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Upper Ordovician strata exposed from the Baiyanhuashan section is the most representative Late Ordovician unit in the northwestern margin of the North China Craton (NCC). In total, 1,215 conodont specimens were obtained from 24 samples through the Wulanhudong and Baiyanhuashan formations at the Baiyanhuashan section. Thirty-six species belonging to 17 genera, including Tasmanognathus coronatus new species, are present. Based on this material, three conodont biozones—the Belodina confluens Biozone, the Yaoxianognathus neimengguensis Biozone, and the Yaoxianognathus yaoxianensis Biozone—have been documented, suggesting that the Baiyanhuashan conodont fauna has a stratigraphic range spanning the early to middle Katian. The Baiyanhuashan conodont fauna includes species both endemic to North China and widespread in tropical zones, allowing a reassessment of the previous correlations of the Katian conodont zonal successions proposed for North China with those established for shallow-water carbonate platforms at low latitudes.
The objective of this study was to analyze differences in birth weight and overweight/obesity in a Shanghai twin cohort. We also wanted to study their association and explore possible risk factors for the discordance of overweight/obesity within twins. This was an internal case–control study designed for twins. The 2012 Shanghai Twin Registration System baseline survey data of a total of 3417 twin pairs were statistically analyzed using SPSS22 software. Results show that the body mass index (BMI) of the Shanghai twin population increased with age. Twins with a high birth weight had a higher BMI and a higher rate of overweight and obesity; 0- to 6-year-old twins, male twins and dizygotic (DZ) twins had higher rates of overweight/obesity than other groups. The greater the discordant birth weight rate of twins, the more obvious the difference in BMI (p < .05). There was a significant difference in overweight/obesity between twins with a relative difference of birth weight ≥15% in DZ twins (p < .05). DZ twins, male twins and 0- to 6-year-old twins were more likely to be discordant in overweight/obese than others. The discordant birth weight within twins was not a risk factor for discordant overweight/obesity. However, attention should be paid to childhood obesity, and appropriate interventions should be made at the appropriate time. Genetics may play an important role in the occurrence and development of overweight/obesity. In conclusion, discordant growth and development in the uterus early in life may not lead to discordant weight development in the future.
To understand the characteristics and influencing factors related to cluster infections in Jiangsu Province, China, we investigated case reports to explore transmission dynamics and influencing factors of scales of cluster infection. The effectiveness of interventions was assessed by changes in the time-dependent reproductive number (Rt). From 25th January to 29th February, Jiangsu Province reported a total of 134 clusters involving 617 cases. Household clusters accounted for 79.85% of the total. The time interval from onset to report of index cases was 8 days, which was longer than that of secondary cases (4 days) (χ2 = 22.763, P < 0.001) and had a relationship with the number of secondary cases (the correlation coefficient (r) = 0.193, P = 0.040). The average interval from onset to report was different between family cluster cases (4 days) and community cluster cases (7 days) (χ2 = 28.072, P < 0.001). The average time interval from onset to isolation of patients with secondary infection (5 days) was longer than that of patients without secondary infection (3 days) (F = 9.761, P = 0.002). Asymptomatic patients and non-familial clusters had impacts on the size of the clusters. The average reduction in the Rt value in family clusters (26.00%, 0.26 ± 0.22) was lower than that in other clusters (37.00%, 0.37 ± 0.26) (F = 4.400, P = 0.039). Early detection of asymptomatic patients and early reports of non-family clusters can effectively weaken cluster infections.
A multicenter study of sharps injuries (SIs) and other blood or body fluid (OBBF) exposures was conducted among 33,156 healthcare workers (HCWs) from 175 hospitals in Anhui, China. In total, 12,178 HCWs (36.7%) had experienced at least 1 SI in the previous 12 months and 8,116 HCWs (24.5%) had experienced at least 1 OBBF exposure during the previous 12 months.
Patients with schizophrenia and individuals with schizotypy, a subclinical group at risk for schizophrenia, have been found to have impairments in cognitive control. The Dual Mechanisms of Cognitive Control (DMC) framework hypothesises that cognitive control can be divided into proactive and reactive control. However, it is unclear whether individuals with schizotypy have differential behavioural impairments and neural correlates underlying these two types of cognitive control.
Twenty-five individuals with schizotypy and 26 matched healthy controls (HCs) completed both reactive and proactive control tasks with electroencephalographic data recorded. The proportion of congruent and incongruent trials was manipulated in a classic colour-word Stroop task to induce proactive or reactive control. Proactive control was induced in a context with mostly incongruent (MI) trials and reactive control in a context with mostly congruent (MC) trials. Two event-related potential (ERP) components, medial frontal negativity (MFN, associated with conflict detection) and conflict sustained potential (conflict SP, associated with conflict resolution) were examined.
There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of behavioural results. In terms of ERP results, in the MC context, HC exhibited significantly larger MFN (360–530 ms) and conflict SP (600–1000 ms) amplitudes than individuals with schizotypy. The two groups did not show any significant difference in MFN or conflict SP in the MI context.
The present findings provide initial evidence for dissociation of neural activation between proactive and reactive cognitive control in individuals with schizotypy. These findings help us understand cognitive control deficits in the schizophrenia spectrum.
A multidisciplinary fieldwork and research project was recently begun at the Yangshang site (220–140 ka), a late Early Paleolithic locale in the western Chinese Loess Plateau. 1696 lithic artifacts and 337 faunal remains were recovered during the excavation. Sedimentological and paleoenvironmental investigations indicate the site preserves a relatively long and minimally disturbed archaeological sequence associated with paleoenvironmental changes during MIS 7–6. A detailed techno-typological analysis of Yangshang's lithic assemblages was undertaken to examine the influence of glacial cycles on late Middle Pleistocene hominin technological strategies in the western Chinese Loess Plateau. The results show that while the Yangshang site is dominated by quartz-based core/flake assemblages typical of most Early Paleolithic sites in North China, the lithic assemblages provide evidence that different provisioning systems existed during the penultimate glaciation. We argue that these shifts reflect changes in land use and mobility that were tied to climate change. Our results suggest that theoretically informed statistical analyses of so-called unchanging and crude lithic technology can yield meaningful evidence for behavioral shifts.
While birth cohorts are shaped by underpinning life course frameworks, few if any report how they select them. This review aimed to (1) summarise publicly available frameworks relevant to planning and communicating large new early-life cohorts and (2) help select frameworks to guide and communicate Generation Victoria (GenV), a whole-of-state birth and parent cohort in planning in the state of Victoria, Australia. We identified potential frameworks from prior knowledge, networks and a pragmatic literature search in 2019. We considered for inclusion only frameworks with an existing visual graphic. We summarised each framework’s concept, then judged it on a seven-item matrix (Scope, Dimensions, Outcomes, Life course, Mechanisms, Multi-age, and Visual Clarity) to be of high, intermediate or low relevance to GenV. We presented and evaluated 14 life course frameworks across research and policy. Two, nine and three frameworks, respectively, were ranked as high, intermediate and low relevance to GenV, although none totally communicated its scope and intent. Shonkoff’s biodevelopmental framework was selected as GenV’s primary framework, adapted to include ongoing feedback loops through the life course and influence of an individual’s outcomes on the next generation. Because conceptual simplicity precluded the primary framework from capturing the wide range of relevant exposures, we selected the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare’s person-centred model as a secondary framework. This summary of existing life course frameworks may prove helpful to other cohorts in planning. Our transparent process and focus on visual communication are already assisting in explaining and selecting measures for GenV. The feasibility, comprehension and validity of these frameworks could be further tested at implementation.
The aim of this study was to explore the impact of polymorphism of PD-1 gene and its interaction with tea drinking on susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB). A total of 503 patients with TB and 494 controls were enrolled in this case–control study. Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms of PD-1 (rs7568402, rs2227982 and rs36084323) were genotyped and unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to identify the association between PD-1 polymorphism and TB, while marginal structural linear odds models were used to estimate the interactions. Genotypes GA (OR 1.434), AA (OR 1.891) and GA + AA (OR 1.493) at rs7568402 were more prevalent in the TB patients than in the controls (P < 0.05). The relative excess risk of interaction (RERI) between rs7568402 of PD-1 genes and tea drinking was −0.3856 (95% confidence interval −0.7920 to −0.0209, P < 0.05), which showed a negative interaction. However, the RERIs between tea drinking and both rs2227982 and rs36084323 of PD-1 genes were not statistically significant. Our data demonstrate that rs7568402 of PD-1 genes was associated with susceptibility to TB, and there was a significant negative interaction between rs7568402 and tea drinking. Therefore, preventive measures through promoting the consumption of tea should be emphasised in the high-risk populations.
In December 2019, the first confirmed case of pneumonia caused by a novel coronavirus was reported. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently spreading around the world. The relationships among the pandemic and its associated travel restrictions, social distancing measures, contact tracing, mask-wearing habits and medical consultation efficiency have not yet been extensively assessed. Based on the epidemic data reported by the Health Commission of Wenzhou, we analysed the developmental characteristics of the epidemic and modified the Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Removed (SEIR) model in three discrete ways. (1) According to the implemented preventive measures, the epidemic was divided into three stages: initial, outbreak and controlled. (2) We added many factors, such as health protections, travel restrictions and social distancing, close-contact tracing and the time from symptom onset to hospitalisation (TSOH), to the model. (3) Exposed and infected people were subdivided into isolated and free-moving populations. For the parameter estimation of the model, the average TSOH and daily cured cases, deaths and imported cases can be obtained through individual data from epidemiological investigations. The changes in daily contacts are simulated using the intracity travel intensity (ICTI) from the Baidu Migration Big Data platform. The optimal values of the remaining parameters are calculated by the grid search method. With this model, we calculated the sensitivity of the control measures with regard to the prevention of the spread of the epidemic by simulating the number of infected people in various hypothetical situations. Simultaneously, through a simulation of a second epidemic, the challenges from the rebound of the epidemic were analysed, and prevention and control recommendations were made. The results show that the modified SEIR model can effectively simulate the spread of COVID-19 in Wenzhou. The policy of the lockdown of Wuhan, the launch of the first-level Public Health Emergency Preparedness measures on 23 January 2020 and the implementation of resident travel control measures on 31 January 2020 were crucial to COVID-19 control.
While application of clustering algorithms to atom probe tomography data have enabled quantification of solute clusters in terms of number density, size, and subcomposition there exist other properties (e.g., volume, surface area, and composition) that are better determined by defining an interface between the cluster and the surrounding matrix. The limitation in composition results from an ion selection step where the expected matrix ion types are omitted from the cluster search algorithm to enhance the contrast between the matrix and cluster and to reduce the complexity of the search. Previously, composition determination within solute clusters has utilized a secondary envelopment and erosion step on top of conventional methods such as maximum separation. In this work, we present a novel stochastic method that combines the particle identification fidelity of a conventional clustering algorithm with the analytical flexibility of mesh-based approaches through the generation of alpha shapes for each identified cluster. The corresponding mesh accounts for concave components of the clusters and determines the volume and surface area of the clusters; additionally, the mesh boundary is utilized to update the total composition according to the internal ions.
Hypertension represents one of the most common pre-existing conditions and comorbidities in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. To explore whether hypertension serves as a risk factor for disease severity, a multi-centre, retrospective study was conducted in COVID-19 patients. A total of 498 consecutively hospitalised patients with lab-confirmed COVID-19 in China were enrolled in this cohort. Using logistic regression, we assessed the association between hypertension and the likelihood of severe illness with adjustment for confounders. We observed that more than 16% of the enrolled patients exhibited pre-existing hypertension on admission. More severe COVID-19 cases occurred in individuals with hypertension than those without hypertension (21% vs. 10%, P = 0.007). Hypertension associated with the increased risk of severe illness, which was not modified by other demographic factors, such as age, sex, hospital geological location and blood pressure levels on admission. More attention and treatment should be offered to patients with underlying hypertension, who usually are older, have more comorbidities and more susceptible to cardiac complications.
We aimed to examine whether baseline neutrophil counts affected the risk of new-onset proteinuria in hypertensive patients, and, if so, whether folic acid treatment is particularly effective in proteinuria prevention in such a setting. A total of 8208 eligible participants without proteinuria at baseline were analysed from the renal substudy of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial. Participants were randomised to receive a double-blind daily treatment of 10 mg of enalapril and 0·8 mg of folic acid (n 4101) or 10 mg of enalapril only (n 4107). The primary outcome was new-onset proteinuria, defined as a urine dipstick reading of ≥1+ at the exit visit. The mean age of the participants was 59·5 (sd, 7·4) years, 3088 (37·6 %) of the participants were male. The median treatment duration was 4·4 years. In the enalapril-only group, a significantly higher risk of new-onset proteinuria was found among participants with higher neutrophil counts (quintile 5; ≥4·8 × 109/l, OR 1·44; 95 % CI 1·00, 2·06), compared with those in quintiles 1–4. For those with enalapril and folic acid treatment, compared with the enalapril-only group, the new-onset proteinuria risk was reduced from 5·2 to 2·8 % (OR 0·49; 95 % CI 0·29, 0·82) among participants with higher neutrophil counts (≥4·8 × 109/l), whereas there was no significant effect among those with neutrophil counts <4·8 × 109/l. In summary, among hypertensive patients, those with higher neutrophil counts had increased risk of new-onset proteinuria, and this risk was reduced by 51 % with folic acid treatment.
The association between dietary Fe intake and diabetes risk remains inconsistent. We aimed to explore the association between dietary Fe intake and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk in middle-aged and older adults in urban China. This study used data from the Guangzhou Nutrition and Health Study, an on-going community-based prospective cohort study. Participants were recruited from 2008 to 2013 in Guangzhou community. A total of 2696 participants aged 40–75 years without T2DM at baseline were included in data analyses, with a median of 5·6 (interquartile range 4·1–5·9) years of follow-up. T2DM was identified by self-reported diagnosis, fasting glucose ≥ 7·0 mmol/l or glycosylated Hb ≥ 6·5 %. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI. We ascertained 205 incident T2DM cases during 13 476 person-years. The adjusted HR for T2DM risk in the fourth quartile of haem Fe intake was 1·92 (95 % CI 1·07, 3·46; Ptrend = 0·010), compared with the first quartile intake. These significant associations were found in haem Fe intake from total meat (HR 2·74; 95 % CI 1·22, 6·15; Ptrend = 0·011) and haem Fe intake from red meat (HR 1·86; 95 % CI 1·01, 3·44; Ptrend = 0·034), but not haem Fe intake from processed meat, poultry or fish/shellfish. The association between dietary intake of total Fe or non-haem Fe with T2DM risk had no significance. Our findings suggested that higher dietary intake of haem Fe (especially from red meat), but not total Fe or non-haem Fe, was associated with greater T2DM risk in middle-aged and older adults.
The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with a nano chitosan–zinc complex (CP–Zn, 100 mg/kg Zn) could alleviate weaning stress in piglets challenged with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88 by improving growth performance and intestinal antioxidant capacity. The in vivo effects of CP–Zn on growth performance variables (including gastrointestinal digestion and absorption functions and the levels of key proteins related to muscle growth) and the antioxidant capacity of the small intestine (SI) were evaluated in seventy-two weaned piglets. The porcine jejunal epithelial cell line IPEC-J2 was used to further investigate the antioxidant mechanism of CP–Zn in vitro. The results showed that CP–Zn supplementation increased the jejunal villus height and decreased the diarrhoea rate in weaned piglets. CP–Zn supplementation also improved growth performance (average daily gain and average daily feed intake), increased the activity of carbohydrate digestion-related enzymes (amylase, maltase, sucrase and lactase) and the mRNA expression levels of nutrient transporters (Na+-dependent glucose transporter 1, glucose transporter type 2, peptide transporter 1 and excitatory amino acid carrier 1) in the jejunum and up-regulated the expression levels of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway-related proteins (insulin receptor substrate 1, phospho-mTOR and phospho-p70S6K) in muscle. In addition, CP–Zn supplementation increased glutathione content, enhanced total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) activity, and reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the jejunum. Furthermore, CP–Zn decreased the content of MDA and reactive oxygen species, enhanced the activity of T-SOD and GSH-px and up-regulated the expression levels of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway-related proteins (Nrf2, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 and haeme oxygenase 1) in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated IPEC-J2 cells. Collectively, these findings indicate that CP–Zn supplementation can improve growth performance and the antioxidant capacity of the SI in piglets, thus alleviating weaning stress.
In this study, we analysed the prevalence of diabetes in Inner Mongolia and explored the relationship between dietary patterns and diabetes using the Chinese Dietary Balance Index-16 (DBI-16). This study was a surveillance survey of Chronic Disease and Nutrition Monitoring among Chinese Adults in Inner Mongolia in 2015. Dietary data were collected using the 24-h dietary recall and weighing method over three consecutive days. Dietary quality was evaluated via the DBI-16. A generalised linear model was used to examine the associations between the DBI-16 and dietary patterns. The relationship between dietary patterns and diabetes was analysed using logistic regression. In Inner Mongolia, the diabetes prevalence was 8·5 % and the estimated standardised prevalence was 6·0 %. Four major dietary patterns were identified: ‘meat/dairy products’, ‘traditional northern’, ‘high cereal/tuber’ and ‘high-salt/alcohol’. Generalised linear models showed that the ‘meat/dairy product’ pattern was relatively balanced (βLBS = –1·993, βHBS = –0·206, βDQD = –2·199; all P < 0·05) and was associated with a lower diabetes risk (OR 0·565; 95 % CI 0·338, 0·945; P < 0·05) after adjusting for potential confounders. The other three dietary patterns (i.e. ‘traditional northern’, ‘high cereal/tuber’ and ‘high-salt/alcohol’) exhibited relatively unbalanced dietary quality and were unassociated with diabetes risk. Diabetes prevalence in Inner Mongolia was moderate. The dietary quality of the ‘meat/dairy product’ pattern was relatively balanced and was correlated with a decreased risk of diabetes prevalence, suggesting that dietary quality may help decrease diabetes prevalence and provide a suggestion for local dietary guidelines.
The treatment of relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM), a common hematological malignancy, remains a great challenge in China, partially due to the limited accessibility to novel agents and inadequate public health insurance coverage. Ixazomib, a novel oral proteasome inhibitor (PI), was approved by the China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) for RRMM in 2018. While bortezomib, a traditional PI, is the recommended agent in the clinical guideline for MM. Here, we compared their costs and effectiveness.
RRMM patients who has received an ixazomib-based regimen (at least 2 cycles) were analyzed. Using a propensity score matching method, we generated a control group of RRMM patients who received the bortezomib-based regimen. The criteria included the number of treatment lines, age, and the revised international staging system stage (R-ISS) which representing the disease stage for myeloma, and paired at a ratio of 1:2 (allowing one control to match multiples). The difference in hospitalization stay, grade 3/4 adverse events rates, overall response rate (ORR), mortality during treatment, and treatment costs was then compared.
Nineteen patients received ixazomib and twenty-seven that received bortezomib were included. The ixazomib-group demonstrated a shorter hospital stay (9 days versus 27 days, p < 0.001), lower grade 3–4 adverse events rates (42.1% versus 55.6%, p < 0.001), higher ORR (63.2% versus 48.1%, p = 0.228), and lower mortality rate during treatment (0% versus 7.4%, p = 0.169) than that of bortezomib-group. The ixazomib group had lower total costs (127,620CNY versus 156,424CNY [18,033USD versus 22,103USD], p > 0.05), lower drug costs (98,376CNY versus 103,307CNY [13,901USD versus 14,598USD], p > 0.05), and the lower costs of supportive treatment (5,507CNY versus 14,701 CNY [778USD versus 2,077USD], p < 0.001). Only in terms of self-funded costs, the bortezomib-based regimen was significantly lower (37,127CNY versus 11,521CNY [5,246USD versus 1,628USD], p < 0.001).
Compared with the bortezomib-based regimen, the ixazomib-based regimen has better therapeutic effects on MM patients while saving costs. Hence, it may be preferable for use in the treatment of RRMM in China.
The experimental music of Chinese musicians including Yan Jun, Li Jianhong, Jun-Y Chao, Shen Piji and the Tea Rockers Quintet embodies a particular mode of thinking rooted in Chinese qi-philosophy known as shanshui (山水)-thought, which considers nature and the environment as secret and nurturing. Shanshui-thought cultivates an existential gesture of following rather than obeying or conquering; it requires tacit resonance rather than object knowing. Shanshui-thought enables us to recognise the cosmic, aesthetic and moral values of music qualities of dan (淡) (quiet and bland) and you (幽) (inward expandedness), once described as ‘poverty’ and ‘darkness’ by the composer Christian Wolff of what he calls ascetic minimalism.
The general public is familiar with weather forecasts and their utility, and the field of weather forecasting is well-established. Even the theoretical limit of the weather forecasting – two weeks – is known. In contrast, familiarity with climate prediction is low outside of the research field, the theoretical basis is not fully established, and we do not know the extent to which climate can be predicted. Variations in climate, however, can have large societal and economic consequences, as they can lead to droughts and floods, and spells of extreme hot and cold weather. Thus, improving our capabilities to predict climate is important and urgent, as it can enhance climate services and thereby contribute to the sustainable development of humans in this era of climate change.
This study aimed at estimating the transmissibility of hepatitis C. The data for hepatitis C cases were collected in six districts in Xiamen City, China from 2004 to 2018. A population-mixed susceptible-infectious-chronic-recovered (SICR) model was used to fit the data and the parameters of the model were calculated. The basic reproduction number (R0) and the number of newly transmitted cases by a primary case per month (MNI) were adopted to quantitatively assess the transmissibility of hepatitis C virus (HCV). Eleven curve estimation models were employed to predict the trends of R0 and MNI in the city. The SICR model fits the reported HCV data well (P < 0.01). The median R0 of each district in Xiamen is 0.4059. R0 follows the cubic model curve, the compound curve and the power function curve. The median MNI of each district in Xiamen is 0.0020. MNI follows the cubic model curve, the compound curve and the power function curve. The transmissibility of HCV follows a decreasing trend, which reveals that under the current policy for prevention and control, there would be a high feasibility to eliminate the transmission of HCV in the city.