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This collection profiles understudied figures in the book and print trades of the seventeenth century. With an equal balance between women and men, it intervenes in the history of the trades, emphasising the broad range of material, cultural, and ideological work these people undertook. It offers a biographical introduction to each figure, placing them in their social, professional, and institutional settings. The collection considers varied print trade roles including that of the printer, publisher, paper-maker, and bookseller, as well as several specific trade networks and numerous textual forms. The biographies draw on extensive new archival research, with details of key sources for further study on each figure. Chronologically organised, this Element offers a primer both on numerous individual figures, and on the tribulations and innovations of the print trade in the century of revolution.
With increasing recognition of the prevalence and impact of perinatal mental health (PMH) disorders comes a responsibility to ensure that tomorrow's doctors can support families during the perinatal period. Online surveys seeking information about the inclusion of PMH education in undergraduate curricula were sent to psychiatry curriculum leads and student psychiatry societies from each university medical school in the UK between April and September 2021.
Responses were received from 32/35 (91.4%) medical schools. Two-thirds reported specific inclusion of PMH content in the core curriculum, typically integrated into general adult psychiatry or obstetric teaching. Students at the remaining schools were all likely to be examined on the topic or see perinatal cases during at least one clinical attachment.
PMH education offers an opportunity for collaboration between psychiatry and other disciplines. Future work looking at educational case examples with objective outcomes would be valuable.
Serial position scores on verbal memory tests are sensitive to early Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-related neuropathological changes that occur in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus. The current study examines longitudinal change in serial position scores as markers of subtle cognitive decline in older adults who may be in preclinical or at-risk states for AD.
This study uses longitudinal data from the Religious Orders Study and the Rush Memory and Aging Project. Participants (n = 141) were included if they did not have dementia at enrollment, completed follow-up assessments, and died and were classified as Braak stage I or II. Memory tests were used to calculate serial position (primacy, recency), total recall, and episodic memory composite scores. A neuropathological evaluation quantified AD, vascular, and Lewy body pathologies. Mixed effects models were used to examine change in memory scores. Neuropathologies and covariates (age, sex, education, APOE e4) were examined as moderators.
Primacy scores declined (β = −.032, p < .001), whereas recency scores increased (β = .021, p = .012). No change was observed in standard memory measures. Greater neurofibrillary tangle density and atherosclerosis explained 10.4% of the variance in primacy decline. Neuropathologies were not associated with recency change.
In older adults with hippocampal neuropathologies, primacy score decline may be a sensitive marker of early AD-related changes. Tangle density and atherosclerosis had additive effects on decline. Recency improvement may reflect a compensatory mechanism. Monitoring for changes in serial position scores may be a useful in vivo method of tracking incipient AD.
To describe the genomic analysis and epidemiologic response related to a slow and prolonged methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) outbreak.
Prospective observational study.
Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).
We conducted an epidemiologic investigation of a NICU MRSA outbreak involving serial baby and staff screening to identify opportunities for decolonization. Whole-genome sequencing was performed on MRSA isolates.
A NICU with excellent hand hygiene compliance and longstanding minimal healthcare-associated infections experienced an MRSA outbreak involving 15 babies and 6 healthcare personnel (HCP). In total, 12 cases occurred slowly over a 1-year period (mean, 30.7 days apart) followed by 3 additional cases 7 months later. Multiple progressive infection prevention interventions were implemented, including contact precautions and cohorting of MRSA-positive babies, hand hygiene observers, enhanced environmental cleaning, screening of babies and staff, and decolonization of carriers. Only decolonization of HCP found to be persistent carriers of MRSA was successful in stopping transmission and ending the outbreak. Genomic analyses identified bidirectional transmission between babies and HCP during the outbreak.
In comparison to fast outbreaks, outbreaks that are “slow and sustained” may be more common to units with strong existing infection prevention practices such that a series of breaches have to align to result in a case. We identified a slow outbreak that persisted among staff and babies and was only stopped by identifying and decolonizing persistent MRSA carriage among staff. A repeated decolonization regimen was successful in allowing previously persistent carriers to safely continue work duties.
In a randomized trial, adjunctive ultraviolet-C light treatment with a room decontamination device and sodium hypochlorite delivered via an electrostatic sprayer were similarly effective in significantly reducing residual healthcare-associated pathogen contamination on floors and high-touch surfaces after manual cleaning and disinfection. Less time until the room was ready to be occupied by another patient was required for electrostatic spraying.
One in six nursing home residents and staff with positive SARS-CoV-2 tests ≥90 days after initial infection had specimen cycle thresholds (Ct) <30. Individuals with specimen Ct<30 were more likely to report symptoms but were not different from individuals with high Ct value specimens by other clinical and testing data.
Background: Nearly one-third of patients on hemodialysis receive intravenous (IV) antibiotics annually, but national data characterizing antibiotic use in this population are limited. Using NHSN surveillance data for outpatient dialysis facilities, we estimated temporal changes in the rate of IV antibiotic starts (IVAS) among hemodialysis patients as well as the proportion of IVAS that were not supported by a reported clinical indication. Methods: IVAS events were obtained from the NHSN Dialysis Event module between 2016 and 2020, excluding patients who were out of network, receiving peritoneal or home dialysis, or with unspecified vascular access. IVAS unsupported by documentation were defined as new IVAS without a collected or positive blood culture, pus, redness or swelling event, or an associated clinical symptom. Pooled mean rates of total and unsupported IVAS were estimated per 100 patient months yearly and stratified by vascular access type. Differences in IVAS rates by year were estimated with negative binomial regression. Results: Between 2016 and 2020, 7,278 facilities reported 648,410 IVAS events; 161,317 (25%) were unsupported by documentation (Table 1). In 2016, 3,340 (54%) facilities with ≥1 IVAS event reported an IVAS unsupported by documentation, which increased to 4,994 (73%) in 2020. Total IVAS rates decreased by an average of 8.2% annually (95% CI, 7.1%–9.3%; P < .001). The average annual percentage decrease did not differ significantly by vascular access site. The total IVAS rate was lowest in 2020 (2.17 per 100 patient months; 95% CI, 2.18–2.17). IVAS rates in 2020 were greatest for patients with catheter access (4.79 per 100 patient months; 95% CI, 4.75–4.83), followed by graft (1.71 per 100 patient months; 95% CI, 1.68–1.73), and lowest for patients with fistulas (1.30 per 100 patient months; 95% CI, 1.29–1.31). The overall pooled mean rate of unsupported IVAS was 0.64 per 100 patient months (95% CI, 0.63–0.64), which did not significantly change by year (Fig. 1). Conclusions: Total IVAS rates among outpatient hemodialysis patients have decreased since 2016, and rates among catheter patients remain highest compared to patients with fistulas or grafts. However, unsupported IVAS rates did not change, and the proportion of facilities reporting an unsupported IVAS increased annually. Targeted efforts to engage facilities with unsupported IVAS may help improve accurate reporting and prescribing practices.
Background: In March–April 2021, 23 patients at a 906-bed hospital in Delaware had surgical implantation of a bone graft product contaminated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis; 17 patients were rehospitalized for surgical site infections and 6 developed pulmonary tuberculosis. In May 2021, we investigated this tuberculosis outbreak and conducted a large, multidisciplinary, contact investigation among healthcare personnel (HCP) and patients potentially exposed over an extended period in multiple departments. Methods: Exposed HCP were those identified by their managers as present, without the use of airborne precautions, in operating rooms (ORs) during index spine surgeries or subsequent procedures, the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) when patients had draining wounds, inpatient rooms when wound care was performed, and the sterile processing department (SPD) on the days repeated surgeries were performed. We created and assigned an online education module and symptom screening questionnaire to exposed HCP. Employee health services (EHS) instituted a dedicated phlebotomy station to provide interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) testing for HCP at ≥8 weeks after last known exposure. EHS managed all exposed HCP, including nonemployees (eg, private surgeons) via automated e-mail reminders, which were escalated through supervisory chains as needed until follow-up completion. The infection prevention team notified exposed patients, defined as those who shared semiprivate rooms with case patients with transmissible tuberculosis. The Delaware Division of Public Health performed IGRA testing. Results: There were 506 exposed HCP in ORs (n = 100), the PACU (n = 87), inpatient units (n = 140), the SPD (n = 54), and other locations (n = 122); 83% were employed by the health system. Surgical masks and eye protection were routinely used during patient care. All exposed HCP completed screening by December 17, 2021. Furthermore, 2 HCP had positive IGRAs without symptoms or chest radiograph abnormalities, indicating latent tuberculosis infection, but after further review of records and interviews, we discovered that they had previously tested positive and had been treated for latent tuberculosis infection. In addition, 5 exposed patients tested negative and 2 remain pending. Conclusions: This large investigation demonstrated the need for a systematic process that encompassed all exposed HCP including nonemployees and incorporated administrative controls to ensure complete follow-up. We did not identify any conversions related to this outbreak despite high burden of disease in case patients and multiple exposures to contaminated bone-graft material and infectious bodily fluids without respirator use. Transmission risk was likely reduced by baseline surgical mask use and rapid institution of airborne precautions after outbreak recognition.
Early in the COVID-19 pandemic, the World Health Organization stressed the importance of daily clinical assessments of infected patients, yet current approaches frequently consider cross-sectional timepoints, cumulative summary measures, or time-to-event analyses. Statistical methods are available that make use of the rich information content of longitudinal assessments. We demonstrate the use of a multistate transition model to assess the dynamic nature of COVID-19-associated critical illness using daily evaluations of COVID-19 patients from 9 academic hospitals. We describe the accessibility and utility of methods that consider the clinical trajectory of critically ill COVID-19 patients.
Alcohol, cannabis, and nicotine use are highly comorbid and alarmingly prevalent in young adults. The hippocampus may be particularly sensitive to substance exposure. This remains largely untested in humans and familial risk may confound exposure effects. We extend prior work on alcohol and hippocampal volume in women by testing common and unique substance use effects and the potential moderating role of sex on hippocampal volume during emerging adulthood. A quasi-experimental cotwin control (CTC) design was used to separate familial risk from exposure consequences.
In a population-based sample of 435 24-year-old same-sex twins (58% women), dimensional measures (e.g. frequency, amount) of alcohol, cannabis, and nicotine use across emerging adulthood were assessed. Hippocampal volume was assessed using MRI.
Greater substance use was significantly associated with lower hippocampal volume for women but not men. The same pattern was observed for alcohol, cannabis, and nicotine. CTC analyses provided evidence that hippocampal effects likely reflected familial risk and the consequence of substance use in general and alcohol and nicotine in particular; cannabis effects were in the expected direction but not significant. Within-pair mediation analyses suggested that the effect of alcohol use on the hippocampus may reflect, in part, comorbid nicotine use.
The observed hippocampal volume deviations in women likely reflected substance-related premorbid familial risk and the consequences of smoking and, to a lesser degree, drinking. Findings contribute to a growing body of work suggesting heightened risk among women toward experiencing deleterious effects of substance exposure on the still-developing young adult hippocampus.
Recent well-powered genome-wide association studies have enhanced prediction of substance use outcomes via polygenic scores (PGSs). Here, we test (1) whether these scores contribute to prediction over-and-above family history, (2) the extent to which PGS prediction reflects inherited genetic variation v. demography (population stratification and assortative mating) and indirect genetic effects of parents (genetic nurture), and (3) whether PGS prediction is mediated by behavioral disinhibition prior to substance use onset.
PGSs for alcohol, cannabis, and nicotine use/use disorder were calculated for Minnesota Twin Family Study participants (N = 2483, 1565 monozygotic/918 dizygotic). Twins' parents were assessed for histories of substance use disorder. Twins were assessed for behavioral disinhibition at age 11 and substance use from ages 14 to 24. PGS prediction of substance use was examined using linear mixed-effects, within-twin pair, and structural equation models.
Nearly all PGS measures were associated with multiple types of substance use independently of family history. However, most within-pair PGS prediction estimates were substantially smaller than the corresponding between-pair estimates, suggesting that prediction is driven in part by demography and indirect genetic effects of parents. Path analyses indicated the effects of both PGSs and family history on substance use were mediated via disinhibition in preadolescence.
PGSs capturing risk of substance use and use disorder can be combined with family history measures to augment prediction of substance use outcomes. Results highlight indirect sources of genetic associations and preadolescent elevations in behavioral disinhibition as two routes through which these scores may relate to substance use.
Introduced mammalian predators are responsible for the decline and extinction of many native species, with rats (genus Rattus) being among the most widespread and damaging invaders worldwide. In a naturally fragmented landscape, we demonstrate the multi-year effectiveness of snap traps in the removal of Rattus rattus and Rattus exulans from lava-surrounded forest fragments ranging in size from <0.1 to >10 ha. Relative to other studies, we observed low levels of fragment recolonization. Larger rats were the first to be trapped, with the average size of trapped rats decreasing over time. Rat removal led to distinct shifts in the foraging height and location of mongooses and mice, emphasizing the need to focus control efforts on multiple invasive species at once. Furthermore, because of a specially designed trap casing, we observed low non-target capture rates, suggesting that on Hawai‘i and similar islands lacking native rodents the risk of killing non-target species in snap traps may be lower than the application of rodenticides, which have the potential to contaminate food webs. These efforts demonstrate that targeted snap-trapping is an effective removal method for invasive rats in fragmented habitats and that, where used, monitoring of recolonization should be included as part of a comprehensive biodiversity management strategy.
So when a certain grammarian saw him [Henry of Blois], conspicuous in the papal court for his long beard and philosophical solemnity, engaged in buying up idols, carefully made by the heathen in the error of their hands rather than their minds, he mocked him thus: ‘Buying old busts is Damasippus’ craze’. (Horace, Satires 2.3.64)
These lines, from John of Salisbury's Historia pontificalis (c. 1164–70), form the conclusion to a description of Henry of Blois’ unsuccessful petition at the papal curia around the mid-twelfth century. The scene results in Henry acquiring antique statues in Rome to ship back to Winchester which, in turn, provokes mockery from ‘a certain grammarian’. This nameless figure marked by eloquent Latin is surely a double for the author: John of Salisbury.
John quotes two prominent passages from Horace's Satires (2.3.16–17 and 64), which are part of a dialogue between Horace and a failed antiques dealer named Damasippus. John was evidently familiar with the entire satire, or, at the very least, substantial portions of it, as the echoes between these two texts are so numerous and sophisticated that Horace's text should be viewed as the hypotext for John's description, and John's homage to Horace as a passage ripe with intertextual allusion. Moreover, if Henry assumes the persona of Damasippus then we should read John as not simply playing the part of an anonymous grammarian, but of Horace himself.
The bishop is teased, but the real punchline – which has been widely overlooked – comes at the expense of the citizens of Rome. In the conclusion to this scene, the grammarian answers on Henry's behalf and humorously suggests that the bishop is buying these idols in order to save the idolatrous Romans from worshipping their pagan gods. The sins of avarice, heresy and ignorance, which were commonly associated with Rome and the Romans in satirical literature during this period, are contrasted with the superior erudition of the two Anglo-Norman figures who, through their classical tastes, are presented as the more worthy inheritors of ancient Rome. The medieval appropriation of romanitas (Romanness) in its varied and often paradoxical forms lies at the heart of this passage and of this chapter more widely.