structural properties.
Ionized cluster beam deposition (ICBD) technique has been used to deposit Ag films on both Si(111) and Si(100) substrates. Sizes of clusters in ionized cluster beam are found to distribute in a range of 100–600 atoms/cluster. X-ray diffraction (XRD), and α-step profile methods are used to analyze the properties of Ag films. As a comparison, Ag films deposited by conventional evaporation are also investigated. Highly textured Ag films with strong (111) orientation on Si (111) have been obtained at high accelerating voltage Va=4kV. The crystallinity and surface flatness of Ag films can be improved by ICBD at high accelerating voltages.
The structure of the twin boundary in the low-temperature-orthorhombic phase of La2−xBaxCuO4 is studied using a Landau-type free energy model which reproduces the x − T phase diagram. The La2−xBaxCuO4 compound has a body-centered tetragonal (HTT) structure at high temperatures. Upon cooling it undergoes a structural phase transition to a low-temperature orthorhombic structure (LTO structure) which is caused by the tilting of the CuO6 octahedra about the (110) and (110) directions. Depending on the doping level x, the LTO structure may go through another phase transition at an even lower temperature to a low-temperature tetragonal phase (LTT phase). We find that the existence of LTT phase greatly changes the characteristics of the twin boundary in the LTO phase. LTT phase exists at twin boundaries of the LTO phase at temperatures well above the LTT to LTO transition temperature.
C60 films have been deposited using a partially ionized cluster beam deposition (PIBD) technique. The experimental results show that as Va. exceeds about 400 V almost all the C60 molecules fragmentate at collision with the substrate and the obtained films turn to be amorphous carbon layers at elevated Va, indicated by measurements of Raman spectra, X-ray diffraction, and ellipsometry.
We consider 2D lattices which are disordered by an external field, in this case by a dense, random distribution of attractive pinning centers of an underlying substrate. The preferred configuration of the 2D system with screened-Coulomb two-body interactions and a fixed number of particles is a triangular lattice configuration. The pinning centers strongly affect the triangular lattice configuration. By keeping the location and the density of the pinning centers fixed, we study the effects of pinning strength on the structural properties of the lattice. We find that the strongly disordered lattice prefers to form irregular domains of size s which are composed entirely of topological defects. The distribution of sizes of these domains, D(s) suggest that s−τ for sufficiently large s. Our results are consistent with τ ≥ 2 in the solid phase and τ < 2 in the liquid phase. We present a general argument in support of our findings and suggest that the physics which dictates the structure of 2D lattices on substrates with randomly distributed pinning centers is the same as that for a broad range of problems in which an external field strongly influences the behavior of an interacting physical system.