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The Internet has played important roles in driving political changes around the world. Why does it help to topple political regimes in some places but improve the quality of governance in others? We found Internet usage in general leads to citizens’ distrust in political institutions. Different political environments, however, can condition such trust-eroding impacts of the Internet in significantly different ways. A democracy enables citizens to connect their online behaviors and offline expression and organization, releasing political discontent while facilitating state–society communication. On the contrary, by restricting various forms of off-line expression, authoritarian regimes drive Internet-active citizens' discontent and distrust to higher levels. We use the World Values Survey data to establish these different mechanisms across democracies and authoritarian systems. Entropy balancing shows our findings to be highly robust.
As many as 70% of intensive care unit (ICU) survivors suffer from long-term physical, cognitive, and psychological impairments known as post-intensive care syndrome (PICS). We describe how the first ICU survivor clinic in the United States, the Critical Care Recovery Center (CCRC), was designed to address PICS using the principles of Agile Implementation (AI).
The CCRC was designed using an eight-step process known as the AI Science Playbook. Patients who required mechanical ventilation or were delirious ≥48 hours during their ICU stay were enrolled in the CCRC. One hundred twenty subjects who completed baseline HABC-M CG assessments and had demographics collected were included in the analysis to identify baseline characteristics that correlated with higher HABC-M CG scores. A subset of patients and caregivers also participated in focus group interviews to describe their perceptions of PICS.
Quantitative analyses showed that the cognitive impairment was a major concern of caregivers. Focus group data also confirmed that caregivers of ICU survivors (n = 8) were more likely to perceive cognitive and mental health symptoms than ICU survivors (n = 10). Caregivers also described a need for ongoing psychoeducation about PICS, particularly cognitive and mental health symptoms, and for ongoing support from other caregivers with similar experiences.
Our study demonstrated how the AI Science Playbook was used to build the first ICU survivor clinic in the United States. Caregivers of ICU survivors continue to struggle with PICS, particularly cognitive impairment, months to years after discharge. Future studies will need to examine whether the CCRC model of care can be adapted to other complex patient populations seen by health-care professionals.
Japanese foxtail (Alopecurus japonicus Steud.) is an invasive grass weed that severely threatens the production of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and canola (Brassica napus L.) crops in eastern Asia. Mesosulfuron-methyl is a highly efficient acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicide widely used for control of this species in China. However, in recent years, some A. japonicus populations have evolved resistance to mesosulfuron-methyl by different amino acid substitutions (AASs) within the ALS gene. In the current study, 11 populations of A. japonicus were collected from Anhui Province, China, where the wheat fields were severely infested with this weed. Based on single-dose screening, eight of these populations evolved resistance to mesosulfuron-methyl, and gene sequencing revealed three AASs located in codon 197 or 574 of the ALS gene in the different resistant populations. Subsequently, three typical populations, AH-1, AH-4, and AH-10 with Trp-574-Leu, Pro-197-Thr, and Pro-197-Ser mutations, respectively, in ALS genes were selected to characterize their cross-resistance patterns to ALS inhibitors. Compared with the susceptible population AH-S, AH-1 showed broad-spectrum cross-resistance to sulfonylureas (SUs), imidazolinones (IMIs), triazolopyrimidines (TPs), and sulfonyl-aminocarbonyl-triazolinones (SCTs); whereas AH-4 and AH-10 were resistant to SUs, TPs, and SCTs but sensitive to IMIs. Moreover, all three resistant populations were sensitive to both photosystem II inhibitor isoproturon and 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase inhibitor QYM201 (1-(2-chloro-3-(3-cyclopropyl-5-hydroxy-1-methyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbonyl)-6-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)piperidin-2-one). Based on the current state of knowledge, this study is the first report of A. japonicus evolving cross-resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides due to a Pro-197-Ser mutation in the ALS gene.
The main aim of this study was to explore the mediating role of learning engagement on the relationship between social networking site (SNS) addiction and academic achievement among 406 university students. The Social Networking Site Addiction Scale, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale for Students, and Chinese Students Academic Achievement Scale were used to evaluate students’ SNS addiction, learning engagement, and academic achievement. Correlation analysis indicated that SNS addiction, learning engagement, and academic achievement were significantly correlated with each other. The causal steps regression and bootstrap analysis show that learning engagement mediated the relationship between SNS addiction and academic achievement. Implications for research and instructions for how to improve university students’ academic achievement are discussed.
The Yuanjiacun banded iron formation (BIF) is hosted in lower Proterozoic metamorphic strata, and its structures are dominated by bands or streaks. Based on their differences in mineral compositions, the iron ores can be subdivided into haematite quartzite, magnetite quartzite, stilpnomelane magnetite quartzite and stilpnomelane haematite quartzite. The geochemical characteristics of the surrounding rocks show that the protoliths consisted of argillaceous and arenaceous sedimentary rocks. The predominant provenance was a high-maturity felsic sedimentary terrane. The absence of syn-depositional igneous rocks and the tectonic setting discrimination diagrams indicate that the Yuanjiacun BIF formed in a passive continental margin setting. Negligible terrigenous materials were involved in the precipitation of the Yuanjiacun BIF. The precipitation of the Yuanjiacun BIF was predominantly controlled by the mixing of seawater and hydrothermal fluids. Its metallogenic material originated from the leaching of mafic oceanic crust by hydrothermal fluids. The observed Ce anomaly deficiency and heavy Fe isotope enrichment indicate that the Yuanjiacun BIF formed in an anoxic marine environment. In a redox-stratified palaeo-ocean, the Yuanjiacun BIF formed in reducing seawater below the oxidation–reduction transition zone. The Si and O isotope compositions of quartz suggest that the formation of the Yuanjiacun BIF was closely related to submarine hydrothermal activity. The Si and Fe erupted from the seafloor and precipitated by supersaturation and biological oxidation under anoxic conditions, respectively.
The second home-made single stage accelerator mass spectrometer (SSAMS) system dedicated to radiocarbon (14C) measurements was built after the first SSAMS system was moved to Guangxi Normal University. With some improvements to the second SSAMS system, the performance has been improved. With the conditions of total ion energy of 200KeV, ions charge states of 1+ and helium as stripper gas, 14C measurements with precision of 0.5% and a background level of 0.5 pMC were achieved. Details of the system and the experimental performance are given here.
Alanyl-glutamine (Ala-Gln), a highly soluble and stable glutamine dipeptide, is known to improve gut integrity and function. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether dietary Ala-Gln supplementation could improve growth performance, intestinal development and digestive-absorption function in weaned piglets. A total of 100 purebred Yorkshire piglets weaned at 21 days of age were assigned randomly to four dietary treatment groups and fed a basal diet (control group) or a basal diet containing 0.15%, 0.30% and 0.45% Ala-Gln, respectively. Compared with the control group, piglets fed the Ala-Gln diets had higher average daily gain and lower feed : gain and diarrhea rate (P < 0.05). Moreover, dietary Ala-Gln supplementation increased villous height and villous height : crypt depth ratio in duodenum and jejunum (P < 0.05), as well as the activities of maltase and lysozyme in jejunum mucosa (P < 0.05). In addition, a decrease in serum diamine oxidase activity and crypt depth in duodenum and jejunum was observed in piglets fed the Ala-Gln diets (P < 0.05). Serum cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) concentration and gene expression of cPLA2, Na+-dependent glucose transporter 1, glucose transporter 2 and peptide transporter 1 in jejunum were increased by feeding Ala-Gln diets relative to control diet (P < 0.05). These results indicated that feeding Ala-Gln diet has beneficial effects on the growth performance of weaned piglets, which associated with maintaining intestinal morphology and digestive-absorption function.
This paper presents a new approach to synthesize multi-loop mechanisms with three translational displacement parameters based on virtual-loop theory and Assur groups. The approach used kinematic links as a generalized link group added one-by-one to the output link, which further extends the unified link groups in the plane and space. Firstly, the concept of infinitesimal displacement parameters is introduced to describe the displacement parameters. The dependence on the change in the degree of freedom (DOF) and displacement parameters of the output link after adding a 0-DOF generalized link group is established. Then, the link groups with three displacement parameters are synthesized, and the intersection operation rules are given. The single-loop mechanism is synthesized under two circumstances. The 1-, 2-, and 3-DOF dual-loop mechanisms are obtained by adding corresponding generalized link groups. Finally, the multi-loop mechanisms are obtained by adding corresponding generalized link groups. Some novel mechanisms are synthesized to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
To compare the growth and biosynthetic ability of long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) of the genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT) (Oreochromis niloticus) in different water salinities, an 8-week feeding trial was conducted on the GIFT juveniles at 0, 12 and 24 ‰ (parts per thousand; ppt), respectively, with three isonitrogenous (32 %) and isolipidic (8 %) diets (D1–D3). Diet D1 with fish oils (rich in LC-PUFA) as lipid source was used as the control, while D2 and D3 with vegetable oil (free LC-PUFA) blends as lipid source contained different ratios of linoleic acid (LA, 18 : 2n-6) and α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18 : 3n-3) at 4·04 (D2) and 0·54 (D3), respectively. At the end of feeding trial, the growth performance of D2 and D3 groups under all salinity treatments was as good as that of D1 group, which indicates that the GIFT juveniles may convert dietary LA and ALA into LC-PUFA to meet the requirement of essential fatty acids for normal growth and physiology. When fed the same diets, GIFT at 12 ppt had a better growth performance coupled with a higher liver and muscle arachidonic acid content than those in freshwater. Furthermore, brackish water (24 ppt) significantly promoted the mRNA levels of elongase 5 of very long-chain fatty acids (elovl5) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (pparα) in liver, when compared with freshwater. These results suggest that the GIFT may display better growth performance together with a relatively higher endogenous LC-PUFA biosynthetic ability under brackish water (12 and 24 ppt), probably through improving the expression of elovl5 and pparα in liver.
The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo degradation mechanism and the mechanical properties of poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/beta-tricalcium phosphate (PLGA/β-TCP) composite anchors. Anchors composed of PLGA and β-TCP were implanted in the dorsal subcutaneous tissue of beagle dogs for 6, 12, 16, and 26 weeks. The degradation of the materials was evaluated by measuring the changes in thermal behavior, crystallinity, and mechanical properties. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the surface and longitudinal section of the material. The evaluation of mechanical strength retention and degradation properties suggest that the addition of β-TCP particles efficiently enhances their mechanical properties and thermal characteristics and delays their degradation rate. By analyzing the results of SEM, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry, we can infer that after 12 weeks, the connection between β-TCP and PLGA becomes less compact, which accelerates the decline of mechanical strength.
Hospital workers are critical for a successful response to an infectious disease outbreak and for preventing disease transmission to the community. Therefore, hospital crisis management should implement efforts to improve hospital workers’ preparedness in responding to public health emergencies caused by infectious diseases. Traditionally, preparedness and skill of hospital workers have been emphasized, but awareness of the importance of the emotional mindset of hospital workers in dealing with disease outbreaks has only recently increased; therefore, empirical approaches to examining emotional responses of hospital workers has been limited. This study analyzed qualitative data of the 2015 Middle East Respiratory Syndrome outbreak in South Korea. In particular, negative emotions and stress experienced by hospital workers who treated patients were characterized, as were the events that triggered such experiences. These events were categorized into four themes (eg, Mistake, Missing, Delay Due to Communication Failure). Identifying events that trigger negative emotions in hospital workers has important implications for hospitals’ management guidance in relation to an infectious disease outbreak. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:504-510)
To investigate the effects of both non-meltwater and meltwater-related post-depositional processes on chemical species within the snow–firn pack, a research program, the Program for Glacier Processes Investigation, was initiated in July 2002 by the Tien Shan Glaciological Station, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The seasonal variability of the ionic concentrations in surface snow samples and ion elution behavior in the snow–firn pack were assessed from surface samples collected year-round and 1011 samples collected from a snow pit at weekly intervals from September 2003 through September 2004. The results indicate that elevated ionic concentrations in spring and summer result from Asian dust-storm-derived aerosol input and other aerosols entrained in precipitation. Potential sources of these chemical species are explored using correlation and factor analyses. The elution sequence through the snow–firn pack was determined to be SO42– >Ca2+> Na+>NO3− >Cl−>K+> Mg2+ >NH4+. The elution of ions at the sampling site was found to be driven primarily by air temperature and became evident when a diurnal mean temperature of –3.6˚C was attained. At 0.3˚C all of the year-round new ionic input was leached from the snow.
The processes involved in the evolution of vertical profiles of Mg2+, Ca2+ and microparticle concentrations, as well as their seasonal variation in surface snow, were studied by weekly sampling from September 2003 to September 2004 of a snow pit on Ürümqi glacier No. 1, eastern Tien Shan, China. The development of the microparticle and Mg2+ and Ca2+ stratigraphy in the snow pit is closely related to the physical development of the snow–firn pack. The sampling site is located at 4130 ma.s.l. in the percolation zone of the glacier, and in addition to the effects of sublimation and wind erosion, melting plays a crucial role in both the physical and chemical evolution processes. During the winter, soluble aerosol concentrations in the surface layers are altered slightly by sublimation and wind erosion, and the concentrations are further modified as the wet season begins in late April. In contrast, soluble aerosol stratigraphy in the deeper layers remains relatively unchanged through the winter. In early summer, as melting occurs in the upper part of the snow–firn pack, meltwater carries chemical species to different depths in the underlying snow–firn layers, such that at the end of the ablation season, all of the surface cations might be leached out from the upper layers. In addition, the possible source of calcium and magnesium is discussed in this paper.
Schistosomiasis in China has been substantially reduced due to an effective control programme employing various measures including bovine and human chemotherapy, and the removal of bovines from endemic areas. To fulfil elimination targets, it will be necessary to identify other possible reservoir hosts for Schistosoma japonicum and include them in future control efforts. This study determined the infection prevalence of S. japonicum in rodents (0–9·21%), dogs (0–18·37%) and goats (6·9–46·4%) from the Dongting Lake area of Hunan province, using a combination of traditional coproparasitological techniques (miracidial hatching technique and Kato-Katz thick smear technique) and molecular methods [quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and droplet digital PCR (ddPCR)]. We found a much higher prevalence in goats than previously recorded in this setting. Cattle and water buffalo were also examined using the same procedures and all were found to be infected, emphasising the occurrence of active transmission. qPCR and ddPCR were much more sensitive than the coproparasitological procedures with both KK and MHT considerably underestimating the true prevalence in all animals surveyed. The high level of S. japonicum prevalence in goats indicates that they are likely important reservoirs in schistosomiasis transmission, necessitating their inclusion as targets of control, if the goal of elimination is to be achieved in China.
A diode-pumped alkali vapor laser (DPAL) is one of the most promising candidates of the next-generation high-powered laser source. As the saturated number density of alkali vapor is highly dependent on the temperature inside a vapor cell, the temperature distribution in the cross-section of a cell will greatly affect the homogeneity of a laser medium and the output characteristics of a DPAL. In this paper, we developed an algorithm based on the regime concluding quasi-Hilbert transform to evaluate the phase aberration of a wavefront when the probe beam passes through the vapor cell placed in one arm of a Mach–Zehnder interference setup. According to the theoretical algorithm, we deduced the temperature distribution of a cesium vapor cell for different heating conditions. The study is thought to be useful for development of a high-powered laser.
A diode-pumped alkali laser (DPAL) provides the significant promise for high-powered performances. In this paper, a mathematical model is introduced for examination of the kinetic processes of a diode-pumped cesium vapor hollow-core photonic-crystal fiber (HC-PCF) laser, in which the cesium vapor is filled in the center hole of a photonic-bandgap fiber instead of a glass cell. The influence of deleterious processes including energy pooling, photo-ionization, and Penning ionization on the physical features of a fiber DPAL is studied in this report. It has been theoretically demonstrated that the deleterious processes cannot be ignored in a high-powered fiber-DPAL system.
We suggest that the broad-line regions (BLRs) of QSOs with broad emissionlines (BALs) are expanding, i.e., the clouds are undergoing radial outflow, as illustrated simply in Fig. 1. At least the following observational facts can be explained:
1.Optical observations show that some moderate and high-redshift QSOs have BALs. The number of these QSOs is about 3–10% of all QSOs (Foltz et al. 1990). One can see in Fig. 2 that very low-redshift QSOs have no BALs.
2.Almost all BAL QSOs exhibit zabs < zem.
3.High-resolution observations reveal that the widths of the broad absorption lines are narrower than that of the corresponding emission line for all BAL QSOs, i.e. Δλ ab < Δλ em.
The processing method applied to the side surface is different from the method applied to the light pass surface in neodymium phosphate glass (Nd:glass), and thus subsurface defects remain after processing. The subsurface defects in the side surface influence the gain uniformity of Nd:glass, which is a key factor to evaluate the performance of amplifiers. The scattering characteristics of side subsurface defects were simulated by finite difference time domain (FDTD) Solutions software. The scattering powers of the glass fabricated by a computer numerical control (CNC) machine without cladding were tested at different incident angles. The trend of the curve was similar to the simulated result, while the smallest point was different with the complex true morphology. The simulation showed that the equivalent residual reflectivity of the cladding glass can be more than 0.1% when the number of defects in a single gridding is greater than 50.
This paper investigates the thermal characteristics of typical Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) with a reliable thermal test procedure. Test results show that MEMS sensor errors, not only biases, but also scale factors and non-orthogonalities, may vary significantly with temperature. Also, MEMS sensor errors can have significant inconsistent curves under different temperature changing profiles. The existence of such inconsistencies posed a challenge to the following assumption of thermal calibration: the thermal drift of a sensor error is only related to the temperature of the sensor core. A robust way to mitigate this issue is given by using the sensor data during both heat-and-stay and cool-and-stay processes to establish the final thermal models. The performance of both IMUs and inertial navigation systems improved significantly after compensation with the established thermal models. Additionally, the variation of the IMU thermal parameters with time was observed, which suggests that periodical thermal calibration is necessary for MEMS IMUs.
Indoor transmission of respiratory droplets bearing influenza within humans poses high risks to respiratory function deterioration and death. Therefore, we aimed to develop a framework for quantifying the influenza infection risk based on the relationships between inhaled/exhaled respiratory droplets and airborne transmission dynamics in a ventilated airspace. An experiment was conducted to measure the size distribution of influenza-containing droplets produced by coughing for a better understanding of potential influenza spread. Here we integrated influenza population transmission dynamics, a human respiratory tract model, and a control measure approach to examine the indoor environment–virus–host interactions. A probabilistic risk model was implemented to assess size-specific infection risk for potentially transmissible influenza droplets indoors. Our results found that there was a 50% probability of the basic reproduction number (R0) exceeding 1 for small-size influenza droplets of 0·3–0·4 µm, implicating a potentially high indoor infection risk to humans. However, a combination of public health interventions with enhanced ventilation could substantially contain indoor influenza infection. Moreover, the present dynamic simulation and control measure assessment provide insights into why indoor transmissible influenza droplet-induced infection is occurring not only in upper lung regions but also in the lower respiratory tract, not normally considered at infection risk.