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Perpendicular Cultivation for Improved In-Row Weed Control in Organic Peanut Production

  • W. Carroll Johnson (a1) and Jerry W. Davis (a2)


Intensive cultivation in organic peanut is partially effective, but in-row weed control remains problematic. In an attempt to improve in-row weed control, irrigated trials were conducted from 2011 to 2013 near Ty Ty, GA to determine the feasibility of early-season cultivation perpendicular to row direction using a tine weeder when integrated with other weed-control practices. Combinations of perpendicular cultivation (cultivation perpendicular to row direction), parallel cultivation (cultivation in the same direction of the rows), and banded applications of herbicides derived from natural sources were compared. Perpendicular cultivation improved overall weed control and peanut yield (two years of three), but this benefit was independent of weed control from any form of parallel cultivation. Additionally, tractor tire tracks from perpendicular cultivation across the rows repeatedly crushed peanut seedlings. Parallel cultivation with the tine weeder was generally more effective than parallel cultivation with sweeps, particularly for southern crabgrass and Texas millet. Herbicides derived from natural products were inconsistent in controlling dicot weeds, ineffective in controlling annual grasses, and did not protect peanut yield from weed interference.

El cultivo intensivo es parcialmente efectivo en maní orgánico, pero el control dentro de la hilera de siembra continúa siendo problemático. En un intento de mejorar el control de malezas dentro de la hilera, se realizaron experimentos bajo condiciones de riego desde 2011 a 2013 cerca de Ty Ty, Georgia para determinar si se puede realizar un cultivo en etapas tempranas en forma perpendicular a la dirección de las hileras usando un cultivador de picos (rastrillo) e integrando esta práctica con otras prácticas de control de malezas. Se compararon combinaciones de cultivo perpendicular (cultivo perpendicular a la dirección de la hilera), cultivo paralelo (cultivo en la misma dirección que las hileras), y aplicaciones en banda de herbicidas derivados de fuentes naturales. El cultivo perpendicular mejoró en general el control de malezas y el rendimiento del maní (en dos de tres años), pero este beneficio fue independiente del control de malezas de cualquier forma de cultivo paralelo. Adicionalmente, en el cultivo perpendicular las llantas del tractor repetidamente aplastaron las plántulas de maní. El cultivo paralelo con rastrillo de picos fue generalmente más efectivo que el cultivo paralelo con cuchillas, particularmente para Digitaria ciliaris y Urochloa texana. Los herbicidas derivados de productos naturales fueron inconsistentes en el control de malezas dicotiledóneas, fueron inefectivos para el control de gramíneas anuales, y no protegieron el rendimiento del maní de la interferencia de las malezas.


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