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Though theory suggests that individual differences in neuroticism (a tendency to experience negative emotions) would be associated with altered functioning of the amygdala (which has been linked with emotionality and emotion dysregulation in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood), results of functional neuroimaging studies have been contradictory and inconclusive. We aimed to clarify the relationship between neuroticism and three hypothesized neural markers derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging during negative emotion face processing: amygdala activation, amygdala habituation, and amygdala-prefrontal connectivity, each of which plays an important role in the experience and regulation of emotions. We used general linear models to examine the relationship between trait neuroticism and the hypothesized neural markers in a large sample of over 500 young adults. Although neuroticism was not significantly associated with magnitude of amygdala activation or amygdala habituation, it was associated with amygdala–ventromedial prefrontal cortex connectivity, which has been implicated in emotion regulation. Results suggest that trait neuroticism may represent a failure in top-down control and regulation of emotional reactions, rather than overactive emotion generation processes, per se. These findings suggest that neuroticism, which has been associated with increased rates of transdiagnostic psychopathology, may represent a failure in the inhibitory neurocircuitry associated with emotion regulation.
The Kalana Lagerstätte of early Aeronian (Llandovery, Silurian) age in central Estonia preserves a diverse shallow marine biota dominated by non-calcified algae. This soft-tissue flora and decalcified and calcified crinoids are preserved in situ, in a lens of microlaminated, dolomitized micrite interbedded in a sequence of dolomitized packstones and wackestones. Although the Lagerstätte is dominated by non-calcified algae, crinoids (together with brachiopods and gastropods) are among the most common organisms that were originally comprised of a carbonate skeleton. Two new crinoids are described from this unit, Kalanacrinus mastikae n. gen. n. sp. (large camerate) and Tartucrinus kalanaensis n. gen. n. sp. (small disparid). Interestingly, these two crinoids display contrasting preservation, with the more common large camerate preserved primarily as a decalcified organic residue, whereas the smaller disparid is preserved primarily in calcite. Preservation was assessed using elemental mapping of C, Ca, S, and Si. Columns have the highest portion of Ca, once living soft tissue is indicated by C, S was dispersed as pyrite or associated with organics, and Si is probably associated with clay minerals in the matrix. This new fauna increases our understanding of the crinoid radiation on Baltica following Late Ordovician extinctions.
Geophysical survey and excavations from 2010–2016 at Lawrenz Gun Club (11CS4), a late pre-Columbian village located in the central Illinois River valley in Illinois, identified 10 mounds, a central plaza, and dozens of structures enclosed within a stout 10 hectare bastioned palisade. Nineteen radiocarbon (14C) measurements were taken from single entities of wood charcoal, short-lived plants, and animal bones. A site chronology has been constructed using a Bayesian approach that considers the stratigraphic contexts and feature formation processes. The village was host to hundreds of years of continuous human activity during the Mississippi Period. Mississippian activity at the site is estimated to have begun in cal AD 990–1165 (95% probability), ended in cal AD 1295–1450 (95% probability), and lasted 150–420 yr (95% probability) in the primary Bayesian model with similar results obtained in two alternative models. The palisade is estimated to have been constructed in cal AD 1150–1230 (95% probability) and was continuously repaired and rebuilt for 15–125 yr (95% probability), probably for 40–85 yr (68% probability). Comparison to other studies demonstrates that the bastioned palisade at Lawrenz was one of the earliest constructed in the midcontinental United States.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection can lead to reproductive morbidity in women. Animal models suggest that protection against CT is mediated through the cytokine interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), produced by CD4+ T-cells, which clears CT through intracellular tryptophan depletion. In humans, correlates of protection remain to be elucidated, which hinders chlamydia vaccine development. Natural clearance of CT infection (e.g., clearance before antibiotics) may be an immunological correlate of protection, evidenced by (1) CT clearance without antibiotics; and (2) a 4-fold reduced risk of CT reinfection within 6 months. We have identified women with and without natural clearance of CT infection. By comparing these two groups of women, the role of IFN-γ-mediated natural clearance of CT infection will be investigated. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Through collaboration with a cohort study of CT-infected women, we have access to stored specimens from women who naturally cleared CT or had persisting CT infection. Using peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC), we will assess whether natural clearance of CT infection is associated with IFN-γ-producing CD4+ T-cells by stimulating PBMC ex vivo with CT antigens using intracellular cytokine staining. We will also use cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) and untargeted High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry to assess for tryptophan-dependent and -independent metabolic pathways associated with natural clearance of CT infection. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS:: To date, IFN-γ has been measured in 10 women who did not clear CT infection, demonstrating that <20% of these women produced significant levels of IFN-γ. Women who naturally cleared CT have yet to be studied. Untargeted HPLC-MS has been performed on 6 women (3 who cleared matched to 3 with persisting CT infection). To date, 11 pathways that are significantly associated with natural clearance have been identified. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The outcome of natural clearance of CT infection is distinct from women with persisting chlamydia. These studies may inform whether IFN-γ, produced by CD4+ T-cells, or tryptophan-dependent or -independent metabolic pathways are associated with natural clearance, which may advance chlamydia vaccine development.