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High carbohydrate diet could achieve protein sparing effect, but it may cause negative impacts on the growth condition of fish due to their poor utilization ability of carbohydrate. How to reduce the adverse effects caused by high carbohydrate diet is important for the development of aquaculture. In the present study, we aimed to identify whether inulin could attenuate metabolic syndrome caused by high-carbohydrate diet in fish. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) (1.19 ± 0.01 g) were supplied with 35% carbohydrate (CON), 45% carbohydrate (HC) and 45% carbohydrate + 5g/kg inulin (HCI) diets for ten weeks. The results showed that addition of inulin improved the survival rate when fish were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila, indicating inulin had an immunostimulatory effect. Compared with HC group, HCI group had lower lipid accumulation in liver and the gene expression analyses indicated that addition of inulin downregulated genes related to lipogenesis and upregulated genes relevant to β-oxidation significantly (P < 0.05). Higher liver glycogen and glucose tolerance were found in HCI group compared with HC group (P < 0.05). These results indicated that inulin could alleviate the metabolic syndrome induced by high-carbohydrate diet. Furthermore, addition of inulin in high-carbohydrate diet changed the intestinal bacterial composition and significantly increased the concentration of acetic acid and propionic acid in fish gut which have the potential to increase pathogen resistance and regulate metabolic characteristics in fish. Collectively, our results demonstrated a possible causal role for the gut microbiome in metabolic improvements induced by inulin in fish.
Eurasian steppes experienced frequent cultural transfers, human migration, and diffusion of techniques during the Bronze Age. The Hami Oasis is one of the most dynamic areas and has attracted multiple cultural flows. It is an important area that connects various routes of the Tianshan Corridor with the Hexi Corridor in western China. The Tianshanbeilu cemetery is the largest Bronze Age cemetery in Hami. Thirty-seven new radiocarbon dates allowed us to establish a new and more accurate chronology for Tianshanbeilu. Our results showed that the Tianshanbeilu cemetery was used from approximately 2022–1802 cal BC and remained in use from 1093–707 cal BC. This indicates that Tianshanbeilu is the earliest and longest-used known cemetery in eastern Xinjiang. By incorporating the typology of artifacts and stratigraphic relationships, the development of the Tianshanbeilu cemetery was divided into four phases. The first phase was from 2011–1672 cal BC, the second phase was from 1660–1408 cal BC, the third phase was from 1385–1256 cal BC, and the fourth phase was from 1214–1029 cal BC.
In this paper, the recent studies of laboratory astrophysics with strong magnetic fields in China have been reviewed. On the Shenguang-II laser facility of the National Laboratory on High-Power Lasers and Physics, a laser-driven strong magnetic field up to 200 T has been achieved. The experiment was performed to model the interaction of solar wind with dayside magnetosphere. Also the low beta plasma magnetic reconnection (MR) has been studied. Theoretically, the model has been developed to deal with the atomic structures and processes in strong magnetic field. Also the study of shock wave generation in the magnetized counter-streaming plasmas is introduced.
With the development of ultraintense terawatt (TW) and petawatt (PW) laser systems, powerful terahertz (THz) radiation from laser–plasma interactions has been reported. Plasma-based THz systems, which are usually operated at extremely low repetition rates, call for single-shot diagnostics. In this paper, various state-of-the-art single-shot detection methods are introduced or designed for measurements and applications involved in high-power plasma-based THz sciences.
It is found that there is an upper-limit critical power for self-guided propagation of intense lasers in plasma in addition to the well-known lower-limit critical power set by the relativistic effect. Above this upper-limit critical power, the laser pulse experiences defocusing due to expulsion of local plasma electrons by the transverse ponderomotive force. Associated with the upper-limit power, a lower-limit critical plasma density is also found for a given laser spot size, below which self-focusing does not occur for any laser power. Both the upper-limit power and the lower-limit density are derived theoretically and verified by two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The present study provides new guidance for experimental designs, where self-guided propagation of lasers is essential.
Adsorption of Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells on red mud (RM) is important in the interactions between RM and bacteria. The objective of this work is to study adsorption of E. coli onto RM and to determine its influence in relation to the surface properties of RM. The effects of different calcination temperatures on the surface properties of red mud were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Brunauer, Emmett, Teller (surface measurement)/N2 adsorption method, and zeta potential analysis. A higher adsorption capacity was observed from RM calcinated at 700 °C (RM700) due to larger pores formed on the surface of RM. The correlation between the adsorption efficacy and surface properties of RM is discussed and the extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek theory suggests that when the adsorption reaches equilibrium, the increased adsorption of E. coli onto RM is due to the smaller energy barrier between E. coli and RM700 as compared with that between E. coli and raw RM (RM0).
Energetic electron beam generation from a thin foil target by the ponderomotive force of an ultra-intense circularly polarized laser pulse is investigated. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations show that laser pulses with intensity of 1022–1023 Wcm−2 generate about 1–10 GeV electron beams, in agreement with the prediction of one-dimensional theory. When the laser intensity is at 1024–1025 Wcm−2, the beam energy obtained from PIC simulations is lower than the values predicted by the theory. The radiation damping effect is considered, which is found to become important for the laser intensity higher than 1025 Wcm−2. The effect of laser focus positions is also discussed.
In vitro bulb scales of Lilium longiflorum×L. formosanum were used as explants to develop a highly efficient regeneration system. A high regeneration rate (100%) was reached through organogenesis on basal Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) and 1.0 mg/l naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). A genetic transformation system for the lily was developed using an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated method. An improved genetic transformation rate (12‰) was obtained when the explants were pre-cultured for 3 days, immersed in bacterial suspension (OD600≈0.8) for 5 min, and co-cultivated for 5 days. The binary vector pBI121 containing Zm401, a maize pollen-specific gene, was introduced into the Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 and transformed into the explants using the genetic transformation system. Gene integration into the lily genome was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and PCR–Southern analysis. These results could lead to the production of new pollenless lily plants.
To understand the genetic basis of seed setting rate (SSR) in rice, two breeding lines (Oryza sativa ssp. indica), T226 with higher and stable SSR and T219 with lower and fluctuating SSR from different natural conditions, were used for constructing recombinant inbred lines (RILs). Genotype by environment (G×E) interaction and quantitative trait loci (QTL) for SSR were analysed using a population with 202 RILs under eight differing environments. A significant G×E interaction for SSR was detected in rice using the Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI) statistical model, and the IPCA1 and IPCA2 of the G×E interaction accounted for a variation of 57.6%. QTL controlling the SSR were detected by the method of interval analysis. Seventeen QTL on nine chromosomes were identified across eight environments, totally explaining the phenotypic variances from 4.6 to 35.7%. Most of the QTL, each explaining a small part of the phenotypic variances and interacting with environments, were detected in one or two environments, and their alleles for increasing the SSR were derived from T226. However, the QTL (MRG5959–MRG2180) on chromosome 3 was detected across six different environments. It explained maximum phenotypic variances in each detected environment and its allele for increasing the SSR was derived from T226. Another QTL, mapped between markers RM592 and RM169 on chromosome 5, was detected in five various environments and its allele increasing the SSR was derived from T219.
This paper presents an approach for decoding the pressure information exerted over a piece of fabric by means of resistive sensing. The proposed sensor includes a distributed resistive grids constructed by two systems of orthogonally contacted electrical conductive yarns, with no external sensing element to be attached on the fabric. Since the conductive yarns serve as the sensing and wiring elements simultaneously, this design simplifies the fabrication process, reduces the cost and makes the production of large area flexible pressure sensor possible. The location of the pressure applied on the fabric can be identified by detecting the position where the change of the resistances occurs between two embroidered yarns. Meanwhile, the magnitude of the pressure can be acquired by measuring the variations of the resistance. In order to eliminate the “crosstalk” effect between adjoining fibers, the yarns were separately wired on the fabric surface.
The three-dimensional waving plate theory is developed to investigate the swimming performance of fish undulatory motion. In particular, the propulsive effectiveness is discussed. The unsteady potential flow over model rectangular and triangular flexible plates performing a motion which consists of a progressing wave with variable amplitudes is calculated by the vortex ring panel method. It is found that the undulatory motion can reduce three-dimensional effects. It is this important hydrodynamic phenomenon that may be one of the main reasons why such undulation is widely used as the swimming method by a large number of aquatic animals. When the span of the undulating plate is nearly unchanged and the wave amplitude is constant or increases slightly along the chord, and the wavelength is close to the body length, theoretical results show that the swimming performance is best and the flow around the plate has a quasi-two-dimensional property. This swimming method may be observed in many fishes, especially those with an anguilliform mode of propulsion. The modification of the anguilliform mode of propulsion to the carangiform mode is also discussed. It is confirmed that the pronounced necking of the body anterior to the tail, which acts to improve the propulsive performance, is a major morphological adaptation of fishes using the carangiform mode, in which the characteristic nature of flexural movement confined to the rear part of the body is that the amplitude of undulation increases posteriorly and no complete wavelength is at any time apparent.
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