To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In September 2014, as part of a national initiative to increase access to liaison psychiatry services, the liaison psychiatry services at Bristol Royal Infirmary received new investment of £250 000 per annum, expanding its availability from 40 to 98 h per week. The long-term impact on patient outcomes and costs, of patients presenting to the emergency department with self-harm, is unknown.
To assess the long-term impact of the investment on patient care outcomes and costs, of patients presenting to the emergency department with self-harm.
Monthly data for all self-harm emergency department attendances between 1 September 2011 and 30 September 2017 was modelled using Bayesian structural time series to estimate expected outcomes in the absence of expanded operating hours (the counterfactual). The difference between the observed and expected trends for each outcome were interpreted as the effects of the investment.
Over the 3 years after service expansion, the mean number of self-harm attendances increased 13%. Median waiting time from arrival to psychosocial assessment was 2 h shorter (18.6% decrease, 95% Bayesian credible interval (BCI) −30.2% to −2.8%), there were 45 more referrals to other agencies (86.1% increase, 95% BCI 60.6% to 110.9%) and a small increase in the number of psychosocial assessments (11.7% increase, 95% BCI −3.4% to 28.5%) per month. Monthly mean net hospital costs were £34 more per episode (5.3% increase, 95% BCI −11.6% to 25.5%).
Despite annual increases in emergency department attendances, investment was associated with reduced waiting times for psychosocial assessment and more referrals to other agencies, with only a small increase in cost per episode.
Surgery for CHD has been slow to develop in parts of the former Soviet Union. The impact of an 8-year surgical assistance programme between an emerging centre and a multi-disciplinary international team that comprised healthcare professionals from developed cardiac programmes is analysed and presented.
Material and methods
The international paediatric assistance programme included five main components – intermittent clinical visits to the site annually, medical education, biomedical engineering support, nurse empowerment, and team-based practice development. Data were analysed from visiting teams and local databases before and since commencement of assistance in 2007 (era A: 2000–2007; era B: 2008–2015). The following variables were compared between periods: annual case volume, operative mortality, case complexity based on Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery (RACHS-1), and RACHS-adjusted standardised mortality ratio.
A total of 154 RACHS-classifiable operations were performed during era A, with a mean annual case volume by local surgeons of 19.3 at 95% confidence interval 14.3–24.2, with an operative mortality of 4.6% and a standardised mortality ratio of 2.1. In era B, surgical volume increased to a mean of 103.1 annual cases (95% confidence interval 69.1–137.2, p<0.0001). There was a non-significant (p=0.84) increase in operative mortality (5.7%), but a decrease in standardised mortality ratio (1.2) owing to an increase in case complexity. In era B, the proportion of local surgeon-led surgeries during visits from the international team increased from 0% (0/27) in 2008 to 98% (58/59) in the final year of analysis.
The model of assistance described in this report led to improved adjusted mortality, increased case volume, complexity, and independent operating skills.
It has become increasingly apparent that only the truly effective humanitarian work emphasises empowering local practitioners. One problem, though, is that we are often seen as the “experts” who have come to “save” the children. This perception may adversely affect the confidence in the country’s own providers.
Non-profit organisations performing paediatric heart surgery in developing countries were identified from two sources: the CTSnet “volunteerism” web page and an Internet search using the term “Pediatric Heart Surgery Medical Mission.” The website of each organisation was reviewed, seeking a “purpose” or “mission” statement or summary of the organisation’s work. A separate Internet search of news articles was performed. The top five articles were analysed for each organisation, and the findings are then analysed using the Principlist and Utilitarian ethical systems.
A total of 10 separate non-profit organisations were identified. The websites of eight (80%) placed significant emphasis on the educational aspects of their work and/or on interaction with local professionals. However, of 43 news articles reviewed, reporters mentioned education of, or interaction with, local professionals in only 14 (33%), and four out of 10 organisations studied had no mention of the local providers in any article.
Although non-profit organisations emphasise the teaching and programme-building aspects of their efforts, media reports largely focus on simpler and more emotional stories such as patient successes or large donations. Acknowledgement of the clinical and financial contributions of the host countries is both a duty following from the principle of justice and an important factor in long-term programme building.
In countries with ample resources, no debate exists as to whether heart surgery should be provided. However, where funding is limited, what responsibility exists to care for children with congenital heart defects? If children have a “right” to surgical treatment, to whom is the “duty” to provide it assigned? These questions are subjected to ethical analysis.
Examination is initially based on the four principles of medical ethics: autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. Consideration of beneficence and justice is expanded using a consequentialist approach.
Social structures, including governments, exist to foster the common good. Society, whether by means of government funding or otherwise, has the responsibility, according to the means available, to assure health care for all based on the principles of beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. In wealthy countries, adequate resources exist to fund appropriate treatment; hence it should be provided to all based on distributive justice. In resource-limited countries, however, decisions regarding provision of care for expensive or complex health problems must be made with consideration for broader effects on the general public. Preliminary data from cost-effectiveness analysis indicate that many surgical interventions, including cardiac surgery, may be resource-efficient. Given that information, utilitarian ethical analysis supports dedication of resources to congenital heart surgery in many low-income countries. In the poorest countries, where access to drinking water and basic nutrition is problematic, it will often be more appropriate to focus on these issues first.
Ethical analysis supports dedication of resources to congenital heart surgery in all but the poorest countries.
The OSU-FEI Electron Microscopy Collaboratory multiplies the number of individuals who can experience hands-on advanced microscopy techniques. The microscopy classroom allows up to 33 attendees to operate, individually and in real time, electron microscopes as if they were sitting in front of the actual instruments. The communications link, a fast backbone augmented by Internet2, allows various microscopes to be operated from the classroom or by collaborators in another city. This system transforms the training of new users from a one-person-at-a-time session with an expert operator to a group collaborative activity that can include users from around the world.
A majority of transplanted organs come from donors after brain death (BD). Renal grafts from these donors have higher delayed graft function and lower long-term survival rates compared to living donors. We designed a novel porcine BD model to better delineate the incompletely understood inflammatory response to BD, hypothesizing that adhesion molecule pathways would be upregulated in BD.
Animals were anesthetized and instrumented with monitors and a balloon catheter, then randomized to control and BD groups. BD was induced by inflating the balloon catheter and animals were maintained for 6 hours. RNA was extracted from kidneys, and gene expression pattern was determined.
In total, 902 gene pairs were differently expressed between groups. Eleven selected pathways were upregulated after BD, including cell adhesion molecules.
These results should be confirmed in human organ donors. Treatment strategies should target involved pathways and lessen the negative effects of BD on transplantable organs.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Glioblastoma (GBM) carries a prognosis of 14.6 months mean survival despite maximal surgical, chemotherapeutic, and radiation therapy. The pericyte is a recently characterized cell shown to be a critical component of cerebral vessel physiology and pathology. Importantly, alterations in pericyte densities have shown resulting changes in breast and lung tumor growth. We leverage transgenic pericyte-deficient mouse models to evaluate resulting behavior of implanted patient-derived GBM. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Patient-derived, green fluorescent protein labeled, GBM will be implanted in right frontal bregma of both 6-month old pericyte-deficient (PDGFR+/−) mice and age-matched wild-type littermate controls (IACUC 20755, IRB 16-00929), which are immunosuppressed via daily intraperitoneal cyclosporine injection. In total, 30 mice of both genders are included in tumor and control cohorts. Fixed cortical sections following 3-week period will be stained for pericytes (NG2), endothelium (CD31), hypoxia (piminidazole), and tumor size. One-way ANOVA with will used to compare groups using SAS software (Cary, NC). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Feasibility studies show robust in vitro growth of patient-derived GBM cells, showing continued growth over 10 cellular division passages. Lentivirally transduced GFP reveals reliable tumor tracking both in vitro and in vivo. Transgenic mice at 6 months display reproducibly decreased pericyte and microvascular density in triplicate. Wild-type mice tolerate tumor injection up to three weeks with visible tumor growth, peritumoral hypervascularity, and no evidence of mouse neural dysfunction. With current cohorts recently implanted with tumor, we anticipate a significant decrease in tumor size with Cohen’s d effect size of 0.5 in GBM implanted in pericyte-deficient mice when compared to control. Effect sizes are based moderate to large (effect size 0.5–0.8) reductions of in vitro GBM growth in vascular gene (TGF-β knockdown studies). In addition, tagged tumor-derived pericytes should comprise a greater proportion of new vasculature in pericyte-knockdown mice to overcome host pericyte depletion. Finally, tumors in transgenic mice should show increased hypoxia from limitations in angiogenesis. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Feasibility studies show successful tracking of fluorescently tagged-patient derived GBM samples in transgenic mice with decreased vasculature. GBM grafts show no evidence of immunogenic response with cyclosporine protocol. Successful limitation of tumor size with reduced pericyte density will provide support to increasing study of blood-brain barrier, stem cell activity and inflammatory activity of pericyte microenvironments altering GBM behavior. Furthermore, implementation of known pericyte targeted therapies, such as imantinib, can be evaluated for GBM patient treatment efficacy. Studies with assembled clinical translational research scholar mentorship team will allow the principal investigator to develop an independent career with laboratory focused on contributing to improved patient outcomes, translating successful pericyte-targeted results to patient trials.
This work aims at providing guidance through systematic experimental characterization for the design of 3D-printed scaffolds for potential orthopedic applications, focusing on fused deposition modeling with a composite of clinically available polycaprolactone (PCL) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP). First, we studied the effect of the chemical composition (0–60% β-TCP/PCL) on the scaffold’s properties. We showed that surface roughness and contact angle were, respectively, proportional and inversely proportional to the amount of β-TCP and that degradation rate increased with the amount of ceramic. Biologically, the addition of β-TCP enhanced proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of C3H10. Second, we systematically investigated the effect of the composition and the porosity on the 3D-printed scaffold mechanical properties. Both an increasing amount of β-TCP and a decreasing porosity augmented the apparent Young’s modulus of the 3D-printed scaffolds. Third, as a proof of concept, a novel multimaterial biomimetic implant was designed and fabricated for potential disc replacement.
This review will outline the role of visiting cardiac surgical teams in low- and middle-income countries drawing on the collective experience of the authors in a wide range of locations. Requests for assistance can emerge from local programmes at a beginner or advanced stage. However, in all circumstances, careful pre-trip planning is necessary in conjunction with clinical and non-clinical local partners. The clinical evaluation, surgical procedures, and postoperative care all serve as a template for collaboration and education between the visiting and local teams in every aspect of care. Education focusses on both common and patient-specific issues. Case selection must appropriately balance the clinical priorities, safety, and educational objectives within the time constraints of trip duration. Considerable communication and practical challenges will present, and clinicians may need to make significant adjustments to their usual practice in order to function effectively in a resource-limited, unfamiliar, and multilingual environment. The effectiveness of visiting trips should be measured and constantly evaluated. Local and visiting teams should use data-driven evaluations of measurable outcomes and critical qualitative evaluation to repeatedly re-assess their interim goals. Progress invariably takes several years to achieve the final goal: an autonomous self-governing, self-financed, cardiac programme capable of providing care for children with complex CHD. This outcome is consistent with redundancy for the visiting trips model at the site, although fraternal, professional, and academic links will invariably remain for many years.