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Evidence on the relationship between maternal Hb concentration and spontaneous abortion (SA) risk is limited and conflicting. The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether maternal preconception anaemia or high Hb concentration is associated with risk of SA.
A population-based cohort study established between 2013 and 2017.
Local maternal and child care service centres in each county.
In total, 3 971 428 women aged 20–49 years, who participated in National Free Pre-Pregnancy Checkups Project from 2013 to 2016 and successfully got pregnant before 2017 in rural China.
A total of 101 700 (2·56 %) women were recorded having SA, with highest SA rate in women with severe anaemia (4·58 %). Compared with women with Hb of 110–149 g/l, the multivariable-adjusted OR for SA was 1·52 (95 % CI: 1·25, 1·86) for women with Hb < 70 g/l, 0·92 (0·84, 1·01) for 70–99 g/l, 0·80 (0·77, 0·83) for 100–109 g/l, 1·11 (1·08, 1·15) for 150–159 g/l, 1·12 (1·04, 1·20) for 160–169 g/l and 1·02 (0·93, 1·12) for ≥ 170 g/l, respectively. An approximate U-shaped curve for the risk of SA with Hb concentrations was observed when Hb concentrations less than 145 g/l, above which the association plateaued (Pnon-linear < 0·001).
Severe anaemia and high Hb concentration before pregnancy were associated with an increased risk of SA. Women with mild anaemia prior to pregnancy had lower risk of SA. Underlying mechanisms need to be further studied.
In the search for chemically stable two-dimensional (2D) materials with high in-plane mobility, proper bandgap, and compatibility with vapor-based fabrication, van der Waals semiconductor SiP has become a potential candidate as a robust variation of black phosphorous. While bulk SiP crystals were synthesized in the 1970s, the vapor-based synthesis of SiP nanostructures or thin films is still absent. We here report the first chemical vapor growth of SiP nanostructures on SiO2/Si substrate. SiP islands with lateral size up to 20 μm and showing well-defined Raman signals were grown on SiO2/Si substrate or on SiP-containing concentric rings. The presence of SiP phase is confirmed by XRD. The formation of rings and islands is explained by a multiple coffee ring growth model where a dynamic fluctuation of droplet growth front induces the topography of concentric ring surfaces. This new growth method might shed light on the controlled growth of group IV-III high-mobility 2D semiconductors.
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common monogenic kidney disease and is caused by heterozygous germ-line mutations in either PKD1 (85%) or PKD2 (15%). It is characterised by the formation of numerous fluid-filled renal cysts and leads to adult-onset kidney failure in ~50% of patients by 60 years. Kidney cysts in ADPKD are focal and sporadic, arising from the clonal proliferation of collecting-duct principal cells, but in only 1–2% of nephrons for reasons that are not clear. Previous studies have demonstrated that further postnatal reductions in PKD1 (or PKD2) dose are required for kidney cyst formation, but the exact triggering factors are not clear. A growing body of evidence suggests that DNA damage, and activation of the DNA damage response pathway, are altered in ciliopathies. The aims of this review are to: (i) analyse the evidence linking DNA damage and renal cyst formation in ADPKD; (ii) evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of biomarkers to assess DNA damage in ADPKD and finally, (iii) evaluate the potential effects of current clinical treatments on modifying DNA damage in ADPKD. These studies will address the significance of DNA damage and may lead to a new therapeutic approach in ADPKD.
Excited by the great success of metal halide perovskites in the optoelectronic and electro-optic fields and the interesting emerging physics (Rashba splitting, quantum anomalous hall effect) of layered metal halides, metal halides have recently been attracting significant attentions from both research and industrial communities. It is shown that most progresses have been made when these materials are obtained at reduced dimensions. Among several growth methods, vapor phase epitaxy has been demonstrated with a universal control on morphology, phase, and composition. We thus believe that a thorough understanding on the physical properties and on the growth of general metal halide compounds at reduced dimensions would be very beneficial in the study of recent perovskites and layered metal halide materials. This review covers the physical properties of most studied metal halides and summarizes the vapor phase epitaxial growth knowledge collected in the past century. We hope that this comprehensive review could be helpful in designing new physical properties and in planning growth parameters for emerging metal halide crystals.
A method to compute the minimum Horizontal Protection Level (HPL) using the test statistic of normal distribution, which will exploit advances in computational power to meet the requirement of Time to Alert (TTA), is proposed to improve service availability. To obtain the minimum solution, two approximations used in traditional algorithms need exact solutions: the distribution of the horizontal position error and the determination of the worst case to ensure that the resulting HPL is able to accommodate all possible bias. This is validated with results such that the optimal solution is achieved with a pre-defined accuracy and sufficient computational efficiency. Also, the new HPL is used to determine if current approximated methods are conservative, where one of the methods does not meet the integrity requirement with given test statistics, error model and integrity risk definition.
Thermo-camera is employed here to analyze kinds of quality abnormal and improve production process during manufacture procedure of silicon-based thin-film solar modules. It shows that thermo-camera device can help engineers to solve problem of production line quickly and accurately, and save the manpower and financial resources at the same time.
Three-dimensional (3D) morphological evolution and growth mechanisms of primary I-phase particles have been investigated in directionally solidified Al–6Mn–2.5Be (wt%) alloy at a wide range of growth rates (100–1500 μm/s). At relatively low growth rates (100–600 μm/s), the I-phase particles exhibit faceted growth with strong anisotropy, forming a hierarchical flower-like aggregate with icosahedral morphological symmetry composed of several attached irregular polyhedrons or pentagonal dodecahedrons. At higher growth rates (e.g., 1000 μm/s), the interface of the I-phases becomes unstable along the edges and corners of the pentagonal dodecahedron, thereby arousing growth perturbations. Correspondingly, a transition from faceted to nonfaceted growth occurs with increasing growth rate. Further increase of the growth rate leads to the formation of I-phase columnar dendrites' preferential growth along the 3-fold axis. The configurations of the flower-like aggregates can be adequately illustrated by a geometrical model in terms of the perfect and elongated pentagonal dodecahedrons. A growth mechanism for the flower-like aggregates has been proposed based on the clear understanding of the 3D morphological evolution of the I-phase particles.
Four methods to calculate the Vertical Protection Level (VPL) can be used in Advanced Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (A-RAIM), among which the ideal method is the strictest one. To obtain the ideal VPL satisfying the exact required integrity risk, the worst case bias with the maximum integrity risk is searched for. This investigation has found that the correct worst case highly depends on the choice of the input VPL. To gain the correct result, the computation becomes complex and the accuracy of the result is compromised. Therefore, a new procedure is designed with a new search: the maximum VPL is searched to encompass all possible bias sizes. Since VPL is calculated with a given integrity risk for each bias size, the uncertainty of the arbitrary VPL input in the ideal method is avoided. Also, an optimisation algorithm is adopted to improve computational efficiency. It is shown that the new method is more reliable and efficient than the current best method. Simulation results worldwide also show that the new approach has improved A-RAIM availability from 32%–38% to 74% with GPS and from 44%–43% to 85% with Galileo.
Two Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) architectures, Advanced RAIM (A-RAIM) and Relative RAIM (R-RAIM), are compared with two different RAIM algorithms, the Classic method and the Multiple Hypothesis Solution Separation (MHSS) method. The difference between A-RAIM and R-RAIM is in the positioning methods that produce different error models and projection matrices for integrity monitoring. The difference between RAIM algorithms lies in the methods of risk distribution. The influences of different positioning methods on integrity results are analysed in this paper via a generalized RAIM framework. Simulation results for the LPV-200 service with worldwide coverage show that the R-RAIM position domain method has the best results, while the differences between these methods decrease with application of the optimization method.
The second Women in Astronomy Lunchtime Meeting was held on Monday 21 August 2006, with more than 250 participants. The meeting was hosted by the EC Working Group for Women in Astronomy, established at the 2003 IAU General Assembly, and was attended by the current President, the Presidents-Elect for this and the next General Assembly, the General Secretary and Vice-Presidents, many senior astronomers, as well as students and young astronomers. It was a particular pleasure to welcome and congratulate the incoming President, Dr Catherine Cesarsky, the first woman to hold the position.
Using Transmission Electron Microscopy, we studied the misfit and threading dislocations in InAs epilayers. All the samples, with thickness around 0.5μm, were grown on GaAs(001) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy under As-rich or In-rich conditions. The As-rich growth undergoes 2D-3D mode transition process, which was inhibited under In-rich surface. High step formation energy under As-deficient reconstruction inhibits the formation of 3D islands and leads to 2D growth. The mechanism of misfit dislocations formation was different under different growth condition which caused the variation of threading dislocation density in the epilayers.
Ag+ was implanted in silica glass and beta alumina crystal and studied using particle backscattering and optical absorption. We found that Ag aggregates into colloidal metallic particles and when annealed diffuses toward the surface. The activation energy for diffusion is 0.14 eV in silica glass and 0.16 eV in beta alumina. Computer simulations indicate fast Ag+ diffusion is due to large concentrations of vacancies deposited along the track of the implanted ion. The high ionic conductivity of beta alumina promotes uniform spreading of the implanted layer.
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