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Research from the 1980s reported sweep cultivation being a cost-effective component in an integrated system to manage weeds in peanut. Previous weed management research conducted on organic peanut indicated that repeated cultivation with a tine weeder was an effective component in that production system. Studies were conducted in Tifton, GA, from 2014 through 2017 to determine whether tine weeding can be integrated with herbicides in conventional peanut production to supplement herbicides. Experiments evaluated a factorial arrangement of eight herbicide combinations and two levels of cultivation using a tine weeder. Herbicides were labeled rates of ethalfluralin PRE, S-metolachlor PRE, imazapic POST, ethalfluralin PRE + S-metolachlor PRE, ethalfluralin PRE + imazapic POST, S-metolachlor PRE + imazapic POST, ethalfluralin PRE + S-metolachlor PRE + imazapic POST, and a nontreated control. The herbicides chosen were based on knowledge of the weed species composition at the research sites and their common use in peanut. Cultivation regimes were cultivation with a tine weeder (six times at weekly intervals) and a noncultivated control. Benefits of tine weeding supplementing control from herbicides varied according to herbicide and weed species. For example, annual grasses were effectively controlled (88% to 97%) by ethalfluralin or S-metolachlor and did not need cultivation to supplement control provided by the herbicides. However, imazapic alone did not effectively control (54% to 75%) annual grasses and needed supplemental control from cultivation with the tine weeder. Similarly, imazapic effectively controlled (84% to 93%) smallflower morningglory and did not require cultivation to supplement control from the herbicide. However, cultivation with the tine weeder improved smallflower morningglory control (76% to 95%) when supplementing ethalfluralin or S-metolachlor. Peanut yields did not respond to any of the herbicide combinations integrated with cultivation using the tine weeder. During the time period when peanut was cultivated, there was greater total rainfall and more days of rainfall events in 2014 and 2017 compared with the other years. Rainfall and wet soils reduced the performance and weed control benefits of the tine weeder. This highlights the risk of depending on cultivation for weed control.
Sugarbeet, grown for biofuel, is being considered as an alternate cool-season crop in the southeastern United States. Previous research identified ethofumesate PRE and phenmedipham + desmedipham POST as herbicides that controlled troublesome cool-season weeds in the region, specifically cutleaf evening-primrose. Research trials were conducted from 2014 through 2016 to evaluate an integrated system of sweep cultivation and reduced rates of ethofumesate PRE and/or phenmedipham+desmedipham POST for weed control in sugarbeet grown for biofuel. There were no interactions between the main effects of cultivation and herbicides for control of cutleaf evening-primrose and other cool-season species in two out of three years. Cultivation improved control of cool-season weeds, but the effect was largely independent of control provided by herbicides. Of the herbicide combinations evaluated, the best overall cool-season weed control was from systems that included either a 1/2X or 1X rate of phenmedipham+desmedipham POST. Either rate of ethofumesate PRE was less effective than phenmedipham+desmedipham POST. Despite improved cool-season weed control, sugarbeet yield was not affected by cultivation each year of the study. Sugarbeet yields were greater when treated with any herbicide combination that included either a 1/2X or 1X rate of phenmedipham+desmedipham POST compared with either rate of ethofumesate PRE alone or the nontreated control. These results indicate that cultivation has a very limited role in sugarbeet grown for biofuel. The premise of effective weed control based on an integration of cultivation and reduced herbicide rates does not appear to be viable for sugarbeet grown for biofuel.
Sugarbeet, grown for biofuel, is being considered as an alternate cool-season crop in the southeastern U.S. coastal plain. Typically, the crop would be seeded in the autumn, then grow through the winter and be harvested the following spring. Labels for herbicides registered for use on sugarbeet grown in the traditional sugarbeet production regions do not list any of the cool-season weeds common in the southeastern United States. Field trials were initiated near Ty Ty, GA, to evaluate all possible combinations of ethofumesate applied PRE, phenmedipham+desmedipham applied POST, clopyralid POST, and triflusulfuron POST for cool-season weed control in sugarbeet. Phenmedipham+desmedipham alone and in combination with clopyralid and/or triflusulfuron effectively controlled cutleaf eveningprimrose, lesser swinecress, henbit, and corn spurry when applied to seedling weeds. Ethofumesate PRE alone was not as effective in controlling cool-season weeds compared to treatments containing phenmedipham+desmedipham POST. However, ethofumesate PRE applied sequentially with phenmedipham+desmedipham POST improved weed control consistency. Clopyralid and/or triflusulfuron alone did not adequately control cutleaf eveningprimrose. Triflusulfuron alone effectively controlled wild radish. In the 2013–2014 and 2014–2015 seasons, December-applied POST herbicides did not injure sugarbeet. However, in the 2015–2016 season POST herbicides were applied in late October. On the day of treatment, the maximum temperature was 25.4 C, which exceeded the established upper temperature limit of 22 C for safe application of phenmedipham+desmedipham, and sugarbeet plants were severely injured. In the southeastern United States, temperatures frequently exceed 22 C in early autumn, which may limit phenmedipham+desmedipham use for controlling troublesome cool-season weeds of sugarbeet in the region. Weed control options need to be expanded to compensate for this limitation.
Ammonium nonanoate is registered for weed control in certified organic cropping systems and may be useful to control cool-season weeds in organic Vidalia® sweet onion production. Ammonium nonanoate combined with tine-weeder cultivation was evaluated for weed control in organic onion in Georgia. There were no statistical interactions between main effects of herbicides and cultivation with a tine weeder for cool-season weed control and onion yield, indicating that ammonium nonanoate does not improve weed control compared with cultivation. Ammonium nonanoate at 4% and 6% did not adequately control weeds and onion yields were reduced. Ammonium nonanoate at 8% and 10% controlled cutleaf evening-primrose and lesser swinecress equal to the standard of d-limonene (14%), but the degree of control did not consistently protect onion yields from losses due to weeds. These results are in agreement with previous studies using clove oil and pelargonic acid. There is no advantage to using ammonium nonanoate for cool-season weed control in organic Vidalia® sweet onion production.
Weed management in the organic Vidalia® sweet onion production system is largely dependent on multiple cultivations with a tine weeder. Earlier research suggested cultivation with a tine weeder did not predispose onion bulbs to infection during storage. Trials were conducted from 2012 through 2014 near Lyons, GA, to determine the interactive effects of cultivation, weed removal, and a biofungicide on weed densities, onion yield, grade, and diseases of stored onion. Cultivation twice or four times at biweekly intervals with a tine weeder reduced densities of cutleaf evening-primrose, lesser swinecress, and henbit compared with the noncultivated control, although weeds surviving cultivation were very large and mature at harvest. Cultivation generally improved onion yields over the noncultivated control, except in 2014, when baseline weed densities were high and weeds surviving cultivation were numerous. Weeds removed by hand weeding improved onion yields, but that effect was independent of cultivation. Four applications of a biofungicide derived from giant knotweed had no effect on onion yield. Cultivation had no effect on incidence of the fungal disease botrytis neck rot, with inconsistent effects on the bacterial diseases center rot and sour skin. Weed removal with hand weeding did not affect diseases of stored onion. The biofungicide had no effect on diseases of stored onion. These results demonstrate the limitations of cultivation when cool-season weed infestations are dense. With no interactions among main effects, weed control and onion yield response to cultivation and hand weeding are independent. Cultivation for weed control is much less costly than hand weeding. With no interaction between the cultivation and weed removal main effects, it is not necessary to supplement tine weeder cultivation with costly hand weeding.
Studies were conducted from 1987 to 1990 to measure the dynamics of sicklepod established at subeconomic threshold populations in a peanut-cotton-corn cropping system. The experimental site had no native populations of sicklepod prior to initiation of the study. Main plots were crops in the rotation sequence plus continuous summer fallow (no crop). Subplots were: sicklepod established in the initial year of the study, sicklepod established every year of the study, and no sicklepod. Sicklepod was established at subeconomic threshold densities to simulate weed survival and seed production in fields where economic thresholds were the basis for weed management decisions. Sicklepod growing alone in fallow plots produced more seed per plant, resulting in significantly more seedlings throughout the study than sicklepod growing with crops. Sicklepod growing in corn produced the fewest seed per plant. Seed produced from subeconomic threshold densities established only in the first year caused 7-, 21-, and 20-fold increases in sicklepod populations during the next three seasons compared to the nontreated control.
Studies on the efficacy and economic analysis of Texas panicum management systems in corn were conducted in Georgia on a loamy sand soil in 1987, 1988, and 1989. Management systems that included butylate, EPTC, atrazine plus tridiphane, atrazine plus pendimethalin, atrazine plus trifluralin, paraquat, or ametryn acceptably control Texas panicum. Corn yields were not affected significantly by the Texas panicum management systems. Overall net returns calculated for corn production indicated that systems which included postemergence applications of atrazine, pendimethalin, trifluralin, paraquat, ametryn, or cultivation alone gave the highest net returns. Systems which included butylate, EPTC, or tridiphane frequently had significantly lower net returns.
The response of peanut to low rates of MSMA under weed-free conditions was studied in 1992 and 1994 near Tifton, GA. MSMA was applied 40, 70, 100, or 130 days after emergence (DAE). At each application timing, MSMA was applied at 0, 90, 168, and 336 g ai ha−1. MSMA application timing did not affect peanut yield. Increasing rates of MSMA caused minor reduction in peanut yield. Analysis using atomic absorption spectroscopy showed elemental arsenic accumulation of ≤ 0.7 ppm in peanut kernels from MSMA applied 70 and 100 DAE. This approximates the time interval of peanut pod and kernel formation. MSMA applied 40 and 130 DAE resulted in little detectable arsenic in kernels. Low rates of MSMA, originating as drift from aerial applications to cotton or illegal and unsound applications to peanut for Florida beggarweed control, are not likely to reduce peanut yields. The greatest hazard from peanut exposure to MSMA is accumulation of arsenic in kernels, which would adversely affect peanut marketability and consumer demand.
A 3-yr study was initiated in 1982 to determine the effects of herbicides and crop rotations on large crabgrass [Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. # DIGSA] and broadleaf signalgrass [Brachiaria platyphylla (Griseb.) Nash # BRAPP] population dynamics. Regardless of the crop rotation sequence, broadleaf signalgrass immediately became the predominant weed where standard herbicide programs were used. Large crabgrass became the predominant species after two growing seasons if no herbicides were applied. Domination by large crabgrass appeared to be due to greater seed production. The domination by broadleaf signalgrass in plots treated with herbicides was attributed to its tolerance to the primary grass herbicide alachlor [2-chloro-N-(2,6-diethylphenyl)-N-methoxymethyl)acetamide]. Broadleaf signalgrass emergence from soil treated with 2.2 kg ai/ha was not statistically different from that in untreated soil, while large crabgrass and fall panicum [Panicum dichotomiflorum (L.) Michx. # PANDI] emergence was significantly reduced at the same rate.
Studies were conducted in 1988, 1989, and 1992 in Plains, GA to measure effects of paraquat and alachlor on ‘Florunner’ peanut. Peanut treated with paraquat (0.14 kg ai/ha) plus alachlor (3.4 kg ai/ha) applied at vegetative emergence (VE), or paraquat plus alachlor VE followed by paraquat 28 days after emergence (DAE) were compared with a nontreated control. Both herbicide treatments reduced peanut foliage biomass at 65 DAE in 1989 and 1992. Herbicide treatments did not affect foliage biomass 90 DAE in 1988 and 122 DAE in 1989, but paraquat plus alachlor followed by paraquat reduced foliage biomass at 122 DAE in 1992. Pod biomass, measured at 90 and 65 DAE in 1988 and 1992, respectively, was reduced by herbicides. However, pod biomass did not differ among treatments 122 DAE in 1989 and 1992. Percent reflectance from the peanut canopy measured no effects from herbicides in 1988. However, in 1989 and 1992 herbicides applied sequentially reduced peanut canopy development. Peanut treated with a single herbicide and sequentially took longer to mature. Once optimum maturity was reached, peanut yields were not reduced.
Field studies were conducted from 1995 to 1997 near Tifton, GA, to determine the benefits of stale seedbed weed control in cucumber. Three stale seedbed management systems—(1) power till stale seedbeds twice (2 ×), (2) glyphosate application immediately after planting, and (3) combination system of stale seedbeds power tilled once 2 wk prior to planting followed by glyphosate application immediately after planting cucumber—were evaluated as main plots. Subplots were weed management systems after planting cucumber: intensive, basic, and cultivation alone. Weed densities were generally greater in 1996 and 1997 than in 1995. Yellow nutsedge was the overall predominant species in 1995 (46 plants m−2), with Florida pusley being the predominant species in 1996 and 1997, at 80 and 124 plants m−2, respectively. Generally, stale seedbeds shallow tilled 2 × had fewer weeds and greater cucumber yields than stale seedbeds treated with glyphosate. Glyphosate did not adequately control emerged Florida pusley on stale seedbeds, resulting in reduced cucumber yield. Clomazone preemergence and bentazon/halosulfuron postemergence were used for broadleaf weed control in the intensive weed management system. These herbicides injured cucumber plants, delayed maturity, and reduced yield. Based on our results, stale seedbeds shallow tilled 2 × can be integrated into cucumber production and provide effective cultural weed control. Furthermore, these systems will replace the need for potentially injurious herbicides.
Field studies were conducted at Tifton, GA and Gainesville, FL to quantify the phytotoxicity of endothall formulation, rate, and time of application on peanut in a weed-free experiment. Peanut treated with mono (N,N-dimethylalkylamine) salt of endothall (DMAA endothall) were more necrotic than those treated with dipotassium salt of endothall (DP endothall), though necrosis was temporary. Injury from DMAA endothall at rates of 0.6 to 1.1 kg ai/ha was similar to the standard treatment of bentazon plus paraquat for most parameters. Peanut treated with the highest rate of DMAA endothall (4.5 kg/ha) were more necrotic and took longer to recover than lower rates. The highest rate of DP endothall (4.5 kg ai/ha) stunted peanut more than any DMAA endothall treatment. However, lower rates of DP endothall (0.6 to 2.2 kg/ha) were generally less injurious than DMAA endothall at equivalent rates. Peanut yields were not affected by either formulation of endothall at 0.6 to 1.1 kg/ha, applied from vegetative emergence through 4 wk after emergence.
Field studies were conducted at Tifton, GA to quantify phytotoxicity of flumetsulam on peanut as influenced by application rate and timing in a weed free experiment. Flumetsulam PPI at rates up to 0.14 kg ai/ha visibly injured peanut and reduced canopy width, but injury from PPI flumetsulam at 0.07 kg/ha or less was no worse than a standard early postemergence (EPOST) treatment of bentazon (0.6 kg ai/ha) plus paraquat (0.14 kg ai/ha). Flumetsulam EPOST at rates up to 0.07 kg/ha visibly injured peanut and reduced peanut canopy width. Flumetsulam injury at rates of 0.035 kg/ha EPOST was similar to that caused by bentazon plus paraquat. Interactive effects of PPI and EPOST flumetsulam reduced early and mid-season pod and foliage biomass more than either application alone. However, peanut recovered with final yields not affected by flumetsulam, regardless of rate or time of application.
Field studies were conducted from 1991 through 1993 to determine the effects of stale seedbed management practices on weed control in peanut. Main plots were four levels of stale seedbed management: deep till (23 cm) and plant the same day (standard system), deep till 6 wk early and shallow till (7.6 cm) at 2 wk intervals prior to planting, deep till 6 wk early and application of glyphosate (1.1 kg ai ha−1) 1 wk prior to planting, and deep till 6 wk early without additional treatment prior to planting. Sub-plots were three levels of weed management following peanut planting; intensive, basic, and cultivation alone. Stale seedbed management practices stimulated weed emergence when followed by other control measures prior to planting. Populations of Florida beggarweed, Texas panicum, and yellow nutsedge were lower when stale seedbeds were shallow tilled at 2 wk intervals prior to planting, resulting in greater peanut yields. Weeds on nontreated stale seedbeds were difficult to control once peanut was planted and reduced yields. Stale seedbed management practices generally had no effect on the quantity of foreign material contaminants originating from weeds, soil, or peanut plant in harvested peanut. These results indicate that shallow tillage on stale seedbeds can reduce weed populations prior to planting and increase peanut yields.
Studies were conducted from 1990 through 1994 near Tifton, GA, on the population dynamics of yellow nutsedge and certain annual weeds in peanut—corn and peanut—cotton rotations. Converse rotation sequences were included to eliminate year effects. Continuous fallow plots (noncrop) were included for comparison. Within each crop, including fallow, were 3 levels of weed management: low, moderate, and intensive. Weed densities and numbers of yellow nutsedge tubers were not affected by crop rotations, but they were affected by individual crops and weed management systems in each crop. Fallow plots, including those with intensive fallow weed management using tillage and nonselective herbicides, consistently contained more yellow nutsedge plants and tubers than other plots. Moderate and intensive weed control systems in peanut and cotton reduced yellow nutsedge densities and tubers, but only peanut yields were increased by intensive weed management. Weed management systems did not affect yellow nutsedge densities in corn, although yields were increased by moderate and intensive systems due to improved control of other weeds. Our results suggest that uninterrupted plantings of peanut, corn, or cotton with moderate levels of weed management are generally sufficient to suppress yellow nutsedge and allow for optimum crop yield. If fields are fallow, yellow nutsedge population densities and tubers will increase exponentially, even with intensive fallow weed management.
Broadleaf signalgrass [Brachiaria platyphylla (Griseb.) Nash # BRAPP has recently become the dominant annual grass in certain fields of the North Carolina Coastal Plains. Previously, fall panicum (Panicum dichotomiflorum Michx. # PANDI) and large crabgrass [Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. # DIGSA] were the dominant annual grasses in the region. One of the possible reasons for the observed population shift could be production of inhibitors or stimulators by one species that affects the population dynamics of the other species. Studies were initiated to evaluate the effects of broadleaf signalgrass, large crabgrass, and fall panicum residue, applied as a mulch or soil incorporated, on five indicator species: the three weeds themselves, corn (Zea mays L.), and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. At expected residue levels, the degree of inhibition or stimulation from fall panicum and broadleaf signalgrass was determined to be significant for some indicator species. When such responses were seen, the amount of residue necessary to produce these results was usually within the concentrations normally observed in field situations. Based on these results, it appears that the observed population shift is partially mediated by the production of inhibitors or stimulators through plant residue. Other factors such as differential herbicide selectivity and crop rotation are being investigated.
Field studies were conducted near Tifton, GA, from 1995 to 1997 to measure Cyperus esculentus (yellow nutsedge) interference with ‘Fancipack’ Cucumis sativus (cucumber) using a response prediction experiment with a natural infestation of C. esculentus. Cucumis sativus was direct-seeded each year. Plots (1.8 by 1.8 m) were established immediately after crop emergence. Cyperus esculentus plants were counted 2 wk after crop emergence in each plot, at which time four weed-free plots were randomly established. C. esculentus densities ranged from 0 to 955 plants m−2. Total yield, plant biomass, and C. sativus stand were regressed against C. esculentus density and biomass. Regression analysis showed a 5% reduction in C. sativus yield with a C esculentus infestation of approximately 15 plants m−2. A uniform C. sativus stand maximized its competitive ability and minimized interference from C. esculentus. Cyperus esculentus was more competitive and reduced C. sativus yields when C. sativus stands were low and nonuniform.
Studies were conducted in 1989 and 1990 to determine the phytotoxicity of chlorimuron and tank mixtures on ‘Florunner’ peanut. Chlorimuron plus a petroleum oil adjuvant or 2,4-DB was more phytotoxic (P = 0.05) than chlorimuron plus a nonionic surfactant, based on stunting and chlorosis. Chlorimuron mixed with chlorothalonil, chlorothalonil plus sulfur, or esfenvalerate were no more phytotoxic than the standard. Adding sulfur or nonionic surfactant to chlorimuron plus chlorothalonil did not affect phytoxicity. Sequential applications of chlorimuron and 2,4-DB did not completely negate the phytotoxicity of the tank mixture. Despite differences in phytotoxicity, yields were not reduced.
Field studies were conducted in 2006 and 2007 to evaluate the tolerance of autumn-planted cabbage and turnip green to halosulfuron applied the previous spring to cantaloupe. Main plots were three levels of soil pH: maintained at a natural pH level, pH raised with Ca(OH)2, and pH lowered with Al2(SO4)3. Subplots were a factorial arrangement of two halosulfuron application methods and three halosulfuron rates. Halosulfuron application methods were PPI or POST after transplanting to the edges of mulch-covered seedbeds. Halosulfuron rates were 35 and 70 g ai/ha, along with a nontreated control. Cantaloupe were transplanted, maintained weed-free, and evaluated for yield response. After cantaloupe harvest, direct-seeded turnip green and transplanted cabbage were established in September of each year and evaluated for crop tolerance and yield. Data indicated nonsignificant main effects of soil pH and halosulfuron application method on cantaloupe yield. However, in 2007 cantaloupe yields were significantly reduced, by 16 and 20% for halosulfuron applied at 35 and 70 g/ha, respectively. For all turnip green and cabbage response parameters, interactions were nonsignificant between application method and rate, soil pH and rate, and soil pH and application method, along with the three-way interaction. After 6 mo, there was no evidence of stunting from halosulfuron carryover in 2006 to direct-seeded turnip green and in both years to transplanted cabbage. Visual estimates of stunting to direct-seeded turnip green ranged from 9 to 16% for halosulfuron at 35 and 70 g/ha, respectively, in 2007, but all stunting was transient and turnip green yield was not affected.
Intensive cultivation in organic peanut is partially effective, but in-row weed control remains problematic. In an attempt to improve in-row weed control, irrigated trials were conducted from 2011 to 2013 near Ty Ty, GA to determine the feasibility of early-season cultivation perpendicular to row direction using a tine weeder when integrated with other weed-control practices. Combinations of perpendicular cultivation (cultivation perpendicular to row direction), parallel cultivation (cultivation in the same direction of the rows), and banded applications of herbicides derived from natural sources were compared. Perpendicular cultivation improved overall weed control and peanut yield (two years of three), but this benefit was independent of weed control from any form of parallel cultivation. Additionally, tractor tire tracks from perpendicular cultivation across the rows repeatedly crushed peanut seedlings. Parallel cultivation with the tine weeder was generally more effective than parallel cultivation with sweeps, particularly for southern crabgrass and Texas millet. Herbicides derived from natural products were inconsistent in controlling dicot weeds, ineffective in controlling annual grasses, and did not protect peanut yield from weed interference.