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In this paper, sliding panels are used to increase the bending stiffness of the classic corrugated flexible skin, and the corresponding application procedure for aircraft structures is developed. After the conceptual design of the corrugated flexible skin with sliding panels is proposed, the analytical models to calculate the equivalent tensile and bending properties are investigated. At the same time, its flexibility in the corrugation direction and the load-bearing capacity (is proportional to the bending stiffness) in the direction perpendicular to corrugation are studied by numerical simulation and experiment. The application procedure is established based on geometric analysis and strain definition, and according to this procedure, the corrugated flexible skin with sliding panels is applied to the drooping leading edge to eliminate the gap on the upper skin. The results show that the corrugated flexible skin with sliding panels has more bending stiffness than the classic corrugated flexible skin in the direction perpendicular to corrugation while maintaining the deform ability in the corrugation direction, and the application procedure is effective and can be applied to other parts of the aircraft structure.
Many data-driven patient risk stratification models have not been evaluated prospectively. We performed and compared the prospective and retrospective evaluations of 2 Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) risk-prediction models at 2 large academic health centers, and we discuss the models’ robustness to data-set shifts.
Apart from the psychiatric symptoms, cognitive deficits are also the core symptoms of schizophrenia. Brain network control theory provided information on the role of a specific brain region in the cognitive control process, helping understand the neural mechanism of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia.
To characterize the control properties of functional brain network in first-episode untreated patients with schizophrenia and the relationships between controllability and psychiatric symptoms, as well as exploring the predictive value of controllability in differentiating patients from healthy controls (HCs).
Average and modal controllability of brain networks were calculated and compared between 133 first-episode untreated patients with schizophrenia and 135 HCs. The associations between controllability and clinical symptoms were evaluated using sparse canonical correlation analysis. Support vector machine (SVM) and SVM-recursive feature elimination combined with the controllability were performed to establish the individual prediction model.
Compared to HCs, the patients with schizophrenia showed increased average controllability and decreased modal controllability in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). Brain controllability predominantly in somatomotor, default mode, and visual networks was associated with the positive symptomatology of schizophrenia. The established model could identify patients with an accuracy of 0.68. Furthermore, the most discriminative features were located in dACC, medial prefrontal lobe, precuneus and superior temporal gyrus.
Altered controllability in dACC may play a critical role in the neuropathological mechanisms of cognitive deficit in schizophrenia, which could drive the brain function to different states to cope with varied cognitive tasks. As symptom-related biomarkers, controllability could be also beneficial to individual prediction in schizophrenia.
There is a growing consensus on brain networks that it is not immutable but rather a dynamic complex system for adapting environment. The neuroimaging research studying how brain regions work collaboratively with dynamic methods had demonstrated its effectiveness in revealing the neural mechanisms of schizophrenia.
To investigate altered dynamic brain functional topology in first-episode untreated schizophrenia patients (SZs) and establish classification models to find objective brain imaging biomarkers.
Resting-state-functional magnetic resonance data for SZs and matched healthy controls were obtained(Table1).
Power-264-template was used to extract nodes and sliding-window approach was carried out to establish functional connectivity matrices. Functional topology was assessed by eigenvector centrality(EC) and node efficiency and its time-fluctuating was evaluated with coefficient of variation(CV). Group differences of dynamic topology and correlation analysis between Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale(PANSS) scores and topology indices showing group differences, which also were used in establishing classification models, was examed.
The CV of node efficiency in angular and paracingulate gyrus was larger in SZs. There are 13 nodes assigned into several brain networks displaying altered CV of EC between groups(Figure1.A). Fluctuation of EC of the node in DMN, which was lower in SZs, showed negative correlation with PANSS total scores(Figure1.B). Dynamic functional topology of above nodes was used to train classification models and demonstrated 80% and 71% accuracy for support vector classification(SVC) and random forest(RF), respectively(Figure2).
Dynamic functional topology illustrated a capability in identifying SZs. Aberrated dynamics of DMN relevant to severity of patient’s symptoms could reveal the reason why it contributed to classification.
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is prevalent, often chronic, and requires ongoing monitoring of symptoms to track response to treatment and identify early indicators of relapse. Remote Measurement Technologies (RMT) provide an exciting opportunity to transform the measurement and management of MDD, via data collected from inbuilt smartphone sensors and wearable devices alongside app-based questionnaires and tasks.
To describe the amount of data collected during a multimodal longitudinal RMT study, in an MDD population.
RADAR-MDD is a multi-centre, prospective observational cohort study. People with a history of MDD were provided with a wrist-worn wearable, and several apps designed to: a) collect data from smartphone sensors; and b) deliver questionnaires, speech tasks and cognitive assessments and followed-up for a maximum of 2 years.
A total of 623 individuals with a history of MDD were enrolled in the study with 80% completion rates for primary outcome assessments across all timepoints. 79.8% of people participated for the maximum amount of time available and 20.2% withdrew prematurely. Data availability across all RMT data types varied depending on the source of data and the participant-burden for each data type. We found no evidence of an association between the severity of depression symptoms at baseline and the availability of data. 110 participants had > 50% data available across all data types, and thus able to contribute to multiparametric analyses.
RADAR-MDD is the largest multimodal RMT study in the field of mental health. Here, we have shown that collecting RMT data from a clinical population is feasible.
The great demographic pressure brings tremendous volume of beef demand. The key to solve this problem is the growth and development of Chinese cattle. In order to find molecular markers conducive to the growth and development of Chinese cattle, sequencing was used to determine the position of copy number variations (CNVs), bioinformatics analysis was used to predict the function of ZNF146 gene, real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used for CNV genotyping and one-way analysis of variance was used for association analysis. The results showed that there exists CNV in Chr 18: 47225201-47229600 (5.0.1 version) of ZNF146 gene through the early sequencing results in the laboratory and predicted ZNF146 gene was expressed in liver, skeletal muscle and breast cells, and was amplified or overexpressed in pancreatic cancer, which promoted the development of tumour through bioinformatics. Therefore, it is predicted that ZNF146 gene affects the proliferation of muscle cells, and then affects the growth and development of cattle. Furthermore, CNV genotyping of ZNF146 gene was three types (deletion type, normal type and duplication type) by Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (qPCR). The association analysis results showed that ZNF146-CNV was significantly correlated with rump length of Qinchuan cattle, hucklebone width of Jiaxian red cattle and heart girth of Yunling cattle. From the above results, ZNF146-CNV had a significant effect on growth traits, which provided an important candidate molecular marker for growth and development of Chinese cattle.
To summarise and describe the clinical presentations, diagnostic approaches and airway management techniques in children with laryngotracheal trauma.
The clinical data related to laryngotracheal trauma diagnosed and treated at the Beijing Children's Hospital, between January 2013 and July 2018, were retrospectively reviewed. Disease diagnosis, treatment, management and outcomes were analysed.
A total of 13 cases were enrolled, including 7 cases of penetrating laryngotracheal trauma. The six cases of blunt laryngotracheal trauma were caused by collisions with hard objects. In all cases, voice, airway and swallowing outcomes were graded as ‘good’, except for one patient who had residual paralysis of the vocal folds.
Flexible fibre-optic laryngoscopy and computed tomography can play an important role in diagnosing laryngotracheal trauma. The airway should be secured and, if necessary, opened by tracheal intubation or tracheostomy.
In this study, an active defence cooperative guidance (ADCG) law that enables cheap and low-speed airborne defence missiles with low manoeuverability to accurately intercept fast and expensive attack missiles with high manoeuverability was designed to enhance the capability of aircraft for active defence. This guidance law relies on the line-of-sight (LOS) guidance method, and it realises active defence by adjusting the geometric LOS relationship involving an attack missile, a defence missile and an aircraft. We use a nonlinear integral sliding surface and an improved second-order sliding mode reaching law to design the guidance law. This can not only reduce the chattering phenomenon in the guidance command, but it can also ensure that the system can reach the sliding surface from any initial position in a finite time. Simulations were carried out to verify the proposed law using four cases: different manoeuvering modes of the aircraft, different speed ratios of the attack and defence missiles, different reaching laws applied to the ADCG law and a robustness analysis. The results show that the proposed guidance law can enable a defence missile to intercept an attack missile by simultaneously using information about the relative motions of the attack missile and the aircraft. It is also highly robust in the presence of errors and noise.
The incidence of scarlet fever has increased dramatically in recent years in Chongqing, China, but there has no effective method to forecast it. This study aimed to develop a forecasting model of the incidence of scarlet fever using a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model. Monthly scarlet fever data between 2011 and 2019 in Chongqing, China were retrieved from the Notifiable Infectious Disease Surveillance System. From 2011 to 2019, a total of 5073 scarlet fever cases were reported in Chongqing, the male-to-female ratio was 1.44:1, children aged 3–9 years old accounted for 81.86% of the cases, while 42.70 and 42.58% of the reported cases were students and kindergarten children, respectively. The data from 2011 to 2018 were used to fit a SARIMA model and data in 2019 were used to validate the model. The normalised Bayesian information criterion (BIC), the coefficient of determination (R2) and the root mean squared error (RMSE) were used to evaluate the goodness-of-fit of the fitted model. The optimal SARIMA model was identified as (3, 1, 3) (3, 1, 0)12. The RMSE and mean absolute per cent error (MAPE) were used to assess the accuracy of the model. The RMSE and MAPE of the predicted values were 19.40 and 0.25 respectively, indicating that the predicted values matched the observed values reasonably well. Taken together, the SARIMA model could be employed to forecast scarlet fever incidence trend, providing support for scarlet fever control and prevention.
For a common micro-satellite, orbiting in a circular sun-synchronous orbit (SSO) at an altitude between 500 and 600km, the satellite attitude during off-nadir imaging and staring-imaging operations can be up to ±45 degree on roll and pitch angles. During these off-nadir pointing for both multi-trip operation and staring imaging operations, the spacecraft body is commonly subject to high-rate motion. This posts challenges for a spacecraft attitude determination subsystem called Gyro Stellar Inertial Attitude Estimate (GS IAE), which employs gyros and star sensors to maintain the required attitude knowledge, since star trackers will severely degrade attitude estimation accuracies when the spacecraft is subject to high-rate motion. This paper analyses the star motion-induced errors for a typical star tracker, models the star motion-induced errors to assess the performance impact on the attitude estimation accuracy, and investigates the adaptive extended Kalman filter design in the GS IAE while evaluating its effectiveness.
Variable camber flap technology can adjust the spanwise circulation distribution, thereby reducing the induced drag. Therefore, the concept of variable camber flap is introduced into the design of propeller aircraft wing, and the design for drag reduction of propeller aircraft is carried out. The numerical simulation of the propeller aircraft is carried out by using the actuator disc method with non-uniform distribution of radial and circumferential loads. Through the unsteady simulation of a single propeller, the aerodynamic load on a periodic propeller is extracted as a boundary condition to the steady simulation of the full aircraft. The load extracted by the actuator disc is compared with the unsteady simulation result, which verifies the reliability of the method. The design for drag reduction at cruise and climb design conditions are respectively carried out with the variable camber flap technology. The variable camber cruise configuration is evaluated at both the begin and end cruise conditions. The results show that, after the flaps deflecting at a small angle according to the circulation distribution, the camber distribution of the wing is adjusted to make the circulation distribution closer to the elliptical circulation distribution. At the design cruise condition, the drag coefficient is reduced by 1.4 counts, and the lift-drag ratio increase by 0.1. At both begin and end cruise conditions, the drag coefficient decreases by 1 count, and the lift-drag ratio increases by 0.07. At the design climb condition, the drag coefficient decreases by 1 count, and the lift-to-drag ratio increases by 0.09.
The simulations and assessment of transient performance of gas turbine engines during the conceptual and preliminary design stage may be conducted ignoring heat soakage and tip clearance variations due to lack of detailed geometrical and structural information. As a result, problems with transient performance stability may not be revealed correctly, and corresponding design iterations would be necessary and costly when those problems are revealed at a detailed design stage. To make an engine design more cost and time effective, it has become important to require better transient performance simulations during the conceptual and preliminary design stage considering all key impact factors such as fuel control schedule, rotor dynamics, inter-component volume effect as well as heat soakage and tip clearance variation effects. In this research, a novel transient performance simulation approach with generically simplified heat soakage and tip clearance models for major gas path components of gas turbine engines including compressors, turbines and combustors has been developed to support more realistic transient performance simulations of gas turbine engines at conceptual and preliminary design stages. Such heat soakage and tip clearance models only require thermodynamic design parameters as input, which is normally available during such design stages. The models have been implemented into in-house transient performance simulation software and applied to a model twin-spool turbojet engine to test their effectiveness. Comparisons between transient performance simulated with and without the heat soakage and tip clearance effects demonstrate that the results are promising. Although the introduced heat soakage and tip clearance models may not be as accurate as that using detailed component geometrical information, it is able to include the major heat soakage and tip clearance effects and make the transient performance simulations and analysis more realistic during conceptual and preliminary engine design stage.
The spatio-temporal variation of leaf chlorophyll content is an important crop phenotypic trait that is of great significance for evaluating crop productivity. This study used a soil-plant analysis development (SPAD) chlorophyll meter for non-destructive monitoring of leaf chlorophyll dynamics to characterize the patterns of spatio-temporal variation in the nutritional status of maize (Zea mays L.) leaves under three nitrogen treatments in two cultivars. The results showed that nitrogen levels could affect the maximum leaf SPAD reading (SPADmax) and the duration of high SPAD reading. A rational model was used to measure the changes in SPAD readings over time in single leaves. This model was suitable for predicting the dynamics of the nutrient status for each leaf position under different nitrogen treatments, and model parameter values were position dependent. SPADmax at each leaf decreased with the reduction of nitrogen supply. Leaves at different positions in both cultivars responded differently to higher nitrogen rates. Lower leaves (8th–10th positions) were more sensitive than the other leaves in response to nitrogen. Monitoring the SPAD reading dynamic of lower leaves could accurately characterize and assess the nitrogen supply in plants. The lower leaves in nitrogen-deficient plants had a shorter duration of high SPAD readings compared to nitrogen-sufficient plants; this physiological mechanism should be studied further. In summary, the spatio-temporal variation of plant nitrogen status in maize was analysed to determine critical leaf positions for potentially assisting in the identification of appropriate agronomic management practices, such as the adjustment of nitrogen rates in late fertilization.
To study the effectiveness of unilateral cochlear implantation, binaural-bimodal hearing devices, and bilateral cochlear implantation in children with inner-ear malformation.
This study comprised 261 patients who were allocated to inner-ear malformation or control groups. Twenty-four months after surgery, aided sound-field thresholds were tested, and the Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale, Infant-Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale, Meaningful Use of Speech Scale, Categories of Auditory Performance scale and Speech Intelligibility Rating test were completed.
Aided sound-field thresholds were significantly better for bilateral cochlear implantation patients than for unilateral cochlear implantation or binaural-bimodal hearing device patients. There was no significant difference in Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale, Infant-Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale, or Categories of Auditory Performance scores among the three groups. The binaural-bimodal hearing device patients outperformed unilateral cochlear implantation patients on both Meaningful Use of Speech Scale and Speech Intelligibility Rating scores. No statistical difference was observed between the two subgroups.
Children who received bilateral cochlear implants have the best auditory awareness in a quiet environment. Children with binaural-bimodal hearing devices have better voice control and verbal skills than unilateral cochlear implantation patients, and people are more likely to understand them. Children with inner-ear malformations benefit from cochlear implantation.
The epidemic of tuberculosis has posed a serious burden in Qinghai province, it is necessary to clarify the epidemiological characteristics and spatial-temporal distribution of TB for future prevention and control measures. We used descriptive epidemiological methods and spatial statistical analysis including spatial correlation and spatial-temporal analysis in this study. Furthermore, we applied an exponential smoothing model for TB epidemiological trend forecasting. Of 43 859 TB cases, the sex ratio was 1.27:1 (M:F), and the average annual TB registered incidence was 70.00/100 000 of 2009–2019. More cases were reported in March and April, and the worst TB stricken regions were the prefectures of Golog and Yushu. High TB registered incidences were seen in males, farmers and herdsmen, Tibetans, or elderly people. 7132 cases were intractable, which were recurrent, drug resistant, or co-infected with other infections. Three likely cases clusters with significant high risk were found by spatial-temporal scan on data of 2009–2019. The exponential smoothing winters' additive model was selected as the best-fitting model to forecast monthly TB cases in the future. This research indicated that TB in Qinghai is still a serious threaten to the local residents' health. Multi-departmental collaboration and funds special for TB treatments and control are still needed, and the exponential smoothing model is promising which could be applied for forecasting of TB epidemic trend in this high-altitude province.
We report the experimental results of the commissioning phase in the 10 PW laser beamline of the Shanghai Superintense Ultrafast Laser Facility (SULF). The peak power reaches 2.4 PW on target without the last amplifying during the experiment. The laser energy of 72 ± 9 J is directed to a focal spot of approximately 6 μm diameter (full width at half maximum) in 30 fs pulse duration, yielding a focused peak intensity around 2.0 × 1021 W/cm2. The first laser-proton acceleration experiment is performed using plain copper and plastic targets. High-energy proton beams with maximum cut-off energy up to 62.5 MeV are achieved using copper foils at the optimum target thickness of 4 μm via target normal sheath acceleration. For plastic targets of tens of nanometers thick, the proton cut-off energy is approximately 20 MeV, showing ring-like or filamented density distributions. These experimental results reflect the capabilities of the SULF-10 PW beamline, for example, both ultrahigh intensity and relatively good beam contrast. Further optimization for these key parameters is underway, where peak laser intensities of 1022–1023 W/cm2 are anticipated to support various experiments on extreme field physics.
Early-life stressful circumstances (i.e. childhood maltreatment) coupled with stressful events later in life increase the likelihood of subsequent depression. However, very few studies have been conducted to examine the specific and cumulative effects of these stressors in the development of depression. There is also a paucity of research that simultaneously considers the role of biological factors combined with psychosocial stressors in the aetiology of depression. Guided by the biopsychosocial model proposed by Engel, the present study aims to examine to what extent the experience of stressors across the lifespan is associated with depression while taking into account the role of genetic predispositions.
Data analysed were from the Social and Psychiatric Epidemiology Catchment Area of the Southwest of Montreal (ZEPSOM), a large-scale, longitudinal community-based cohort study. A total of 1351 participants with complete information on the lifetime diagnoses of depression over a 10-year follow-up period were included in the study. Stressful events across the lifespan were operationalised as specific, cumulative and latent profiles of stressful experiences. Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to explore the clustering of studied stressors including childhood maltreatment, poor parent–child relationship, and stressful life events. A polygenetic risk score was calculated for each participant to provide information on genetic liability. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association between specific, cumulative and latent profiles of stressors and subsequent depression.
We found that different subtypes of childhood maltreatment, child–parent bonding and stressful life events predicted subsequent depression. Furthermore, a significant association between combined effects of cumulative stressful experiences and depression was found [odds ratio (OR) = 1.20, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.12–1.28]. Three latent profiles of lifetime stressors were identified in the present study and named as ‘low-level of stress’ (75.1%), ‘moderate-level of stress’ (6.8%) and ‘high-level of stress’ (18.1%). Individuals with a ‘high-level of stress’ had a substantially higher risk of depression (OR = 1.80, 95% CI: 1.08–3.00) than the other two profiles after adjusting for genetic predispositions, socio-demographic characteristics, and health-related factors.
While controlling for genetic predispositions, the present study provides robust evidence to support the independent and cumulative as well as compositional effects of early- and later-on lifetime psychosocial stressors in the subsequent development of depression. Consequently, mental illness prevention and mental health promotion should target the occurrence of stressful events as well as build resilience in people so they can better cope with stress when it inevitably occurs.