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The present study aimed to evaluate the validity and reproducibility of a thirteen-item FFQ regarding identification of dietary conditions in a rural population in China.
A reproducibility study repeated the first FFQ (FFQ1) approximately 4 weeks later (FFQ2). A validity study evaluated the mean of three consecutive 24 h diet recalls as the reference measure.
Residents of a rural area in Henan Province, which is located in the central region of China.
A total of 295 individuals participated in the reproducibility study. In addition, 123 people agreed to participate in the validity study. Spearman’s correlation coefficients between the two FFQ ranged from 0·06 (vegetables) to 0·58 (eggs). Spearman’s correlation coefficients between the two methods of collection ranged from 0·01 for cereal to 0·49 for staple foods. The mean of the intraclass correlation coefficients of the two FFQ (FFQ1 v. FFQ2) was 0·19. Bland–Altman analysis indicated good agreement for most food groups across the range of intake for the two studies.
The study demonstrated that our FFQ design could be used as a representative tool to conduct a dietary evaluation of a rural population.
In this study, Mg-substituted tricalcium phosphate (Mg-TCP) nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal reactions of Mg-calcite mesocrystals from echinoderm skeletons. Following the biomineralization of echinoderms, Mg-calcite powder was synthesized via the solid-state transition of Mg-amorphous calcium carbonate prepared by a wet-chemical precipitation method, which can also be used to fabricate Mg-TCP. We illustrated that Mg-calcite with a certain level of Mg substitution led to the formation of Mg-TCP through the ion-exchange reactions in the hydrothermal system. Therefore, this study provides a new pathway for the synthesis of Mg-TCP nanoparticles.
In this paper, a novel compact dual-band microstrip patch antenna with dual-radiation modes is investigated. The proposed antenna consists of a rectangular ground plane, a U-shaped feed probe, and an H-shaped slot radiating patch. By adjusting the size of these structures, a dual-band antenna can be obtained. In the low-frequency band, the antenna can radiate one radiation beam with high gain. In the high-frequency band, the antenna can achieve monopole-like radiation pattern. Therefore, an antenna prototype is fabricated and measured for validation. Good agreement between the simulated and measured results is observed in this paper. The antenna's operating frequency ranges are 3.6–3.85 GHz in the low-frequency band and 5.1–6.1 GHz in the high-frequency band with the reflection coefficient less than −10 dB. At 3.7 GHz, the antenna radiate one beam with 8.8 dBi realized gain. At 5.5 GHz, it exhibits dual-radiation beams directed to −48 and 48° with 5.6 and 5.5 dBi realized gain in the xoz-plane and −48 and 48° with 2.9 and 3.0 dBi realized gain in the yoz-plane. Therefore, the proposed antenna is a good candidate for wireless communication systems.
Many components in diet have regulated oxidative stress, inflammatory reaction and even balance oestrogen levels. Because these factors are closely associated with depressive symptoms in postmenopausal women, it is considered that dietary factors are able to prevent and control depressive symptoms. On the other hand, a dietary pattern that considers the correlations and synergies between foods and nutrients is expected to have a greater impact on disease risk. The aim of the present study is to evaluate whether dietary patterns are associated with depressive symptoms in Chinese postmenopausal women. A cross-sectional study of 2051 postmenopausal women (mean age: 58·8 (sd 7·4) years) was conducted in Tianjin, China. Dietary consumption was assessed by a valid self-administered FFQ. Principal component analysis was used to derive three major dietary patterns: ‘healthy’, ‘sweets’ and ‘traditional Tianjin’ from eighty-eight food items. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, and cut-off point of 48 indicating serious depressive symptoms. The association between quartile of dietary patterns and depressive symptoms was assessed using multiple logistic regression analysis. The multivariable-adjusted OR of having depressive symptoms for increasing quartile of dietary patterns were as follows: healthy, 1·00, 0·79 (95 % CI 0·49, 1·28), 0·62 (95 % CI 0·37, 1·04) and 0·57 (95 % CI 0·33, 0·97); sweets, 1·00, 0·75 (95 % CI 0·42, 1·3), 1·08 (95 % CI 0·64, 1·81) and 1·66 (95 % CI 1·03, 2·71); and traditional Tianjin, 1·00, 1·02 (95 % CI 0·58, 1·79), 0·96 (95 % CI 0·54, 1·71) and 2·53 (95 % CI 1·58, 4·16), respectively. The present study demonstrated that a healthy dietary pattern was inversely associated with depressive symptoms. On the contrary, greater adherence to sweets and traditional Tianjin dietary patterns was associated with a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms.
Advanced cooling techniques involving internal enhanced heat transfer and external film cooling and thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are employed for gas turbine hot components to reduce metal temperatures and to extend their lifetime. A deeper understanding of the interaction mechanism of these thermal protection methods and the conjugate thermal behaviours of the turbine parts provides valuable guideline for the design stage. In this study, a conjugate heat transfer model of a turbine vane endwall with internal impingement and external film cooling is constructed to document the effects of TBCs on the overall cooling effectiveness using numerical simulations. Experiments on the same model with no TBCs are performed to validate the computational methods. Round and crater holes due to the inclusion of TBCs are investigated as well to address how film-cooling configurations affect the aero-thermal performance of the endwall. Results show that the TBCs have a profound effect in reducing the endwall metal temperatures for both cases. The TBC thermal protection for the endwall is shown to be more significant than the effect of increasing coolant mass flow rate. Although the crater holes have better film cooling performance than the traditional round holes, a slight decrement of overall cooling effectiveness is found for the crater configuration due to more endwall metal surfaces directly exposed to external mainstream flows. Energy loss coefficients at the vane passage exit show a relevant negative impact of adding TBCs on the cascade aerodynamic performance, particularly for the round hole case.
Most of original studies indicated maternal violence experiences is associated with adverse obstetric outcomes, to date, but it is not clear that the association of maternal violence experiences and the risk of postpartum depression (PPD). We aimed to assess the association between maternal violence experiences and risk of developing PPD by performing a meta-analysis of cohort studies.
PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane Libraries and Chinese databases were searched through December 2017 to identify studies that assessed the association between violence and PPD. Meta-analysis was conducted by the RevMan software and Stata software. Potential heterogeneity source was explored by subgroup analysis and potential publication bias was assessed by Begg's funnel plots and Egger’s linear regression test.
Overall, women experiencing any violence events compared with the reference group were at a higher risk of developing PPD (odds ratio [OR] = 2.04; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.72–2.41). Additionally, different types of violence events such as sexual (OR = 1.56; 95%CI: 1.35–1.81), emotional (OR = 1.75; 95%CI: 1.61–1.89), and physical violence (OR = 1.90; 95%CI: 1.36–2.67), as well as domestic (OR = 2.05; 95%CI: 1.50–2.80) or childhood violence (OR = 1.59; 95%CI: 1.34–1.88) also increased the risk of developing PPD. Relevant heterogeneity moderators have been identified by subgroup analysis. Sensitivity analysis yielded consistent results.
Maternal violence experiences are significantly associated with risk of developing PPD. These finding highlight the necessary to protect women from any types of violence and formulate preventive strategies to promote the maternal mental health.
Pangquangou National Nature Reserve is well known as ‘the distribution centre of Prince Rupprecht's larch (Larix principis-rupprechtii)' in China. Community variation in Prince Rupprecht's larch forest provides habitat heterogeneity for animals, especially for the endemic and endangered brown-eared pheasant (Crossoptlon mantchuricum). In this study a total of 120 quadrats (each 10×10m) were established to measure and record species composition and six environmental variables to examine the underlying variables that control community variation. We applied a multivariate regression tree analysis to detect community variation, and used redundancy analysis-based variation partitioning to separate the effects of environmental variables on community variation. The results show that Prince Rupprecht's larch forest in the Pangquangou National Nature Reserve can be represented by eight community types. The amount of total species variability captured by all environmental variables was 20.6%, and the cumulative percentage variance of species–environment relationships was 95.8%. However, analyses with a conditional effect approach revealed that elevation, aspect and litter thickness contribute the most to community variation. The pure and joint effects of these three explanatory variables were separated with variation partitioning analyses. The results highlight that the effect of elevation accounts for the largest fraction of community variation in Prince Rupprecht's larch forest.
The research reported in this Research Communication aimed to describe the influence of Toll-like receptor 4 gene polymorphisms on milk production traits in Chinese Holstein cows. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is an important member of the toll-like receptor gene family that is widely found in various organisms. Since TLR4 can identify molecular patterns from various pathogenic microorganisms and induce natural and acquired immunity, it plays an important role in disease resistance in dairy cows. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of TLR4 (c.−226 G > C and c.2021 C > T) that were previously found to be associated with health traits were genotyped using Sequenom MassARRAY (Sequenom Inc., San Diego, CA) for Chinese Holstein cows (n = 866). The associations between SNPs or their haplotypes and milk production traits and somatic cell count were analyzed by the generalized linear model procedure of Statistics Analysis System software (SAS). The c.−226 G > C and c.2021 C > T showed low linkage disequilibrium (r2 = 0·192). There was no association between these two SNPs and SCC, but significant effects were found for SNP c.−226 G > C on test-day milk yield, fat content, protein content, and total solid and milk urea nitrogen (P < 0·05), and SNP c.2021 C > T and the SNP haplotypes on test-day milk yield, fat content, protein content, lactose content and total solids (P < 0·05). The software MatInspector revealed that c.−226 G > C was located within several potential transcription factor binding sites, including transcription factor AP-2. The polymorphisms c.−226 G > C and c.2021 C > T had significant effects on the milk production for Chinese Holstein, and these SNP could be used for molecular marker-assisted selection of milk production.
Previous studies have indicated that some food items and nutrients are associated with uric acid metabolism in humans. However, little is known about the role of dietary patterns in hyperuricaemia. We designed this case–control study to evaluate the associations between dietary patterns and newly diagnosed hyperuricaemia in Chinese adults. A total of 1422 cases and 1422 controls were generated from 14 538 participants using the 1:1 ratio propensity score matching methods. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated self-administered FFQ. Dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis. Hyperuricaemia was defined as concentrations of serum uric acid higher than 7 mg/dl (416·5 μmol/l) for men and 6 mg/dl (357 μmol/l) for women. Three dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis: sweet pattern; vegetable pattern; animal foods pattern. The animal foods pattern characterised by higher intake of an animal organ, seafood and processed meat products was associated with higher prevalence of newly diagnosed hyperuricaemia (Pfor trend<0·01) after adjustment. Compared with the participants in the lowest quartile of the animal foods pattern, the OR of newly diagnosed hyperuricaemia in the highest quartile was 1·50 (95 % CI 1·20, 1·87). The other two dietary patterns were not associated with the prevalence of newly diagnosed hyperuricaemia after adjustment. In conclusion, a diet rich in animal organ, seafood and processed meat products is associated with higher prevalence of newly diagnosed hyperuricaemia in a Chinese population. Further cohort studies and randomised controlled trials are required to clarify these findings.
Fragile X syndrome sharing similar neural network abnormalities as ADHD
The Fragile X syndrome (FXS) phenotype typically involves a variety of psychiatric symptoms, including features of autism, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety, and aggression. Studies have shown that ADHD is characterized by multiple functional and structural neural network abnormalities including fronto-striatal, fronto-parieto-temporal, fronto-cerebellar and fronto-limbic networks (Rubia, 2014; Norman, 2017). Studies have shown that ADHD is characterized by a delay in structural brain maturation (Rubia, 2007). Absence of the FMR1 gene product Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) results in FXS, an inherited form of mental retardation. FMRP is an RNA binding protein functioning as a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. In a knockout mouse model of FXS (Fmr1 null), Qin, et al showed regionally selective effects on cerebral metabolic rates for glucose (rCMRglc) (Qin, 2002) and rates of cerebral protein synthesis (Qin, 2005). In the present study, we asked if there is a relationship between brain regions most vulnerable to the effects of the absence of FMRP in the Fmr1 null mouse, and if the distribution consistent with the structural and functional brain abnormalities in ADHD. We also asked if there is a difference between males and females in the regional distributions and the levels of the FXR mRNAs.
We used 35S-labeled probes specific for the mRNAs to perform in situ hybridization on brains from male (n=4) and female (n=4) mice at 6 months of age. Flowing hybridization, brain sections were exposed to X-ray film and optical density were measured in nine brain regions on autoradiograms of sections hybridized to the probe.
The highest levels of expression we observed were in the cerebellum, granular layers of the hippocampus. Levels of expression were also high in CA1 pyramidal neurons of hippocampus, amygdala and granule layer of olfactory bulb. We found intermediate levels in the anterior hypothalamus and in cingulate and frontal cortex. Low levels of expression were found in thalamus and caudate. The distribution for the probe was similar in male and female mice, but we found a tendency for male mice to have higher levels than females.
Auto-alignment is a basic technique for high-power laser systems. Special techniques have been developed for laser systems because of their differing structures. This paper describes a new sensor for auto-alignment in a laser system, which can also serve as a reference in certain applications. The authors prove that all of the beam transfer information (position and pointing) can theoretically be monitored and recorded by the sensor. Furthermore, auto-alignment with a single lens sensor is demonstrated on a simple beam line, and the results indicate that effective auto-alignment is achieved.
This study aimed to determine the effects of supplementing the diet of adult Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus with phosphatidylcholine (PC) on growth performance, body composition, fatty acid composition and gene expression. Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia fish with an initial body weight of 83·1 (sd 2·9) g were divided into six groups. Each group was hand-fed a semi-purified diet containing 1·7 (control diet), 4·0, 6·5, 11·5, 21·3 or 41·0 g PC/kg diet for 68 d. Supplemental PC improved the feed efficiency rate, which was highest in the 11·5 g PC/kg diet. Weight gain and specific growth rate were unaffected. Dietary PC increased PC content in the liver and decreased crude fat content in the liver, viscera and body. SFA and MUFA increased and PUFA decreased in muscle with increasing dietary PC. Cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 and secreted phospholipase A2 mRNA expression were up-regulated in the brain and heart in PC-supplemented fish. PC reduced fatty acid synthase mRNA expression in the liver and visceral tissue but increased expression in muscle. Hormone-sensitive lipase and lipoprotein lipase expression increased in the liver with increasing dietary PC. Growth hormone mRNA expression was reduced in the brain and insulin-like growth factor-1 mRNA expression in liver reduced with PC above 6·5 g/kg. Our results demonstrate that dietary supplementation with PC improves feed efficiency and reduces liver fat in adult Nile tilapia, without increasing weight gain, representing a novel dietary approach to reduce feed requirements and improve the health of Nile tilapia.
Previous studies have demonstrated adverse mental health effects of Pb exposure. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between consumption of preserved egg (PE), a high-Pb-containing food and depressive symptoms among adults in China. A sample of 25 213 adults (mean age 41·4 (sd 11·8) years; males, 53·9 %) in Tianjin, China, was studied in a cross-sectional analysis. Dietary intake including PE was assessed using a valid self-administered FFQ. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS). The association was estimated by OR using logistic regression models adjusted for multiple confounders. The prevalence of elevated depressive symptoms was 6·6 % (SDS≥50). Compared with the least frequent PE consumption (<once/week), multivariable adjusted OR for elevated depressive symptoms were 1·52 (95 % CI 1·28, 1·81), 2·24 (95 % CI 1·76, 2·81) and 3·31 (95 % CI 2·52, 4·30) for consumption of once, 2–3 times and ≥4 times/week, respectively (Pfor trend<0·0001), indicating a clear dose–response relationship. The results suggested that higher consumption of PE was strongly associated with depressive symptoms among adults in China. These findings underscore the need to consider dietary Pb exposure as a risk factor for psychological distress.
Scabies is a parasitic disease caused by the ectoparasite Sarcoptes scabiei, affecting different mammalian species, including rabbits, worldwide. In the present study, we cloned and expressed a novel inorganic pyrophosphatase, Ssc-PYP-1, from S. scabiei var. cuniculi. Immunofluorescence staining showed that native Ssc-PYP-1 was localized in the tegument around the mouthparts and the entire legs, as well as in the cuticle of the mites. Interestingly, obvious staining was also observed on the fecal pellets of mites and in the integument of the mites. Based on its good immunoreactivity, an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using recombinant Ssc-PYP-1 (rSsc-PYP-1) as the capture antigen was developed to diagnose sarcoptic mange in naturally infected rabbits; the assay had a sensitivity of 92·0% and specificity of 93·6%. Finally, using the rSsc-PYP-1-ELISA, the Ssc-PYP-1 antibody from 10 experimentally infected rabbits could be detected from 1 week post-infection. This is the first report of S. scabiei inorganic pyrophosphatase and the protein could serve as a potential serodiagnostic candidate for sarcoptic mange in rabbits.
Little is known about the joint mental health effects of air pollution and tobacco smoking in low- and middle-income countries.
To investigate the effects of exposure to ambient fine particulate matter pollution (PM2.5) and smoking and their combined (interactive) effects on depression.
Multilevel logistic regression analysis of baseline data of a prospective cohort study (n=41785). The 3-year average concentrations of PM2.5 were estimated using US National Aeronautics and Space Administration satellite data, and depression was diagnosed using a standardised questionnaire. Three-level logistic regression models were applied to examine the associations with depression.
The odds ratio (OR) for depression was 1.09 (95% CI 1.01–1.17) per 10 μg/m3 increase in ambient PM2.5, and the association remained after adjusting for potential confounding factors (adjusted OR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.02–1.19). Tobacco smoking (smoking status, frequency, duration and amount) was also significantly associated with depression. There appeared to be a synergistic interaction between ambient PM2.5 and smoking on depression in the additive model, but the interaction was not statistically significant in the multiplicative model.
Our study suggests that exposure to ambient PM2.5 may increase the risk of depression, and smoking may enhance this effect.
The solidification microstructure, types of eutectic borocarbides, heat treatment properties and wear resistance of steel with x wt% B–0.4 wt% C–6.0 wt% Cr–4.0 wt% Mo–1.0 wt% Al–1.0 wt% Si–1.0 wt% V–0.5 wt% Mn (x = 1.0, 2.0, 3.0) have been investigated in this present study. The results indicate that the as-cast Fe–B–C alloy steel consists of pearlite, ferrite, and borocarbides M2(B,C) (M = Fe, Cr, Mo, V, Mn). After quenching or quenching and tempering treatment, ferrite and pearlite transform into martensite. With the increase of boron content, the macrohardness of alloys increases obviously while wear loss decreases. Borocarbides with chromium addition have good toughness and no cracks are observed on worn surfaces. The wear mechanism changes from micro-cutting accompanied with the spalling of borocarbides to single micro-cutting with the boron content rising.
The early Cambrian Carinachitidae, a family in the subclass Conulata, are intriguing and important small shelly fossils. Their gently tapering, tube-shaped skeletons consist of convex faces separated from each other by broad, deep corner sulci, and they exhibit triradial, pentaradial, or predominantly tetraradial symmetry. However, the morphology of the aperture and the modes of growth of carinachitid skeletons as well as the anatomy of their soft parts are unknown. Examination of a single new, exceptionally well-preserved specimen of tetramerous Carinachites spinatus Qian, 1977, collected from the lower Cambrian Kuanchuanpu Formation in South China, reveals: (1) that its aperture is connected to a small mass of relic soft tissue and (2) that the apertural end of each of the four faces is developed into a subtriangular lappet or oral lobe that is smoothly folded toward the long axis of the tube, partially closing the tube aperture. Similarities between thorn-like spines on the faces and the oral lobes indicate that the transverse ribs were periodically displaced from the perradial portion of the aperture during formation of new ribs. In addition, the tube walls may have undergone secondary thickening during growth. The growth pattern of the tube and the spatial relationships between the tube aperture and soft parts are analogous to those of co-occurring olivooids. These findings further strengthen the previously proposed hypothesis that coeval carinachitids, olivooids, hexangulaconulariids, and Paleozoic conulariids are closely related taxa within the subphylum Medusozoa. Finally, carinachitids most likely represent an evolutionary intermediate between olivooids and hexangulaconulariids.
Previous studies have supported the theory that there is a positive association between ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis in Western people. Diet plays an important role in determining serum ferritin concentration. Asian dietary patterns are different from Western dietary patterns, implying that there may be a difference in the association of ferritin with carotid atherosclerosis between Asian and Western people. However, few studies focus on the association between ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis among Asians. The aim of this study was to investigate how serum ferritin levels are associated with carotid atherosclerosis in an Asian adult population. A cross-sectional assessment was performed in 8302 adults in Tianjin, China. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaques were assessed using ultrasonography, and serum ferritin was measured using the protein chip-chemiluminescence method. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between quartiles of serum ferritin concentration and carotid atherosclerosis. In the present study, the overall prevalence of IMT and carotid plaques in participants is 29·2 and 22·7 %, respectively. In women, after adjustments for potentially confounding factors, the OR of IMT and carotid plaques by increasing serum ferritin quartiles were 1·00, 1·39 (95 % CI 0·98–1·99), 1·39 (95 % CI 0·99–1·97), 1·81 (95 % CI 1·30–2·55) (Pfor trend<0·001) and 1·00, 1·24 (95 % CI 0·89–1·73), 1·18 (95 % CI 0·85–1·65), 1·59 (95 % CI 1·15–2·20) (Pfor trend<0·01), respectively. However, no association was found between serum ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis in men. The study demonstrated that increased serum ferritin levels are independently associated with IMT and carotid plaques in Asian women but not in Asian men.