To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In situ U–Pb and Hf analyses were used for crustal zircon xenocrysts from Triassic kimberlites exposed in the Rangnim Massif of North Korea to identify components of the basement hidden in the deep crust of the Rangnim Massif and to clarify the crustal evolution of the massif. The U–Pb age spectrum of the zircons has a prominent population at 1.9–1.8 Ga and a lack of Archaean ages. The data indicate that the deep crust and basement beneath the Rangnim Massif are predominantly of Palaeoproterozoic age, consistent with the ages of widely exposed Palaeoproterozoic granitic rocks. In situ zircon Hf isotope data show that most of the Palaeoproterozoic zircon xenocrysts have negative ϵHf(t) values (−9.7 to +0.7) with an average Hf model age of 2.86 ± 0.02 Ga (2σ), which suggests that the Palaeoproterozoic basement was not juvenile but derived from the reworking of Archaean rocks. Considering the existence of Archaean remanent material in the Rangnim Massif and their juvenile features, a strong crustal reworking event is indicated at 1.9–1.8 Ga, during which time the pre-existing Archaean basement was exhausted and replaced by a newly formed Palaeoproterozoic basement. These features suggest that the Rangnim Massif constitutes the eastern extension of the Palaeoproterozoic Liao–Ji Belt of the North China Craton instead of the Archaean Liaonan Block as previously thought. A huge Palaeoproterozoic orogen may exist in the eastern margin of the Sino-Korean Craton.
A Q-learning approach is often used for navigation in static environments where state space is easy to define. In this paper, a new Q-learning approach is proposed for navigation in dynamic environments by imitating human reasoning. As a model-free method, a Q-learning method does not require the environmental model in advance. The state space and the reward function in the proposed approach are defined according to human perception and evaluation, respectively. Specifically, approximate regions instead of accurate measurements are used to define states. Moreover, due to the limitation of robot dynamics, actions for each state are calculated by introducing a dynamic window that takes robot dynamics into account. The conducted tests show that the obstacle avoidance rate of the proposed approach can reach 90.5% after training, and the robot can always operate below the dynamics limitation.
Several studies have suggested that higher carotenoid levels may be beneficial for atherosclerosis patients, but few studies have examined this relationship in the Chinese population. This cross-sectional study examined the association between the levels of carotenoids in diet and serum and carotid intima–media thickness (IMT) in Chinese adults aged 50–75 years in Guangzhou, China. Dietary intake was assessed using a FFQ. HPLC was used to assay the serum concentrations of α-carotene, β-carotene, lutein+zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin and lycopene. The IMT at the common carotid artery (CCA) and bifurcation of the carotid artery was measured by B-mode ultrasound. A total of 3707 and 2947 participants were included in the analyses of dietary and serum carotenoids. After adjustment for demographic, socio-economic and lifestyle factors, all the serum carotenoids levels except lycopene were found to be inversely associated with the IMT at the CCA and bifurcation (Ptrend<0·001 to 0·013) in both men and women. The absolute mean differences in the IMT between the subjects in the extreme quartiles of serum carotenoid levels were 0·034 mm (α-carotene), 0·037 mm (β-carotene), 0·032 mm (lutein+zeaxanthin), 0·030 mm (β-cryptoxanthin), 0·015 mm (lycopene) and 0·035 mm (total carotenoids) at the CCA; the corresponding values were 0·025, 0·053 0·043, 0·050, 0·011 and 0·042 mm at the bifurcation. The favourable associations were also observed between dietary carotenoids (except lycopene) and the CCA IMT. In conclusion, elevated carotenoid levels in diet and serum are associated with lower carotid IMT values (particular at the CCA) in Chinese adults.
The ZnO/g-C3N4 binary heterostructures were formed by two steps, then the firm connection between ZnO NRs and lamellar g-C3N4 was characterized through powder XRD, FESEM with EDS, TEM, XPS, and Thermogravimetric analysis. Then the gas sensing performances of ZnO/g-C3N4 nanoheterostructures were analyzed systematically by using ethanol as a molecular probe. The results revealed that the fabricated compositive sensor not only exhibited quick response/recovery characteristics in the whole operating temperature (OT) range of 200–300 °C but also got a maximum response of 14.29 toward 100 ppm of ethanol at the optimal OT of only 260 °C. Moreover, such heterostructures also demonstrated good selectivity and superb reproducibility to acetone among all the tested toxic gases, especially higher response and faster response–recovery speeds than the pristine ZnO sensor. The above ZnO/g-C3N4 heterostructures may also supply other novel applications in the aspects of lithium-ion batteries, photocatalysis, optical devices, and so on.
Since 2010, Jankowski’s Bunting Emberiza jankowskii has been listed as ‘Endangered’ on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. However, because no comprehensive surveys had been conducted, it was not known whether undiscovered populations existed elsewhere, so the population status of the species could not be assessed accurately. The aim of this study was to assess the breeding distribution and population size of Jankowski’s Bunting in China. Fifty sites in Inner Mongolia, and Jilin, Heilongjiang, Liaoning and Hebei Provinces were surveyed to locate suitable habitat and breeding populations of Jankowski’s Bunting. The surveyed sites included historical breeding distribution areas, wintering sites, and regions adjacent to historical breeding distribution areas. We confirmed that Jankowski’s Bunting has disappeared from most of its former breeding distributions, with the exceptions of Dagang, Xiergen and Tumiji. Additionally, 13 new breeding sites were discovered in Inner Mongolia. All currently known populations breed in Mongolian steppe-vegetation zones, with shrubs dominated by the natural Siberian apricot Prunus sibirica, indicating that this type of habitat is crucial for the survival of the species. Based on remote sensing, the suitable breeding habitat for Jankowski’s Bunting is estimated to be approximately 280 km2. The population size of Jankowski’s Bunting could range between 9,800 and 12,500 individuals, which is much higher than the numbers estimated in previous reports that were based on partial surveys. The suitable habitat remaining in Inner Mongolia would highly benefit from the implementation of the National Key Public Forest Protection Project. The population size of Jankowski’s Bunting is larger than previously estimated, but it is still threatened by habitat degradation and fragmentation, and our survey results reinforce the need for more research. The status of Jankowski’s Bunting in China still meets the IUCN criteria B2ab for an ‘Endangered’ species.
We examined the in vitro developmental competence of parthenogenetic activation (PA) oocytes activated by an electric pulse (EP) and treated with various concentrations of AZD5438 for 4 h. Treatment with 10 µM AZD5438 for 4 h significantly improved the blastocyst formation rate of PA oocytes in comparison with 0, 20, or 50 µM AZD5438 treatment (46.4% vs. 34.5%, 32.3%, and 24.0%, respectively; P < 0.05). The blastocyst formation rate was higher in the group treated with AZD5438 for 4 h than in the groups treated with AZD5438 for 2 or 6 h (42.8% vs. 38.6% and 37.2%, respectively; P > 0.05). Furthermore, 66.67% of blastocysts derived from these AZD5438-treated PA oocytes had a diploid karyotype. The blastocyst formation rate of PA and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos was similar between oocytes activated by an EP and treated with 2 mM 6-dimethylaminopurine for 4 h and those activated by an EP and treated with 10 µM AZD5438 for 4 h (11.11% vs. 13.40%, P > 0.05). In addition, the level of maturation-promoting factor (MPF) was significantly decreased in oocytes activated by an EP and treated with 10 µM AZD5438 for 4 h. Finally, the mRNA expression levels of apoptosis-related genes (Bax and Bcl-2) and pluripotency-related genes (Oct4, Nanog, and Sox2) were checked by RT-PCR; however, there were no differences between the AZD5438-treated and non-treated control groups. Our results demonstrate that porcine oocyte activation via an EP in combination with AZD5438 treatment can lead to a high blastocyst formation rate in PA and SCNT experiments.
Ancylostoma tubaeforme may infect canids, felids and humans, and pose a potential risk to public health. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques were used to amplify the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence of A. tubaeforme from cats and to analyse its sequence characteristics after molecular identification based on the internal transcribed spacer ITS1+ sequence. The results show that the complete mt genome sequence (GenBank accession number KY070315) of A. tubaeforme from cats was 13,730 bp in length, including 12 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, two non-coding regions and an AT-rich region. The nucleotide content of A and T was 77.93%, biased toward A and T. Twelve protein-coding genes used ATT, TTG and GTG as initiation codons, and TAA, TAG, TA and T as termination codons. The length of the 22 tRNA genes ranged from 52 to 62 bp, their predicted secondary structures were D loops and V loops. The lengths of the two rRNAs were 958 and 697 bp. Phylogenetic analyses showed that A. tubaeforme from cats was in the lineage of Ancylostoma, having a close phylogenetic relationship with A. caninum. This study reports for the first time the mt genome of A. tubaeforme from cats in China, which could enhance the mt genome database of Ancylostomatidae nematodes, and it offers the scientific basis for further studies in the genetic diversity of hookworms among different hosts.
Ralstonia pickettii has caused contamination of pharmaceutical solutions in many countries, resulting in healthcare infections or outbreak events. We determined the source of the outbreak of R. pickettii bloodstream infection (BSI).
This study was conducted in a 3,000-bed tertiary referral medical center in Taiwan with >8,500 admissions during May 2015. Patients had been treated in the injection room or chemotherapy room at outpatient departments, emergency department, or hospital wards. All patients who were culture positive for R. pickettii from May 3 to June 11, 2015, were eligible for the study. The aim of the survey was to conduct clinical epidemiological and microbiological investigations to identify possible sources of infection.
We collected 57 R. pickettii–positive specimens from 30 case patients. We performed 24 blood cultures; 14 of these revealed >2 specimens and 6 used fluid withdrawn from Port-a-Cath implantable venous access devices. All patients received an injection of 20 mL 0.9% normal saline via catheter flushing. In addition, 2 unopened ampules of normal saline solution (20 mL) were confirmed positive for R. pickettii. The Taiwan Centers for Disease Control and Prevention performed sampling and testing of the same manufactured batch and identified the same strain of R. pickettii. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis tests revealed that all clinical isolates had similarity of >90%, validating the outbreak of the same clone of R. pickettii.
R. pickettii can grow in saline solutions and cause bloodstream infections. Hospital monitoring mechanisms are extremely important measures in identifying and ending such outbreaks.
Tolerance of transgressions can influence the social cognitive and moral development of children and adolescents. Given the prevalent tolerance for bribery throughout the developing world and in China, the present research identified bribery as a serious transgression and investigated the various effects of moral evaluations and descriptive norms on transgression tolerance with increasing age. Thus, two studies examined these effects among primary, middle, and high school students (N = 972, 10-, 13-, and 16-year-olds). In Study 1, students’ transgression tolerance was negatively influenced by moral evaluations, and no age trend emerged. However, students reported more transgression tolerance with age owing to their increasing understanding of descriptive norms. In Study 2, the descriptive norms were manipulated: individuals in the high descriptive norm condition showed greater transgression tolerance than those in the low descriptive norm condition. An increasing tolerance of transgressions was observed only for those in the high descriptive norm condition. The effect of descriptive norms was found to contribute to the transgression tolerance trend.
We construct the radially-resolved semi-analytic models of galaxy formation based on the L-Galaxies model framework, which include both atomic and molecular gas phase in ISM. The models run on the halo outputs of ΛCDM cosmology N-body simulation. Our models can reproduce varies observations of HI gas in nearby galaxies, e.g. the HI mass function, the HI-to-star ratio vs stellar mass and stellar surface density, universal HI radial surface density profile in outer disks etc. We also give the physical origin of HI size-mass relation. Based on our model results for local dwarf galaxies, we show that the “missing satellite problem” also exists in the HI component, i.e., the models over-predict dwarf galaxies with low HI mass around the Milky Way. That is a shortcoming of current ΛCDM cosmology framework. Future survey for HI gas in local dwarf galaxies (e.g. MeerKAT, SKA & FAST) can help to verify the nature of dark matter (cold or warm).
Recent studies have shown that chemical immiscibility is important to achieve enhanced radiation tolerance in metallic multilayers as immiscible layer interfaces are more stable against radiation induced mixing than miscible interfaces. However, as most of these immiscible systems have incoherent interfaces, the influence of coherency on radiation resistance of immiscible systems remains poorly understood. Here, we report on radiation response of immiscible Cu/Fe multilayers, with individual layer thickness h varying from 0.75 to 100 nm, subjected to He ion irradiation. When interface is incoherent, the peak bubble density decreases with decreasing h and reaches a minimum when h is 5 nm. At even smaller h when interface is increasingly coherent, the peak bubble density increases again. However, void swelling in coherent multilayers with smaller h remains less than those in incoherent multilayers. Our study suggests that the coherent immiscible interface is also effective to alleviate radiation induced damage.
In this work, the effects of different preparation methods on the microstructures and properties of the Ti45.7Zr33Ni3Cu5.8Be12.5 alloy were systematically studied by both experimental and numerical ways. It is found that the heating methods and the cooling rate during the process of preparation have great influences not only on the morphology and crystalline structure of the solid solutions but also on the thermal stability of the amorphous phase. Furthermore, the different crystalline structures and micromorphologies of the ductile phase will also influence the mechanical properties. And the uniaxial compression tests at room temperature verify that the Ti45.7Zr33Ni3Cu5.8Be12.5 samples obtained by different preparation methods possess different degrees of plasticity. The better comprehensive properties were found for samples with a larger size under the copper mold cooling conditions. The variation of the morphology of the solid solution phase under different preparation conditions is believed to be the vital factor that leads to the diversity in properties.
Biped walking can be regarded as a global limit cycle whose stability is difficult to verify by only local sensory feedback. This paper presents a control strategy combining global sensory reflex and leg synchronization. The inverted pendulum angle is utilized as global motion feedback to ensure global stability, and joint synchronization between legs is designed to stabilize bifurcations. The proposed strategy can achieve a stable gait and stabilize bifurcations. The robustness of this approach was evaluated against external disturbances. Walking experiments of a biped actuated by pneumatic muscles were conducted to confirm the validity of the proposed method. Instead of tracking predetermined trajectories, this method uses sensory reflexes to activate motor neurons and coincides with the biological idea wherein inessential degrees-of-freedom are barely controlled rather than strictly controlled.
Si-rich oxide/SiO2 multilayer films with different N2O flow rates have been deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique, and Si quantum dot (Si-QD)/SiO2 multilayer films are obtained by 1100 °C annealing. Steady photoluminescence (PL) spectra show that the main optical emission mechanism changes from quantum confinement effect of Si-QDs to interface defect states with increasing the flow rate of N2O. Curve fittings of time-resolved PL spectra show that two log-normal decay time distribution bands are obtained, and both the most frequent life-times decrease with increasing the flow rate of N2O, while increase with the red shift of detecting wavelength. Analyses indicate that defect states density and size distribution of Si-QDs strongly influence the PL decay properties.
The present study was designated to ascertain the anthelmintic activity of the rhizomes of Paris polyphylla and to isolate and characterize the active constituents. The methanol extract from rhizomes of P. polyphylla showed signiﬁcant anthelmintic activity against Dactylogyrus intermedius with the median effective concentration (EC50) 22·5 mg L−1. Based on this finding, the methanol extract was fractionated by silica gel column chromatography in a bioassay-guided fractionation yielding 2 bioactive compounds, the structures of these compounds were elucidated as formosanin C and polyphyllin VII. The in vivo tests revealed that formosanin C and polyphyllin VII were significantly effective against D. intermedius with EC50 values of 0·6 and 1·2 mg L−1, respectively. The acute toxicities (LC50) of formosanin C and polyphyllin VII for grass carp were 2·8 and 2·9 mg L−1, respectively. The overall results provide important information for the potential application of formosanin C and polyphyllin VII in the therapy of serious infection caused by D. intermedius.
The ferroelectric thin films of bismuth titanate (Bi4Ti3O12) have been prepared by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition ( MOCVD) technique at atmosphere. The triphenyl bismuth (Bi(CaH5 ) 3)and tetrabutyl titanate (C16H36O4Ti) were used as precursors. Dense Bi4Ti3 O12 films with smooth shinning surface have been grown on Si( 100) substrates at 550°C whithout postannealing. The as- grown films were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersion analysis ( EDAX). The films showed well-ordered crystallinity with an (001)preffered orientation. The influence of growth parameters on deposition rate, composition and morphology of as-grown films was also discussed.