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The tea green leafhopper, Empoasca vitis Göthe, is one of the most serious pests in tea growing areas. This study investigated the roles played by olfaction and vision in host orientation behavior. The compound eye of E. vitis was found to be a photopic eye; few olfactory sensilla were found on the antennae, while abundant gustatory sensilla were recorded on the mouthparts. Three opsin genes (EV_LWop, EV_UVop, EV_Bop) were isolated and found to be mainly expressed in the compound eye compared with other parts of the body. Immunolocalization indicated that the opsins mainly located in the different regions of rhabdom. The transcription levels of EV_LWop, EV_Bop and EV_UVop were reduced by 77.3, 70.0 and 40.0%, respectively, by RNA interference induced by being fed a special RNA-rich diet for 6 days. The rate of tropism to host color was effectively impaired by 67.6 and 29.5% in the dsEV_LWop and dsEV_Bop treatment groups, but there was no significant change in the dsEV_UVop group. The determination of the cause of the tropism indicated that odors from the host over long distances were unable to attract E. vitis and were only detected when the insects were close to the host. The developed compound eye of E. vitis plays a leading role in host location, and the long-wavelength opsin significantly affects the tropism to host color; the lack of olfactory sensilla results in long-distance odors not being able to be detected until the insect is near to the host-plant. The understanding of these behavioral mechanisms, especially the importance of opsin genes is expected to be useful for pest management.
Background: Stroke is often preceded by transient symptoms. Although global stroke rates have been shown to be declining, previous studies have reported inconsistent temporal trends of transient ischemic attacks (TIA). The objective of the current study is to report the temporal trends of TIA admissions and outcomes in Canada over the last 11 years. Methods: We conducted a complete population cohort study using a national administrative database to study the temporal trend of age- and sex-adjusted TIA admission rates in Canada from 2003 to 2013. We also determined the rates of TIA and stroke diagnoses in the emergency department in the province of Ontario during the same period. We used multivariable analyses to study discharge location after acute hospitalization as well as 90-day stroke and/or TIA readmission rates. Results: Of 425,799 admissions to an acute care hospital for all stroke and TIA, 71,443 (16.8%) were TIA. The age- and sex-standardized rates of TIA admission decreased significantly during the study period from 30.0 to 20.6 per 100,000 (p<0.0001). In Ontario, decreasing TIA admissions is mirrored by decreasing rates of TIA directly discharged from the emergency department (55.1 to 46.8 per 100,000, p = 0.002). The odds of 90-day readmission rates for stroke or TIA are also decreasing (adjusted odds ratio, 0.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.96-0.99). Conclusions: We show that TIA admission rates have declined in the past 11 years in Canada, reflecting improved vascular risk reduction and stroke care. Future studies to confirm our findings on improved stroke or TIA recurrence rates are necessary.
The fast stellar winds can blow bubbles in the circumstellar material ejected from previous phases of stellar evolution. These are found at different scales, from planetary nebulae (PNe) around stars evolving to the white dwarf stage, to Wolf-Rayet (WR) bubbles and up to large-scale bubbles around massive star clusters. In all cases, the fast stellar wind is shock-heated and a hot bubble is produced. Processes of mass evaporation and mixing of nebular material and heat conduction occurring at the mixing layer between the hot bubble and the optical nebula are key to determine the thermal structure of these bubbles and their evolution. In this contribution we review our current understanding of the X-ray observations of hot bubbles in PNe and present the first spatially-resolved study of a mixing layer in a PN.
We present Spitzer Space Telescope archival mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectroscopy of a sample of eleven planetary nebulae (PNe). The observations, acquired with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS), cover the spectral range 5.2-14.5 μm that includes the H2 0-0 S(2) to S(7) rotational emission lines. This wavelength coverage has allowed us to derive the Boltzmann distribution and calculate the H2 rotational excitation temperature (Tex). The derived excitation temperatures have consistent values ≃ 900 ±70 K for different sources despite their different structural components. We also report the detection of mid-IR ionic lines of [Ar iii], [S iv], and [Ne ii] in most objects, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features in a few cases.
The objective of this study was to determine if a moderate or high reduction of dietary CP, supplemented with indispensable amino acids (IAA), would affect growth, intestinal morphology and immunological parameters of pigs. A total of 40 barrows (initial BW=13.50±0.50 kg, 45±2 day of age) were used in a completely randomized block design, and allocated to four dietary treatments containing CP levels at 20.00%, 17.16%, 15.30% and 13.90%, respectively. Industrial AA were added to meet the IAA requirements of pigs. After 4-week feeding, blood and tissue samples were obtained from pigs. The results showed that reducing dietary CP level decreased average daily gain, plasma urea nitrogen concentration and relative organ weights of liver and pancreas (P<0.01), and increased feed conversion ratio (P<0.01). Pigs fed the 13.90% CP diet had significantly lower growth performance than that of pigs fed higher CP at 20.00%, 17.16% or 15.30%. Moreover, reducing dietary CP level decreased villous height in duodenum (P<0.01) and crypt depth in duodenum, jejunum and ileum (P<0.01). The reduction in the dietary CP level increased plasma concentrations of methionine, alanine (P<0.01) and lysine (P<0.05), and decreased arginine (P<0.05). Intriguingly, reducing dietary CP level from 20.00% to 13.90% resulted in a significant decrease in plasma concentration of IgG (P<0.05), percentage of CD3+T cells of the peripheral blood (P<0.01), also down-regulated the mRNA abundance of innate immunity-related genes on toll-like receptor 4, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (P<0.01) and nuclear factor kappa B (P<0.05) in the ileum. These results indicate that reducing dietary CP level from 20.00% to 15.30%, supplemented with IAA, had no significant effect on growth performance and had a limited effect on immunological parameters. However, a further reduction of dietary CP level up to 13.90% would lead to poor growth performance and organ development, associated with the modifications of intestinal morphology and immune function.
CaII K line has been measured regularly nearly every month since 1974 at Kitt Peak. Our study on the data of CaII K profiles over two solar cycles indicates that in center disc spectra, the distance of the K1 component of the CaII K line from the line center and its intensity show periodical variations, but has a time delay of 1.2 years with respect to the sunspot number. Non-LTE computation implies a cyclic temperature variation of about 17 K of the temperature minimum region (TMR) in the quiet-Sun atmosphere and a cyclic variation of about 15-20 km of the position of the TMR.
Orthocoelium streptocoelium is a common paramphistome species parasitizing the rumen and/or reticulum of small ruminants, leading to significant losses. This study first determined the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of O. streptocoelium. The complete mt genome of O. streptocoelium was amplified, sequenced, assembled, analysed and then compared with those of other digeneans. The entire mt genome of O. streptocoelium is 13,800 bp in length, which is smaller than those of other digeneans except for Opisthorchis viverrini. This mt genome contains 12 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes and two non-coding regions. The arrangement of the O. streptocoelium mt genome is the same as those of other digeneans except for Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma spindale. Phylogenetic analyses based on concatenated amino acid sequences of the 12 protein-coding genes representing 16 digeneans were conducted to assess the relationship of O. streptocoelium with other digeneans. The result indicated that O. streptocoelium is closely related to Paramphistomum cervi and Fischoederius elongates, which is in accordance with their relationships by taxonomy. This complete mt genome of O. streptocoelium enriched the mitochondrial genome data of paramphistomes and provided important molecular markers for diagnostics and studies of population variation, epidemiology, ecology and evolution of O. streptocoelium and other digeneans.
Mutations in the major hydrophilic region (MHR) of the surface antigen of hepatitis B virus (HBV) may result in vaccine escape, failure of immunotherapy and antiviral resistance. These mutants may be transmitted and constitute a public health threat. We aimed to determine the prevalence of MHR mutations of HBV in areas of high endemicity in Guangxi, China. HBV surface gene was analysed from 278 HBsAg-positive asymptomatic individuals recruited from Guangxi using cluster sampling. Three genotypes, B, C and I, were identified. The overall prevalence of MHR mutations is 17·6%. The prevalence of MHR mutations in genotype B (15·1%) is not significantly different from that in genotype C (16·4%). However, the prevalence in subgenotype C5 (31·1%) is significantly higher than in subgenotype C2 (13·0%) (χ2 = 6·997, P < 0·05). The prevalence of escape mutations and overlapping polymerase substitutions in subgenotype C5 is significantly higher than in subgenotypes B2 and C2. In total, 7·9% of MHR mutants are escape mutations and 72·1% of MHR mutations produced amino-acid changes in the overlapping polymerase, including resistance mutations to entecavir. Our results suggest that the prevalence of MHR mutations varies with subgenotype. The prevalence of escape mutations and polymerase mutations may be associated with subgenotype.
Despite substantial research, uncertainty remains about the clinical and etiological heterogeneity of major depression (MD). Can meaningful and valid subtypes be identified and would they be stable cross-culturally?
Symptoms at their lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years, with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed in Mplus.
Using the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria, the 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria and all independently assessed depressive symptoms (n = 27), the best LCA model identified respectively three, four and six classes. A severe and non-suicidal class was seen in all solutions, as was a mild/moderate subtype. An atypical class emerged once bidirectional neurovegetative symptoms were included. The non-suicidal class demonstrated low levels of worthlessness/guilt and hopelessness. Patterns of co-morbidity, family history, personality, environmental precipitants, recurrence and body mass index (BMI) differed meaningfully across subtypes, with the atypical class standing out as particularly distinct.
MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several detectable subtypes with distinct clinical and demographic correlates. Three subtypes were most consistently identified in our analyses: severe, atypical and non-suicidal. Severe and atypical MD have been identified in multiple prior studies in samples of European ethnicity. Our non-suicidal subtype, with low levels of guilt and hopelessness, may represent a pathoplastic variant reflecting Chinese cultural influences.
Three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging of the inner ear after intratympanic injection of gadolinium, together with magnetic resonance imaging scoring of the perilymphatic space, were used to investigate the positive identification rate of hydrops and determine the technique's diagnostic value for delayed endolymphatic hydrops.
Twenty-five patients with delayed endolymphatic hydrops underwent pure tone audiometry, bithermal caloric testing, vestibular-evoked myogenic potential testing and three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging of the inner ear after bilateral intratympanic injection of gadolinium. The perilymphatic space of the scanned images was analysed to investigate the positive identification rate of endolymphatic hydrops.
According to the magnetic resonance imaging scoring of the perilymphatic space and the diagnostic standard, 84 per cent of the patients examined had endolymphatic hydrops. In comparison, the positive identification rates for vestibular-evoked myogenic potential and bithermal caloric testing were 52 per cent and 72 per cent respectively.
Three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging after intratympanic injection of gadolinium is valuable in the diagnosis of delayed endolymphatic hydrops and its classification. The perilymphatic space scoring system improved the diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging.
The symptoms of major depression (MD) are clinically diverse. Do they form coherent factors that might clarify the underlying nature of this important psychiatric syndrome?
Symptoms at lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatoryfactor analysis (CFA) were performed in Mplus in random split-half samples.
The preliminary EFA results were consistently supported by the findings from CFA. Analyses of the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria revealed two factors loading on: (i) general depressive symptoms; and (ii) guilt/suicidal ideation. Examining 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria revealed three factors reflecting: (i) weight/appetite disturbance; (ii) general depressive symptoms; and (iii) sleep disturbance. Using all symptoms (n = 27), we identified five factors that reflected: (i) weight/appetite symptoms; (ii) general retarded depressive symptoms; (iii) atypical vegetative symptoms; (iv) suicidality/hopelessness; and (v) symptoms of agitation and anxiety.
MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several underlying correlated symptom dimensions. In addition to a general depressive symptom factor, a complete picture must include factors reflecting typical/atypical vegetative symptoms, cognitive symptoms (hopelessness/suicidal ideation), and an agitated symptom factor characterized by anxiety, guilt, helplessness and irritability. Prior cross-cultural studies, factor analyses of MD in Western populations and empirical findings in this sample showing risk factor profiles similar to those seen in Western populations suggest that our results are likely to be broadly representative of the human depressive syndrome.
Direct printing of functional oxide thin films could provide a new route to low-cost, efficient and scalable fabrications of electronic devices. One challenge that remains open is to design the inks with long term stability for effective deposition of specific oxide materials of industrial importance. In this paper, we introduce a reliable method of producing stable inks for ‘in-situ’ deposition of oxide thin films by inkjet printing. The inks were prepared from metal-acetates solutions and printed on a variety of substrates. The acetate precursors were decomposed into oxide films during the subsequent calcination process to achieve the ‘in-situ’ deposition of the desired oxide films directly on the substrate. By this procedure we have obtained room temperature contamination free ferromagnetic spintronic materials like Fe doped MgO and ZnO films from their acetate(s) solutions. We find that the origin of magnetism in ZnO, MgO and their Fe-doped films to be intrinsic. For a 28 nm thick film of Fe-doped ZnO we observe an enhanced magnetic moment of 16.0 emu/cm3 while it is 5.5 emu/cm3 for the doped MgO film of single pass printed. The origin of magnetism is attributed to cat-ion vacancies. We have also fabricated highly transparent indium tin oxide films with a transparency >95% both in the visible and IR range which is rather unique compared to films grown by any other technique. The films have a nano-porous structure, an added bonus from inkjetting that makes such films advantageous for a broad range of applications.
Previous studies support Beck's cognitive model of vulnerability to depression. However, the relationship between his cognitive triad and other clinical features and risk factors among those with major depression (MD) has rarely been systematically studied.
The three key cognitive symptoms of worthlessness, hopelessness and helplessness were assessed during their lifetime worst episode in 1970 Han Chinese women with recurrent MD. Diagnostic and other risk factor information was assessed at personal interview. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by logistic regression.
Compared to patients who did not endorse the cognitive trio, those who did had a greater number of DSM-IV A criteria, more individual depressive symptoms, an earlier age at onset, a greater number of episodes, and were more likely to meet diagnostic criteria for melancholia, postnatal depression, dysthymia and anxiety disorders. Hopelessness was highly related to all the suicidal symptomatology, with ORs ranging from 5.92 to 6.51. Neuroticism, stressful life events (SLEs) and a protective parental rearing style were associated with these cognitive symptoms.
During the worst episode of MD in Han Chinese women, the endorsement of the cognitive trio was associated with a worse course of depression and an increased risk of suicide. Individuals with high levels of neuroticism, many SLEs and high parental protectiveness were at increased risk for these cognitive depressive symptoms. As in Western populations, symptoms of the cognitive trio appear to play a central role in the psychopathology of MD in Chinese women.
We study the properties of the He I 10830 Å line under the bombardment of nonthermal electron beam. Using radiative hydrodynamics method, we obtain the line profiles from different model atmospheres by varying the electron beam fluxes. Below a certain electron flux, the spectra become much more absorptions as nonthemal flux increases. Above the threshold, the spectral intensities increase as the flux goes up. We also investigate the temporal evolution of the spectra under the nonthermal heating. For weak electron flux, the profiles evolve from weak absorptions to strong absorptions. For strong nonthermal heating, the profiles can be significantly changed from absorptions to emissions. The spectra also show red or blue asymmetries.
Recent Solar Dynamic Observatory observations reveal that some coronal mass ejections (CMEs) consist of multi-temperature structures: a hot channel and a cool leading edge (LE). The channel first appears as a twisted loop and lies along the polarity inversion line; it then gradually develops into the less twisted semicircular structure during the impulsive phase of CME acceleration. In the meantime, the hot channel compresses the surrounding magnetic field and plasma, which successively stack into the CME leading front. Here, we study two well observed CMEs, which occurred on 2010 November 3 and 2011 March 8, respectively. We find that, the hot channel rises earlier than the first appearance of the CME leading front and the onset of the associated flare, and that the speed of the hot channel is always larger than that of the leading front. Further differential emission measure analysis shows that the channel often has significant emission at high temperatures. We thus conclude that the observed hot channel is likely to be magnetic flux rope that acts as a driver of the CME acceleration in the early phase.
Introduction: This study was conducted to compare gender differences in the psychometric properties of the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND). Methods: The sample comprised 334 Korean immigrants (97 women and 237 men) who reported daily smoking for the past 6 months. Item-by-item responses and exploratory factor analyses (EFA) were compared by gender. Promax rotation was selected based on findings from previous studies suggesting correlated factors. Results: Compared with men, women smoked fewer cigarettes per day, were more likely to smoke when ill in bed, and were less likely to smoke frequently in the morning. The entire sample and men within the sample had the same factor loading pattern, where three items (time to first cigarette, the cigarette most hate to give up, and smoke more frequently in the morning) were loaded on Factor 1 (morning smoking) and the remaining three items (difficult to refrain from smoking in public places, number of cigarettes smoked per day, and smoking even when ill in bed) on Factor 2 (daytime smoking). For women, however, neither the 1- nor 2-factor model fit the data well. Conclusions: For Korean American male smokers, the psychometric properties of the FTND were similar to those seen in other populations, but this was not the case with Korean American women. Clinicians may need to modify their interpretation of nicotine dependence severity if basing only on the FTND with Korean women. The FTND assesses smoking patterns which has a cultural influence and other measures of nicotine dependence should be considered.