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Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.), Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus canadensis are the common causes of human echinococcosis in China. An accurate species identification tool for human echinococcosis is needed as the treatments and prognosis are different among species. The present work demonstrates a method for the simultaneous detection of these three Echinococcus species based on multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR). Specific primers of this mPCR were designed based on the mitochondrial genes and determined by extensive tests. The method can successfully detect either separated or mixed target species, and generate expected amplicons of distinct size for each species. Sensitivity of the method was tested by serially diluted DNA, showing a detection threshold as less as 0.32 pg for both E. granulosus s.s. and E. canadensis, and 1.6 pg for E. multilocularis. Specificity assessed against 18 other parasites was found to be 100% except weakly cross-react with E. shiquicus. The assay was additionally applied to 69 echinococcosis patients and 38 healthy persons, confirming the high reliability of the method. Thus, the mPCR described here has high application potential for clinical identification purposes, and can further provide a useful tool for evaluation of serology and imaging method.
Existing data on folate status and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) prognosis are scarce. We prospectively examined whether serum folate concentrations at diagnosis were associated with liver cancer-specific survival (LCSS) and overall survival (OS) among 982 patients with newly diagnosed, previously untreated HCC, who were enrolled in the Guangdong Liver Cancer Cohort (GLCC) study between September 2013 and February 2017. Serum folate concentrations were measured using chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Cox proportional hazards models were performed to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI by sex-specific quartile of serum folate. Compared with patients in the third quartile of serum folate, patients in the lowest quartile had significantly inferior LCSS (HR = 1·48; 95 % CI 1·05, 2·09) and OS (HR = 1·43; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·99) after adjustment for non-clinical and clinical prognostic factors. The associations were not significantly modified by sex, age at diagnosis, alcohol drinking status and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage. However, there were statistically significant interactions on both multiplicative and additive scale between serum folate and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels or smoking status and the associations of lower serum folate with worse LCSS and OS were only evident among patients with CRP > 3·0 mg/l or current smokers. An inverse association with LCSS were also observed among patients with liver damage score ≥3. These results suggest that lower serum folate concentrations at diagnosis are independently associated with worse HCC survival, most prominently among patients with systemic inflammation and current smokers. A future trial of folate supplementation seems to be promising in HCC patients with lower folate status.
CrFeNiTix (x = 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6 molar ratio) compositionally complex alloys were fabricated by vacuum arc melting to investigate the microstructure, hardness, and compressive properties. The results revealed that CrFeNiTix alloys consisted of the principal face-centered cubic (FCC) phase and body-centered cubic (BCC) solid solution, with an amount of (Ni, Ti)-rich hexagonal close-packed phase. CrFeNiTix alloys exhibited the typical dendrite. Ti0.2 and Ti0.3 alloys were composed of FCC and BCC solid solutions in the dendrite, as well as ε (Ni3Ti) and R (Ni2.67Ti1.33) phases in the inter-dendrite, simultaneously. For Ti0.4, Ti0.5, and Ti0.6 alloys, (Fe, Cr)-rich solid solution separated out and ε phase transformed into R phase gradually. Meanwhile, TEM analysis indicated that Ti0.4 alloy matrix consisted of the principal FCC phase containing (Ni, Ti)-rich intragranular nanoprecipitates. The hardness values of CrFeNiTix alloys were increased with the addition of Ti content and the high compressive strength of CrFeNiTix alloys was maintained, which was attributed to the solid solution strengthening and precipitation hardening.
To explore the direct and indirect associations of dietary patterns with hypertension using structural equation modelling (SEM).
Factor analysis with varimax rotation was used to classify different dietary patterns and SEM was employed to investigate the associations of dietary patterns with hypertension. Total cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol (TC:HDL-C) ratio and LDL-cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol (LDL-C:HDL-C) ratio were used as observed indicator variables of the lipid latent variable. Waist circumference, body fat percentage and BMI, which were associated with hypertension, were used as observed indicator variables of the obesity latent variable.
International Chronic Disease Cohort (ICDC) that began in 2005 with the purpose of describing the frequency and determinants of chronic diseases in Jilin Province, China.
A total of 1492 adults (40–79 years) were enrolled in the baseline study from August 2010 to August 2011.
Hypertension prevalence in our study population was 34·9 %. It was found that the wine pattern, condiment pattern, obesity latent variable, lipid latent variable, glucose, age and family history of hypertension were factors that had an association with hypertension via SEM, and the corresponding coefficients were 0·056, 0·011, 0·230, 0·281, 0·098, 0·232 and 0·116, respectively.
The wine pattern and lipid latent variable had positive direct associations with hypertension. The condiment pattern had a positive indirect association with hypertension via the obesity latent variable. The vegetables pattern, modern pattern and snack pattern were not associated with hypertension.
The present study was undertaken to investigate the antiparasitic activity of extracellular products of Streptomyces albus. Bioactivity-guided isolation of chloroform extracts affording a compound showing potent activity. The structure of the compound was elucidated as salinomycin (SAL) by EI-MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR. In vitro test showed that SAL has potent anti-parasitic efficacy against theronts of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis with 10 min, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h (effective concentration) EC50 (95% confidence intervals) of 2.12 (2.22–2.02), 1.93 (1.98–1.88), 1.42 (1.47–1.37), 1.35 (1.41–1.31) and 1.11 (1.21–1.01) mg L−1. In vitro antiparasitic assays revealed that SAL could be 100% effective against I. multifiliis encysted tomonts at a concentration of 8.0 mg L−1. In vivo test demonstrated that the number of I. multifiliis trophonts on Erythroculter ilishaeformis treated with SAL was markedly lower than that of control group at 10 days after exposed to theronts (P < 0.05). In the control group, 80% mortality was observed owing to heavy I. multifiliis infection at 10 days. On the other hand, only 30.0% mortality was recorded in the group treated with 8.0 mg L−1 SAL. The median lethal dose (LD50) of SAL for E. ilishaeformis was 32.9 mg L−1.
Solid-state batteries are promising candidates for energy storage due to their potential advantages in safety, working temperature range, and energy density compared to traditional liquid-electrolyte-based batteries. Rational battery architecture design and a scalable fabrication approach are critical to realize solid-state batteries. In this article, we present the architecture, fabrication procedure, and related challenges of sulfide and oxide electrolyte-based solid-state batteries. Approaches toward intimate solid−solid contact, thin solid-electrolyte fabrication, and scale-up production are discussed. Finally, we discuss the future research directions of solid-state batteries.
Two new species of egg parasitoids, Oobius saimaensis Yao and Mottern new species and Oobius fleischeri Yao and Duan new species (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), are described from eggs of Agrilus fleischeri Obenberger, 1925 (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Agrilus fleischeri is a phloem-feeding woodborer of poplar (Populus Linnaeus; Salicaceae) in northeastern China. These two species can be distinguished morphologically as O. fleischeri has five tarsomeres and O. saimaensis has four tarsomeres. Although O. saimaensis is morphologically similar to its sympatric congener O. agrili Zhang and Hang, 2005, an important natural enemy of the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, 1888, molecular phylogenetics and morphological data indicate that they are distinct species. Phylogenetic relationships among the new species and other closely related species are also inferred by using DNA sequence data from several ribosomal and mitochondrial genes. In addition, we expand the known distribution of Oobius primorskyensis Yao and Duan, 2016 to include South Korea.
Nine possible native point defects in MgCaSi have been studied by employing density functional theory based ab initio calculations. The complex chemical potential limits are first determined using a two-dimension (∆μMg, ∆μCa) diagram, then the defect formation energies as a function of the atomic chemical potential are gained. The energetic results show that under Mg-rich conditions, the most favorable defect is MgCa rather than MgSi, while CaMg is predominant compared to CaSi under Ca-rich conditions. The bonding energy is first introduced to uncover the intrinsic feature of defect formation energy. The local geometric distortion around CaMg, MgSi, and CaSi antisite defects gradually increases due to the smaller atomic radii from Ca to Mg and Si, showing the important role of the geometrical mismatch. The density of states indicates that the higher stability of CaMg and MgCa originates from the smaller deviation of the Fermi level from the pseudo-gap.
One of the most important non-destructive methods for on-site analysis of bronze artifacts is portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF). However, bronze artifacts are usually heterogeneous in composition due to, among other things, the segregation of lead, which is hard to be eliminated through annealing treatments. In the present work, Cu-Sn-Pb alloys with homogenous composition and microstructure is fabricated by powder metallurgy technique. The suitability of the standard curve using Cu-Sn-Pb alloys by powder metallurgy as the standard samples for XRF on the analysis of bronze artifacts is evaluated. It is shown that this proposed method can be transferred to portable XRF to acquire accurate on-site composition information of bronze artifacts.
A series of oxidation experiments were carried out on these novel γ/γ′-strengthened cobalt-based alloys of the systems Co–9Al–10W and Co–9Al–10W–0.02X (X = La, Ce, Dy, Y) at 900 °C. The appropriate amounts’ addition of rare earth elements leads to improved oxidation properties at 900 °C, especially La elements show the best oxidation resistance (129.008 mg/cm2). However, the base Co–9Al–10W alloy shows the worst oxidation performance (151.544 mg/cm2). Multilayer oxide layers formed during the oxidation process, the outer were mainly CoO and Co3O4 oxides, and the middle layer contained complex oxides (containing Co, Al, and W). The inner layer consists of little discontinuous oxides, included few Al2O3 oxides. There existed a different crack width and the base alloy had the widest crack. Moreover, there exists a phase transformation (γ/γ′ to γ/Co3W) at the interface between oxide film and substrate.
Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is the common cause of cognitive decline in the old population. MRI can be used to clarify its mechanisms. However, the surrogate markers of MRI for early cognitive impairment in SVD remain uncertain to date. We investigated the cognitive impacts of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and brain volumetric measurements in a cohort of post-stroke non-dementia SVD patients.
Fifty five non-dementia SVD patients were consecutively recruited and categorized into two groups as no cognitive impairment (NCI) (n = 23) or vascular mild cognitive impairment (VaMCI) (n = 32). Detailed neuropsychological assessment and multimodal MRI were completed.
The two groups differed significantly on Z scores of all cognitive domains (all p < 0.01) except for the language. There were more patients with hypertension (p = 0.038) or depression (p = 0.019) in the VaMCI than those in the NCI group. Multiple regression analysis of cognition showed periventricular mean diffusivity (MD) (β = −0.457, p < 0.01) and deep CMBs numbers (β = −0.352, p < 0.01) as the predictors of attention/executive function, which explained 45.2% of the total variance. Periventricular MD was the independent predictor for either memory (β = −0.314, p < 0.05) or visuo-spatial function (β = −0.375, p < 0.01); however, only small proportion of variance could be accounted for (9.8% and 12.4%, respectively). Language was not found to be correlated with any of the MRI parameters. No correlation was found between brain atrophic indices and any of the cognitive measures.
Arteriosclerotic CMBs and periventricular white matter disintegrity seem to be independent MRI surrogated markers in the early stage of cognitive impairment in SVD.
Studies of schizophrenia at drug-naive state and on antipsychotic medication have reported a number of regions of gray-matter (GM) abnormalities but the reports have been inconsistent. The aim of this study was to conduct multimodal meta-analysis to compare the cross-sectional voxel-based morphometry studies of brain GM in antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia (AN-FES) and those with antipsychotic treatment within 1 year (AT-FES) to determine the similarities and differences in these groups. We conducted two separate meta-analyses containing 24 studies with a sample size of 801 patients and 957 healthy controls. A multimodal meta-analysis method was used to compare the findings between AN-FES and AT-FES. Meta-regression analyses were done to determine the influence of different variables including age, duration of illness, and positive and negative symptom scores. Finally, jack-knife analyses were done to test the robustness of the results. AN-FES and AT-FES showed common patterns of GM abnormalities in frontal (gyrus rectus), superior temporal, left hippocampal and insular cortex. GM in the left supramarginal gyrus and left middle temporal gyrus were found to be increased in AN-FES but decreased in AT-FES, whereas left median cingulate/paracingulate gyri and right hippocampus GM was decreased in AN-FES but increased in AT-FES. Findings suggest that both AN-FES and AT-FES share frontal, temporal and insular regions as common anatomical regions to be affected indicating these to be the primary regions of GM abnormalities in both groups.
The isothermal oxidation experiments were carried out on several new γ/γ′-strengthened cobalt-base alloys Co–Al–W–4Cr–0.02X (X = La, Ce, Dy, Y) at 900 and 800 °C. Due to an appropriate content of additional elements, the change in the morphology occurred and it significantly improved the oxidation resistance compared with those without Cr, among which the one with La elements shows the best oxidation resistance. Multiple oxide layers are also formed during the oxidation process, with CoWO4 and CoAl2O4 phases in the outer layer, and Cr, Al, W, and Co (e.g., Cr2O3) in the middle layer. The inner layer consists of some Al2O3 oxides, while more protective Al2O3 oxide was formed, esp. at the temperature of 800 °C. Both Cr2O3 and Al2O3 oxides were effectively protective oxides, which can prevent the intrusion of oxygen into the alloy substrate. Moreover, a phase transformation (γ/γ′ to γ/Co3W) was observed at the interface between oxide layer and substrate.
A magnesium–lithium (Mg–Li) hybrid battery consists of an Mg metal anode, a Li+ intercalation cathode, and a dual-salt electrolyte with both Mg2+ and Li+ ions. The demonstration of this technology has appeared in literature for few years and great advances have been achieved in terms of electrolytes, various Li cathodes, and cell architectures. Despite excellent battery performances including long cycle life, fast charge/discharge rate, and high Coulombic efficiency, the overall research of Mg–Li hybrid battery technology is still in its early stage, and also raised some debates on its practical applications. In this regard, we focus on a comprehensive overview of Mg–Li hybrid battery technologies developed in recent years. Detailed discussion of Mg–Li hybrid operating mechanism based on experimental results from literature helps to identify the current status and technical challenges for further improving the performance of Mg–Li hybrid batteries. Finally, a perspective for Mg–Li hybrid battery technologies is presented to address strategic approaches for existing technical barriers that need to be overcome in future research direction.
The intercalation of Tb(III) into layered magadiite is achieved by three-step ion exchanges with H+/Na+, TBA+ (tetra-n-butylammonium ions)/H+ and Tb(EDTA)3+/TBA+. Various techniques, including powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX), thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetry (TG-DTG), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and photoluminescent spectroscopy (PL), were employed to characterize the Tb-intercalated magadiites. The XRD results revealed that the basal spacing of the Tb-intercalated magadiites was obviously larger than that of the Na-magadiite, confirming the intercalation. The IR spectra showed no bands attributable to EDTA in the Tb-intercalated magadiites, indicating that the EDTA has broken away from Tb(III)-ETDA complexes during ion exchange. Moreover, the basal spacing of Tb-intercalated magadiite tends to increase slightly with the increase in water content in the Tb-intercalated magadiite. The PL spectra show weak emissions, attributed to 5D4-7FJ (J = 3, 4, 5, 6) transitions of Tb3+.
In this paper, by discussing and analyzing the observational results of near infrared imaging, optical spectroscopy and 12CO molecular line, together with IRAS and NVSS data, we conclude that WB89 520 is an UC HII region with a very young compact stellar cluster. The spectrum of the UC HII region shows that it is an extremely metal-poor nebula, which has the lowest line ratio of [NII]/Hα (∼ 1/56) discovered in the nebulae of our Galaxy until now. We give two possible explanations for the low metallicity.
We report new field observations, zircon U–Pb ages and geochemical data for the discrete members of the Zhaheba ophiolite complex in northeastern Junggar of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) with the aim to understand the accretion process of the eastern Junggar terrane. The zircon age data reveal that the cumulates of the Zhaheba ophiolite crystallized at ~485 Ma while the volcanic sequences erupted at ~400 Ma. Thus, the volcanic sequences are not members of the Zhaheba ophiolite. Chromian spinels from the serpentinite have comparable elemental compositions to those of spinels from MORB-type ophiolites. Similarly, the rift affinity of clinopyroxene and positive zircon εHf(t) (13–20) and mantle δ18O (+5.37‰) values of the cumulates imply that the cumulates crystallized from primitive magmas derived from a depleted mantle source. Elemental and Nd isotopic compositions indicate that the basalts in the Zhaheba area were derived from partial melting of a mantle wedge metasomatized by adakitic melts and/or subduction-related fluids. The data presented in this contribution, together with previous studies, indicate that the Zhaheba–Almantai and Kelameili ophiolites were MORB-type, which implies that there were at least two mid-ocean ridges during Ordovician to early Devonian times in the Junggar Ocean. In the earlier stage, intra-oceanic subduction led to the formation of the intra-oceanic arc, and then the Kelameili ophiolite accreted to an intra-oceanic accretionary wedge. In the later stage, the Zhaheba–Almantai ophiolite accreted to the accretionary wedge along the southern margin of the Iritish suture zone during the roll-back of the subduction zone from north to south.
Proton radiography is used for advanced hydrotesting as a new type radiography technology due to its powerful penetration capability and high detection efficiency. A new proton radiography terminal will be developed to radiograph static samples at the Institute of Modern Physics of Chinese Academy of Science. The proton beam with the maximum energy of 2.6 GeV will be produced by Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou-Cooling Storage Ring. The proton radiography terminal consists of the matching magnetic lens and the Zumbro lens system. In this paper, the design scheme and all optic parameters of this beam terminal for 2.6 GeV proton energy are presented by simulating the beam optics using WINAGILE code. My-BOC code is used to test the particle tracking of proton radiography beam line. Geant4 and G4beamline codes are used for simulating the proton radiography system. The results show that the transmission efficiency of proton without target is 100%, and the effect of secondary particles can be neglected. To test this proton radiography system, the proton images for an aluminum plate sample with two rectangular orifices and a step brass plate sample are respectively simulated using Geant4 code. The results show that the best spatial resolution is about 36 μm, and the differences of the thickness are not >10%.