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The present authors (Clark et al, 1971) previously attempted to detect the 1.35 cm microwave line of water in Comet Bennett (1969i) using the 26 m Maryland Point radio telescope of the Naval Research Laboratory. An upper limit for the H2O column density of 1017 molec/cm2 was obtained assuming the rotational levels were in thermal equilibrium, A more recent search in Comet Kohoutek using the 37 m radio telescope of the Haystack Observatory with a low noise traveling wave maser preamplifier was also unsuccessful. In this comet the identification of H2O+ in the visible spectrum gave strong support to the idea of water as a major parent molecule. The radio detection of HCN (Heubner et al, 1974) and CH3CH (Uhlich and Conklin, 1974) in Comet Kohoutek suggested that the attempt to detect H2O should be repeated in a suitable comet.
The NASA Crustal Dynamics Project (CDP) has been using VLBI on intercontinental baselines to measure tectonic plate motions since 1979. We report on measurements between sites on the North American plate (Haystack/Westford, MA; Owens Valley and Mojave, CA; Ft. Davis, TX and Gilmore Creek, AK), the Eurasian plate (Onsala, Sweden; Wettzell, West Germany, and Shanghai, China), the Pacific plate (Kauai, HI; Kwajalein in the Marshall Islands, and Vandenberg AFB, CA), the African plate (Hartebesthoek, RSA), and Japan (Kashima).
This study compares the earth orientation results obtained by the NASA CDP and the NGS IRIS experiments. The results agree at about one combined formal error (two milliarcseconds) after small biases (one to three milliarcseconds) have been removed from each component. Furthermore the biases are found to correspond to small rotations between the reference frames, principally the terrestrial frame, for the two sets of experiments. In the past the CDP data has not been used in combined solutions of earth orientation parameters prepared by the data centers at the U.S.N.O. and the B.I.H. The authors propose that these data should be included because they are distinct from the IRIS data and represent an important supplement to those data. We also point out that the total number of observations is about equal in the CDP and IRIS experiment sets.
A two-beam Martin-Puplett polarizing interferometer has been used in the rapid-scan mode on the 15 meter JCMT in conjunction with the facility detector, UKT14, to survey the solar sub-millimeter and millimeter spectrum in the four wavebands at 7-11, 11-15, 21-24 and 27-30 cm–1 to a spectral resolution of 0.01 cm–1 and at spatial resolutions of 19″, 16″, 7″ and 6″, respectively. Overall atmospheric transmission through these windows has been evaluated by comparison with synthetic spectra generated with FASCOD/HITRAN. A search has been made for contributions to these spectra from high-n transitions of H and heavier elements by several methods, including the comparison of solar with lunar and limb with disk center spectra.
Accumulation studies along the lowermost 100 km of Jakobshavns Isbræ show that the local net balance above the equilibrium line (1210 m elevation in 1986) is significantly less than that measured along the EGIG line about 100 km further north. This indicates the presence of a precipitation low in this region which will affect any global mass-balance assessment for the Jakobshavns Isbræ drainage basin. Comparison of the estimated calving and ablation fluxes shows that calving removes about twice as much mass from this drainage basin as does melting. Basal melting over the entire basin accounts for about 20% of the total ice loss by ablation. Temperature measurements at 12 m depth along the same section of the Isbræ show the warming effects of refreezing meltwater and cooling effects of severe crevassing. In addition, there is a significant variation in temperature across the fast-moving ice stream which is probably caused by deformation heating in the shear margins which delineate the ice stream within the ice sheet. This lateral temperature gradient could be important in ice-stream dynamics through its effects on ice rheology. Detailed measurements within the percolation fades show that surface melt can penetrate up to 3 m by piping in cold firn, and, upon refreezing, can cause significant warming at these depths.
Radio interferometric observations of extragalactic radio sources have been made with antennas at the Haystack Observatory in Massachusetts and the Owens Valley Radio Observatory in California during fourteen separate experiments distributed between September 1976 and May 1978. The components of the baseline vector and the coordinates of the sources were estimated from the data from each experiment separately. The root-weighted-mean-square scatter about the weighted mean (“repeatability”) of the estimates of the length of the 3900 km baseline was approximately 7 cm, and of the source coordinates, approximately or less, except for the declinations of low-declination sources. With the source coordinates all held fixed at the best available, a posteriori, values, and the analyses repeated for each experiment, the repeatability obtained for the estimate of baseline length was 4 cm. From analyses of the data from several experiments simultaneously, estimates were obtained of changes in the x component of pole position and in the Earth's rotation (UT1). Comparison with the corresponding results obtained by the Bureau International de l'Heure (BIH) discloses systematic differences. In particular, the trends in the radio interferometric determinations of the changes in pole position agree more closely with those from the International Polar Motion Service (IPMS) and from the Doppler observations of satellites than with those from the BIH.
The Murchison Widefield Array is a Square Kilometre Array Precursor. The telescope is located at the Murchison Radio–astronomy Observatory in Western Australia. The MWA consists of 4 096 dipoles arranged into 128 dual polarisation aperture arrays forming a connected element interferometer that cross-correlates signals from all 256 inputs. A hybrid approach to the correlation task is employed, with some processing stages being performed by bespoke hardware, based on Field Programmable Gate Arrays, and others by Graphics Processing Units housed in general purpose rack mounted servers. The correlation capability required is approximately 8 tera floating point operations per second. The MWA has commenced operations and the correlator is generating 8.3 TB day−1 of correlation products, that are subsequently transferred 700 km from the MRO to Perth (WA) in real-time for storage and offline processing. In this paper, we outline the correlator design, signal path, and processing elements and present the data format for the internal and external interfaces.
The paper is a sequel to an earlier paper by Clarke published in T.F.A. vol. 27, p. 20 and it brings up to date the results of an investigation into the mortality experienced by various classes of impaired lives.
For each impairment considered, percentages of actual to expected deaths are shown, the expected deaths being calculated from mortality rates applicable to a corresponding group of standard lives.
In a separate section of the paper, the deaths are analysed by cause with a view to establishing what causes of death are responsible for the extra mortality arising among lives suffering from specific impairments.
Antarctic and Southern Ocean science is vital to understanding natural variability, the processes that govern global change and the role of humans in the Earth and climate system. The potential for new knowledge to be gained from future Antarctic science is substantial. Therefore, the international Antarctic community came together to ‘scan the horizon’ to identify the highest priority scientific questions that researchers should aspire to answer in the next two decades and beyond. Wide consultation was a fundamental principle for the development of a collective, international view of the most important future directions in Antarctic science. From the many possibilities, the horizon scan identified 80 key scientific questions through structured debate, discussion, revision and voting. Questions were clustered into seven topics: i) Antarctic atmosphere and global connections, ii) Southern Ocean and sea ice in a warming world, iii) ice sheet and sea level, iv) the dynamic Earth, v) life on the precipice, vi) near-Earth space and beyond, and vii) human presence in Antarctica. Answering the questions identified by the horizon scan will require innovative experimental designs, novel applications of technology, invention of next-generation field and laboratory approaches, and expanded observing systems and networks. Unbiased, non-contaminating procedures will be required to retrieve the requisite air, biota, sediment, rock, ice and water samples. Sustained year-round access to Antarctica and the Southern Ocean will be essential to increase winter-time measurements. Improved models are needed that represent Antarctica and the Southern Ocean in the Earth System, and provide predictions at spatial and temporal resolutions useful for decision making. A co-ordinated portfolio of cross-disciplinary science, based on new models of international collaboration, will be essential as no scientist, programme or nation can realize these aspirations alone.
We are conducting a large survey of distant clusters of galaxies using radio sources with bent jets and lobes as tracers. These radio sources are driven by AGN and achieve their bent morphologies through interaction with the surrounding gas found in clusters of galaxies. Based on low-redshift studies, these types of sources can be used to identify clusters very efficiently. We present initial results from our survey of 653 bent-double radio sources with optical hosts too faint to appear in the SDSS. The sample was observed in the infrared with Spitzer, and it has revealed ~200 distant clusters or proto-clusters in the redshift range z ~ 0.7 - 3.0. The sample of bent-doubles contains both quasars and radio galaxies enabling us to study both radiative and kinetic mode feedback in cluster and group environments at a wide range of redshifts.