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The North Qilian orogenic belt in North China has been defined as a subduction–collision zone between the Alxa Block and the Qilian Block. We present petrography, zircon U–Pb geochronology, major- and trace-element geochemistry, and Sr–Nd–Pb–Hf isotope analysis for the Yushigou diabase from the Longshoushan area, which is located SW of the Alxa Block, aiming to understand its petrogenetic link to subduction processes. The Yushigou diabase belongs to the tholeiite series, and shows enrichment in light rare earth and large-ion lithophile elements, and a depletion in heavy rare earth and high-field-strength elements. Laser ablation – inductively coupled plasma – mass spectrometry U–Pb zircon dating yielded an emplacement age of 414 ± 9 Ma, with an ϵHf(t) value in the range of −10.3 to 1.8. The whole-rock initial 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb ratios of the diabase range over 16.811–17.157, 15.331–15.422 and 37.768–37.895, respectively. The (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios vary between 0.7086 and 0.7106, and ϵNd(t) values vary between −14.4 and −13.4, which are significantly higher than the ϵHf(t) value (Nd–Hf decoupling). An interpretation of the elemental and isotopic data suggests that the Yushigou diabase was derived from partial melting of an enriched mantle I (EM-I) -type lithospheric mantle in the spinel–garnet transitional zone. Based on the geochemical features and previous regional geological data, we propose that the Silurian magmatism was most likely triggered by slab break-off after the closure of the North Qilian Ocean, and ancient continental materials from the subduction slab metasomatized the overlying lithospheric mantle during exhumation.
Flavonoid-rich foods have shown a beneficial effect against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in short-term randomised trials. It is uncertain whether the usual dietary intake of flavonoids may benefit patients with NAFLD. The present study evaluated the association between the usual intake of flavonoids and the risk of progression in NAFLD. The prospective study included 2694 adults from the Guangzhou Nutrition and Health Study. Face-to-face interviews using a seventy-nine-item FFQ were administered to assess habitual dietary flavonoid intake, while abdominal ultrasonography was conducted to evaluate the presence and degree of NAFLD, with measurements conducted 3 years apart. After adjustment for potential confounders, higher flavonoid intakes were gradely associated with reduced risks of worsen NAFLD status. The relative risks of worsening (v. non-worsening) NAFLD in the highest (v. lowest) quintile were 0·71 (95 % CI 0·54, 0·93) for total flavonoids, 0·74 (95 % CI 0·57, 0·95) for flavanones, 0·74 (95 % CI 0·56, 0·96) for flavan-3-ols, 0·90 (95 % CI 0·68, 1·18) for flavonols, 0·73 (95 % CI 0·56, 0·93) for flavones, 0·79 (95 % CI 0·61, 1·02) for isoflavones and 0·74 (95 % CI 0·57, 0·96) for anthocyanins. An L-shaped relationship was observed between total flavonoid intake and the risk of NAFLD progression. Path analyses showed that the association between flavonoids and NAFLD progression was mediated by decreases in serum cholesterol and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. This prospective study showed that higher flavonoid intake was associated with a lower risk of NAFLD progression in the elderly overweight/obese Chinese population.
This study investigated the development of character transposition effects during Chinese compound word recognition via computer mouse movements instead of the conventional key presses. Empirical evidence to reveal the impacts of vocabulary knowledge, grade level, and whole word frequency on Chinese transposed-character effect is lacking. In the present study, we measured the transposed-character effect in two groups of Taiwanese children (second and fourth graders) in a mouse-tracking lexical-decision task including nonwords derived from real words by transposing two characters (e.g., “習學” from “學習” [learning]) and control nonwords in which two characters are replaced (e.g., “以修”). Our results indicate that participants showed longer mouse movement times and larger spatial attraction in recognizing transposed-character nonwords than in replaced-character nonwords, suggesting that the dominant role of whole-word representation in processing Chinese compound words. Our results also further demonstrate that how the degree of character transposition was affected by vocabulary knowledge, grade level, and word frequency.
Yushu Prefecture in Qinghai Province provides some of the largest known stretches of habitat for the Vulnerable snow leopard Panthera uncia in China. People living in these areas are dependent on agropastoralism. Support from local communities is necessary for effective long-term conservation action for snow leopards, but loss of livestock to snow leopards can create financial burdens that induce negative attitudes and encourage retaliatory killing. We assessed factors driving herders' attitudes towards snow leopards and their conservation. We found that herders had higher agreement with positive than with negative statements about snow leopards despite nearly half reporting livestock loss to snow leopards within the last 5 years. No retaliatory killing was reported. Herders with more years of formal education and fewer livestock losses were more likely to have positive attitudes whereas those with lower importance of snow leopards to their religion, fewer livestock losses, and fewer years of education were more likely to have negative attitudes. Understanding the multifaceted mechanisms responsible for positive views towards species is imperative for reaching conservation goals. Our findings ascribe to the importance of increased education and adherence to Tibetan beliefs in promoting conservation tolerance towards snow leopards in Qinghai Province, but also indicate a need for further research into the impact of livestock loss.
Rosa x odorata (sect. Chinenses, Rosaceae) is an important species distributed only in Yunnan Province, China. There is an abundance of wild variation within the species. Using 22 germplasm resources collected from the wild, as well as R. chinensis var. spontanea, R. chinensis ‘Old Blush’ and R. lucidissima, this study involved morphological variation analysis, inter-trait correlation analysis, principal component analysis and clustering analysis based on 16 morphological traits. This study identified a high degree of morphological diversity in R. x odorata germplasm resources and the variation coefficients had a distribution range from 18.00 to 184.04%. The flower colour had the highest degree of variation, while leaflet length/width had the lowest degree of variation. Inter-trait correlation analysis revealed that there was an extremely significant positive correlation between leaflet length and leaflet width. There was also a significant positive correlation between the number of petals and duration of blooming, and the L* and a* values of flower colour were significantly negatively correlated. Principal component analysis screened five principal components with the highest cumulative contribution rate (81.679%) to population variance. Among the 16 morphological traits, style length, sepal width, flower diameter, flower colour, leaflet length and leaflet width were important indices that influenced the morphology of R. x odorata. This study offers guidance for the further development and utilization of R. x odorata germplasm resources.
We investigate the phased evolution and variation of the South Asian monsoon and resulting weathering intensity and physical erosion in the Himalaya–Karakoram Mountains since late Pliocene time (c. 3.4 Ma) using a comprehensive approach. Neodymium and strontium isotopic compositions and single-grain zircon U–Pb age spectra reveal the sources of the deposits in the east Arabian Sea, and show a combination of sources from the Himalaya and the Karakoram–Kohistan–Ladakh Mountains, with sediments from the Indian Peninsula such as the Deccan Traps or Craton. We interpret shifts in the sediment sources to have been forced by sea-level changes that correlate with South Asian monsoon rainfall variation since late Pliocene time. We collected 908 samples from the International Ocean Discovery Program Hole U1456A, which was drilled in the east Arabian Sea. Time series of hematite content and grain size of the sediments were examined downcore. We found South Asian monsoon precipitation and weathering intensity experienced three phases from late Pliocene time. Lower monsoon precipitation, with a lower variability and strong weathering intensity, occurred during 3.4–2.4 Ma; an increased and more variable South Asian monsoon rainfall, along with strengthened but fluctuating weathering intensity, occurred at 1.8–1.1 Ma; and a reduced rainfall with lower South Asian monsoon precipitation variability and moderate weathering intensity marked the period 1.1–0.1 Ma. Maximum entropy spectral analysis and wavelet transform show that there were orbital-dominated cycles of periods c. 100 and c. 41 ka in these proxy-based time series. We propose that the monsoon, sea level, global temperature and insolation together forced the weathering and erosion in SW Asia.
The etiology of depression remains poorly understood. Changes in blood lipid levels were reported to be associated with depression and suicide, however study findings were mixed.
We performed a two-sample Mendelian randomisation (MR) analysis to investigate the causal relationship between blood lipids and depression phenotypes, based on large-scale GWAS summary statistics (N = 188 577/480 359 for lipid/depression traits respectively). Five depression-related phenotypes were included, namely major depression (MD; from PGC), depressive symptoms (DS; from SSGAC), longest duration and number of episodes of low mood, and history of deliberate self-harm (DSH)/suicide (from UK Biobank). MR was conducted with inverse-variance weighted (MR-IVW), Egger and Generalised Summary-data-based MR (GSMR) methods.
There was consistent evidence that triglyceride (TG) is causally associated with DS (MR-IVW β for one-s.d. increase in TG = 0.0346, 95% CI 0.0114–0.0578), supported by MR-IVW and GSMR and multiple r2 clumping thresholds. We also observed relatively consistent associations of TG with DSH/suicide (MR-Egger OR = 2.514, CI 1.579–4.003). There was moderate evidence for positive associations of TG with MD and the number of episodes of low mood. For HDL-c, we observed moderate evidence for causal associations with DS and MD. LDL-c and TC did not show robust causal relationships with depression phenotypes, except for weak evidence that LDL-c is inversely related to DSH/suicide. We did not detect significant associations when depression phenotypes were treated as exposures.
This study provides evidence to a causal relationship between TG, and to a lesser extent, altered cholesterol levels with depression phenotypes. Further studies on its mechanistic basis and the effects of lipid-lowering therapies are warranted.
We aimed to investigate the associations between school-level characteristics and obesity among Chinese primary school children with consideration of individual-level characteristics.
This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015/2016. School-level characteristics were assessed using an interviewer-administered school questionnaire, and a ‘school-based obesity prevention index’ was further developed. Individual-level characteristics were collected by self-administered questionnaires. Objectively measured height and weight of students were collected, and obesity status was classified according to the International Obesity Task Force criteria for Asian children. Generalised linear mixed models were used to estimate the associations among the school- and individual-level characteristics and obesity of students.
Thirty-seven primary schools from an urban and a rural district of Beijing, China.
School staffs, 2201 students and their parents.
The school-based obesity prevention index involved the number of health professionals, availability of students’ health records, monitoring students’ nutrition status, frequency of health education activities, reporting achievements of obesity prevention activities to parents, duration of physical activity during school time and availability of playground equipment. The prevalence of obesity was lower in schools with the higher index value compared with that in schools with the lower index value (OR 0·56; 95 % CI 0·40, 0·79). Some individual-level characteristics were negatively associated with childhood obesity: liking sports, duration of screen time ≤2 h/d, perceived lower eating speed, parental non-overweight/obesity.
Irrespective of individual-level characteristics, the specific school-level characteristics had a cumulative effect on obesity among Chinese primary school children. Further school-based obesity intervention should consider these characteristics simultaneously.
In the past decade, the emergence of high-entropy alloys (HEAs) and other high-entropy materials (HEMs) has brought about new opportunities in the development of novel materials for high-performance applications. In combining solid-solution (SS) strengthening with grain-boundary strengthening, new material systems—nanostructured or nanocrystalline (NC) HEAs or HEMs—have been developed, showing superior combined mechanical and functional properties compared with conventional alloys, HEAs, and NC metals. This article reviews the processing methods, materials, mechanical properties, thermal stability, and functional properties of various nanostructured HEMs, particularly NC HEAs. With such new nanostructures and alloy compositions, many interesting phenomena and properties of such NC HEAs have been unveiled, for example, extraordinary microstructural and mechanical thermal stability. As more HEAs or HEMs are being developed, a new avenue of research is to be exploited. The article concludes with perspectives about future directions in this field.
The X-ray emissions in the interaction of 3–6 MeV Xe23+ ions into thick solid In target are measured. The projectile-to-target and target Lα/Lβ X-ray production intensity ratios are observed to strongly depend on the projectile energy. The dependence deviates from Coulomb ionization predictions, which implies the important roles of coupling between subshells and the activation of 4fσ rotational couplings for projectile energy larger than 5 MeV.
Although higher dietary intake of MUFA has been shown to improve glycaemic control and lipid profiles, whether MUFA consumption from different sources is linked to the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains unclear. We aimed to prospectively assess the associations of plant-derived MUFA (P-MUFA) and animal-derived MUFA (A-MUFA) intakes with T2D risk in a nationwide oriental cohort. Overall, 15 022 Chinese adults, aged ≥20 years, from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS 1997–2011) were prospectively followed up for a median of 14 years. Consumption of MUFA from plant and animal sources was assessed using 3-d 24-h recalls in each survey, and the cumulative average of intake was calculated. Multivariable-adjusted Cox models were constructed to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) of T2D according to quartiles of MUFA intake. P-MUFA were mainly consumed from cooked vegetable oils, fried bread sticks and rice, while A-MUFA were mainly consumed from pork, lard and eggs. Intake of P-MUFA was associated with a higher risk of T2D (HRQ4 v. Q1 1·50 (95 % CI 1·18, 1·90); Ptrend = 0·0013), whereas A-MUFA showed no significant association (HRQ4 v. Q1 0·84 (95 % CI 0·59, 1·20); Ptrend = 0·30). When further considering the cooking method of food sources, consumption of P-MUFA from fried foods was positively associated with T2D risk (HRQ4 v. Q1 1·60 (95 % CI 1·26, 2·02); Ptrend = 0·0006), whereas non-fried P-MUFA were not associated. Intake of MUFA from fried plant-based foods may elevate T2D risk among the Chinese population.
The effect of holly polyphenols (HP) on intestinal inflammation and microbiota composition was evaluated in a piglet model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intestinal injury. A total of twenty-four piglets were used in a 2 × 2 factorial design including diet type and LPS challenge. After 16 d of feeding with a basal diet supplemented with or without 250 mg/kg HP, pigs were challenged with LPS (100 μg/kg body weight) or an equal volume of saline for 4 h, followed by analysis of disaccharidase activities, gene expression levels of several representative tight junction proteins and inflammatory mediators, the SCFA concentrations and microbiota composition in intestinal contents as well as proinflammatory cytokine levels in plasma. Our results indicated that HP enhanced intestinal disaccharidase activities and reduced plasma proinflammatory cytokines including TNF-α and IL-6 in LPS-challenged piglets. Moreover, HP up-regulated mRNA expression of intestinal tight junction proteins such as claudin-1 and occludin. In addition, bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that HP altered hindgut microbiota composition by enriching Prevotella and enhancing SCFA production following LPS challenge. These results collectively suggest that HP is capable of alleviating LPS-triggered intestinal injury by improving intestinal disaccharidase activities, barrier function and SCFA production, while reducing intestinal inflammation.
We aimed to comprehensively examine the association of breast-feeding, types and initial timing of complementary foods with adolescent cognitive development in low- and middle-income countries. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 745 adolescents aged 10–12 years who were born to women who participated in a randomised trial of prenatal micronutrient supplementation in rural Western China. An infant feeding index was constructed based on the current WHO recommendations. Full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) was assessed and derived by the fourth edition of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. The duration of exclusive or any breast-feeding was not significantly associated with adolescent cognitive development. Participants who regularly consumed Fe-rich or Fe-fortified foods during 6–23 months of age had higher FSIQ than those who did not (adjusted mean differences 4·25; 95 % CI 1·99, 6·51). For cows’/goats’ milk and high protein-based food, the highest FSIQ was found in participants who initially consumed at 10–12 and 7–9 months, respectively. A strong dose–response relationship of the composite infant feeding index was also identified, with participants in the highest tertile of overall feeding quality having 3·03 (95 % CI 1·37, 4·70) points higher FSIQ than those in the lowest tertile. These findings suggest that appropriate infant feeding practices (breast-feeding plus timely introduction of appropriate complementary foods) were associated with significantly improved early adolescent cognitive development scores in rural China. In addition, improvement in Fe-rich or Fe-fortified foods complementary feeding may produce better adolescent cognitive development outcomes.
THE STUDY OF classical Chinese literature traditionally follows the principle of understanding an individual in context of the age (in Chinese, zhiren lunshi 知人論世). In accordance with this principle, we have tended to read fu of the Ming-Qing transition era in relation to the problem of authorial identity. Each scholar-official was forced to decide whether to be a loyal servant of the Ming or surrender to the Manchus, choosing between the nobility of martyrdom or a compromised survival. Yet regardless of whether one chooses the perspective of autobiography or of history, any kind of interpretation must establish its own signposts and present itself by means of so many footnotes, citations, and analyses, all defining the subjectivity of the author as embedded in the period context. It is often precisely while perusing these footnotes and annotations to the text, even more than the text itself, that the reader finds herself gradually perceiving a distinctive image, albeit an incomplete one, of both the author and the era.
Just as writing is nothing else but the system constructed by all texts, reading and interpretation too exist in this realm accumulated by past ages, providing the opportunity for comparison and observation; the author and reader can be said to rely on this to understand one another concretely. With regard to the common phenomena of imitation and allusion, it is precisely through recognition of some feeling stirred by the borrowing and understanding of past experience that “both imitation and allusion reveal throughout that the classical author is trying to bring the temporal past into the present, to create a synchronicity between the past and the writer’s present, and also to call into being a new collective consciousness on the plane of culture.” That writing can become understood in different eras may be precisely due to the pre-understanding already possessed by the interpreter, allowing her to read the author and work in a way that suits these expectations. Through repeated acts of writing and interpretation, each new composition is not an original and spontaneous one, but for the writer is rather a way of creating a simultaneous order together with previous literary works, while the interpreter plays the intermediary role of introducing the work into the long and continuous arc of tradition.
A nanoparticle-based drug delivery system is first established by mesoporous silica encapsulating amino acid–intercalated layered double hydroxide (LDH) to construct nanocomposites AA-LDH@MS. The amino acids including phenylalanine (Phe) and histidine (His) with aromatic groups are intercalated into LDH as the cores Phe-LDH and His-LDH. These nanocomposites AA-LDH@MS display multispaces of the interlayer spaces of LDH and porous channels of mesoporous silica to load drugs. Moreover, amino acid molecules provide the interaction sites to improve effectively loading amounts of drugs. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is used as the cargo molecules to observe the delivery in vitro. The results indicate that the maximum loading amounts of drugs are up to 392 mg/g at 60 °C for 12 h in the nanocomposite Phe-LDH@MS. All the nanocomposites exhibit the sustained release of 5-FU at pH 4 and pH 7.4. The Korsmeyer–Peppas model is used to fit the kinetic plot of the drug release in vitro, which concludes that 5-FU release from AA-LDH@MS belongs to Fickian diffusion.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is highly heterogeneous and can be classified as treatment-resistant depression (TRD) or antidepressant-responsive depression (non-TRD) based on patients' responses to antidepressant treatment. Methods for distinguishing between TRD and non-TRD are critical clinical concerns. Deficits of cortical inhibition (CI) have been reported to play an influential role in the pathophysiology of MDD. Whether TRD patients' CI is more impaired than that of non-TRD patients remains unclear.
Paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (ppTMS) was used to measure cortical inhibitory function including GABAA- and GABAB-receptor-related CI and cortical excitatory function including glutamate-receptor-related intracortical facilitation (ICF). We recruited 36 healthy controls (HC) and 36 patients with MDD (non-TRD, n = 16; TRD, n = 20). All participants received evaluations for depression severity and ppTMS examinations. Non-TRD patients received an additional ppTMS examination after 3 months of treatment with the SSRI escitalopram.
Patients with TRD exhibited reduced short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI), as shown by abnormally higher estimates, than those with non-TRD or HC (F = 11.030, p < 0.001; F = 10.309, p < 0.001, respectively). After an adequate trial of escitalopram treatment, the LICI of non-TRD reduced significantly (t = − 3.628, p < 0.001), whereas the ICF remained lower than that of HC and showed no difference from pretreatment non-TRD.
TRD was characterized by relatively reduced CI, including both GABAA- and GABAB-receptor-mediated neurons while non-TRD preserved partial CI. In non-TRD, SSRIs may mainly modulate GABAB-receptor-related LICI. Our findings revealed distinguishable features of CI in antidepressant-resistant and responsive major depression.
The modification of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) as fillers is very effective at improving the performance of polymers. A novel modification of HNTs through grafting dodecylamine onto their surfaces was conducted here. Owing to the improvement in dispersibility of HNTs in polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), the mechanical properties and wear resistance (in particular) of the dodecylamine-modified HNT-filled PTFE composite were enhanced significantly.
Maternal one-carbon metabolism during pregnancy is crucial for fetal development and programming by DNA methylation. However, evidence on one-carbon biomarkers other than folate is lacking. We, therefore, investigated whether maternal plasma methyl donors, that is, choline, betaine and methionine, are associated with birth outcomes. Blood samples were obtained from 115 women during gestation (median 26·3 weeks, 90 % range 22·7–33·0 weeks). Plasma choline, betaine, methionine and dimethylglycine were measured using HPLC-tandem MS. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between plasma biomarkers and birth weight, birth length, the risk of small-for-gestational-age and large-for-gestational-age (LGA). Higher level of maternal betaine was associated with lower birth weight (–130·3 (95 % CI –244·8, –15·9) per 1 sd increment for log-transformed betaine). Higher maternal methionine was associated with lower risk of LGA, and adjusted OR, with 95 % CI for 1 sd increase in methionine concentration was 0·44 (95 % CI 0·21, 0·89). Stratified analyses according to infant sex or maternal plasma homocysteine status showed that reduction in birth weight in relation to maternal betaine was only limited to male infants or to who had higher maternal homocysteine status (≥5·1 µmol/l). Higher maternal betaine status was associated with reduced birth weight. Maternal methionine was inversely associated with LGA risk. These findings are needed to be replicated in future larger studies.