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Gowan Company recently registered benzobicyclon, a WSSA Group 27 herbicide, as a postflood option in rice. It is the first 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase-inhibiting herbicide commercially available in mid-southern U.S. rice production. In 2018 and 2019, field experiments were conducted across multiple sites in Arkansas to determine if the addition of benzobicyclon to quizalofop- or imidazolinone-resistant rice herbicide programs would improve weedy rice control. Across site-years, one application of quizalofop, either at the 1- or 3-leaf rice stage, followed by benzobicyclon applied postflood, provided comparable weedy rice control to two sequential applications of quizalofop, which is a standard herbicide program in quizalofop-resistant rice. Additionally, treatments containing quizalofop or quizalofop followed by benzobicyclon injured rice ≤5% at 28 d after the postflood application. Across site-years, at 28 d after the postflood application of benzobicyclon, all treatments containing a full-season herbicide program followed by benzobicyclon postflood provided comparable or improved weedy rice control when compared to two sequential early postemergence applications of imazethapyr. In both experiments, rice treated with benzobicyclon yielded comparably or better than treatments containing the standard herbicide program for each system. Findings from this research suggest that the use of benzobicyclon in quizalofop- and imidazolinone-resistant rice systems could be an additional and viable weedy rice control option for rice producers.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Studies have shown that SARS-CoV-2 specific memory B cells can be maintained at least a year after exposure. However, reports show an altered B cell response during infection in severe COVID-19 cases. This study aims to describe the B cell response during COVID-19 convalescence with a focus on signatures that contribute to durable and robust immunity. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Our study cohort consisted of individuals who had recovered from non-severe (hospitalized) or severe (hospitalized and requiring invasive mechanical ventilation) COVID-19. In our comparative analysis, samples from both groups were carefully matched to fall within 4-5 weeks post-symptom onset. We also performed a longitudinal analysis of non-severe patients with sampling ending 5 months post-symptom onset. Using high parameter flow cytometry, we characterized the phenotype of memory B cells using 19 distinct cell markers and fluorescently labeled probes to identify B cells reactive with SARS-CoV-2 spike and receptor-binding domain protein. Additionally, serum collected from individuals was used to quantify antibody titers. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The frequency of spike-specific B cells and serum antibody titers were similar between severe and non-severe groups. However, we observed that individuals recovered from severe COVID-19 have a significantly reduced frequency of spike specific IgG+ memory B cells expressing Tbet and FcRL5 (markers associated with long lived immunity). In the non-severe patients, we observed IgG+Tbet+ B cells targeting the spike protein peak at 2-3 weeks post-symptom onset, decrease by almost fifty percent 4-5 weeks post-symptom onset, and return to baseline 5 months post-symptom onset. Our study also validated previous findings of a short-lived primary response of IgM+ B cells targeting the spike protein. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings highlight potential implications for long-term immunity against re-infection or severity of the resulting disease in patients with severe COVID-19. Further investigation will be necessary to determine whether the maintenance of immunological protection is hindered in patients who overcame severe COVID-19.
While evidence-based psychotherapy (EBP) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a first-line treatment, its real-world effectiveness is unknown. We compared cognitive processing therapy (CPT) and prolonged exposure (PE) each to an individual psychotherapy comparator group, and CPT to PE in a large national healthcare system.
We utilized effectiveness and comparative effectiveness emulated trials using retrospective cohort data from electronic medical records. Participants were veterans with PTSD initiating mental healthcare (N = 265 566). The primary outcome was PTSD symptoms measured by the PTSD Checklist (PCL) at baseline and 24-week follow-up. Emulated trials were comprised of ‘person-trials,’ representing 112 discrete 24-week periods of care (10/07–6/17) for each patient. Treatment group comparisons were made with generalized linear models, utilizing propensity score matching and inverse probability weights to account for confounding, selection, and non-adherence bias.
There were 636 CPT person-trials matched to 636 non-EBP person-trials. Completing ⩾8 CPT sessions was associated with a 6.4-point greater improvement on the PCL (95% CI 3.1–10.0). There were 272 PE person-trials matched to 272 non-EBP person-trials. Completing ⩾8 PE sessions was associated with a 9.7-point greater improvement on the PCL (95% CI 5.4–13.8). There were 232 PE person-trials matched to 232 CPT person-trials. Those completing ⩾8 PE sessions had slightly greater, but not statistically significant, improvement on the PCL (8.3-points; 95% CI 5.9–10.6) than those completing ⩾8 CPT sessions (7.0-points; 95% CI 5.5–8.5).
PTSD symptom improvement was similar and modest for both EBPs. Although EBPs are helpful, research to further improve PTSD care is critical.
− The role of the state as an agent of earth system governance has become more complex, contingent, and interdependent. − Although participatory and collaborative processes have contributed to more effective, equitable, and legitimate environmental governance outcomes in some instances, analyses of these processes should be situated within a broader governance perspective, which recasts questions of policy change around questions of power and justice. −The complexity and normative aspects of agency in earth system governance requires new forms of policy evaluation that account for social impacts and the ability of governance systems to adapt. − Many of the core analytical concepts in ESG–Agency scholarship, such as agency, power, authority, and accountability, remain under-theorized. In addition, some types of actors, including women, labor, non-human agents, those who work against earth system governance, and many voices from the Global South, remain largely hidden. − ESG–Agency scholars need to develop research projects and collaborations in understudied regions while also recruiting and supporting scholars in those regions to engage with this research agenda.
Chlorimuron applied postemergence at 2.2, 4.4, 8.8, 18, and 35 g ai/ha to cotton at either the 4-leaf, pinhead-square, first-bloom, or full-bloom growth stage was evaluated for potential as a plant growth regulator. Chlorimuron did not reduce bolls per plant at any rate or time of application, but the proportion of open to closed bolls decreased as rate increased. Seed cotton yields decreased with increasing chlorimuron rate and cotton age. The use of chlorimuron as a plant growth regulator for cotton appears limited.
This chapter focuses on the use of drugs that treat systemic mycoses (Table 207.1). Treatment of cutaneous fungal infections is discussed in Chapter 26, Superficial fungal diseases of the hair, skin, and nails.
Amphotericin B is a polyene antifungal synthesized by Streptomyces nodosus. Its chemical structure confers it with amphoteric properties that are essential for the drug’s ability to form channels through the cytoplasmatic membrane. The pores formed from preferential binding of amphotericin B to ergosterol, the primary fungal cell sterol, result in an increase in membrane permeability, leading to a loss of essential elements such as potassium and other molecules that impairs fungal viability. Amphotericin B binds with less affinity to cholesterol, the primary cell sterol of mammalian cells, which are therefore less affected by amphotericin B than is the fungal target.
Amphotericin B is commercially available as a complex with sodium deoxycholate: commercial vials contain amphotericin B, 50 mg, sodium deoxycholate, 41 mg, and a sodium phosphate buffer, 25.2 mg. The clinical pharmacology of amphotericin B is characterized by extensive binding to plasma proteins (>95%) and wide distribution to the peripheral compartment with preferential accumulation in liver and spleen, with lesser amounts in kidney and lung. Intravenous administration of therapeutic doses results in peak plasma levels of 1.0 to 1.5 μg/mL falling to 0.5 to 1.0 μg/mL 24 hours later. At therapeutic doses, less than 5% of the drug is excreted in the urine. The elimination of amphotericin B is not altered in patients with renal or liver dysfunction and does not require dose adjustment in patients who are anephric or undergoing hemodialysis.
The emergence and persistence of conduct problems (CPs) during early childhood is a robust predictor of behavior problems in school and of future maladaptation. In this study we examined the reciprocal influences between observed coercive interactions between children and caregivers, oppositional and aggressive behavior, and growth in parent report of early childhood (ages 2–5) and school-age CPs (ages 7.5 and 8.5). Participants were drawn from the Early Steps multisite randomized prevention trial that includes an ethnically diverse sample of male and female children and their families (N = 731). A parallel-process growth model combining latent trajectory and cross-lagged approaches revealed the amplifying effect of observed coercive caregiver–child interactions on children's noncompliance, whereas child oppositional and aggressive behaviors did not consistently predict increased coercion. The slope and initial levels of child oppositional and aggressive behaviors and the stability of caregiver–child coercion were predictive of teacher-reported oppositional behavior at school age. Families assigned to the Family Check-Up condition had significantly steeper declines in child oppositional and aggressive behavior and moderate reductions in oppositional behavior in school and in coercion at age 3. Results were not moderated by child gender, race/ethnicity, or assignment to the intervention condition. The implications of these findings are discussed with respect to understanding the early development of CPs and to designing optimal strategies for reducing problem behavior in early childhood with families most in need.
Although neurocognition is commonly described in terms of different functional domains, some factor analytic studies have suggested a simpler dimensional structure for neuropsychological (NP) tests in patients with schizophrenia. Standardized tasks of everyday functioning, or tests of “functional capacity” (FC), are viewed differently from traditional NP tests, and are hence used as a co-primary measure in treatment studies. However, FC and NP tests have been found to be highly correlated. In fact, a recent study of ours suggested that performances on these different types of tasks constituted a single latent trait in a cross-sectional analysis. The current study examined the longitudinal factor structure of a combined set of NP and FC tests. Patients with schizophrenia (n = 195) were examined at two assessment occasions separated by periods ranging from 6 weeks to 6 months. Participants were assessed with the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) and two performance-based assessments of FC. A single latent trait was extracted using full information maximum likelihood procedures, and its temporal stability was examined in terms of: stability of the latent trait scores, the inter-correlations of the three indicators of the latent trait, and the stability of loadings for the FC and NP items underlying the latent trait at the two measurement occasions. All indices of temporal stability were confirmed, with stability not related to follow-up duration. Variation in clinical symptoms and treatments across the measurement occasions was negligible. These findings raise the question of whether cognitive abilities measured by NP tests and FC instruments are tapping a single ability construct, which might have shared causal influences as well. (JINS, 2013, 19, 1–8)
Schizophrenia has a profound effect on reducing the capacity of individuals to sustain productive employment. Impaired work functioning has implications for both the overall quality of life for people with the disorder, and for the costs to their families and society. Work for people with schizophrenia is associated with a range of benefits, including social contact and a better quality of life. Poor vocational functioning in schizophrenia is the result of a host of different factors related to the illness. Two of the most important of these factors are poor premorbid adjustment and curtailed level of educational attainment. The psychotic and negative symptoms of schizophrenia can interfere with the ability to work. Cognitive impairments frequently precede the onset of schizophrenia, and worsen during the prodrome. The Individual Placement and Support (IPS) model of supported employment was developed and standardized to improve competitive work in people with serious mental illness.
Background: Postpericardiotomy syndrome has been considered a disorder induced by viral infection. This conclusion is based on serologic criterions, but these may be unreliable following either cardiopulmonary bypass or transfusion therapy. Previous studies have not verified the proposed etiology either by isolation of viruses, or by detection of their genome. We sought, therefore, to clarify the role, if any, of viruses in this syndrome. Methods and Results: We studied prospectively 149 children aged from 6 months to 16 years who were undergoing open heart surgery. Blood samples were collected from all prior to operation, and again 7 to 10 days post-operatively, and 47 were sampled at the time of development of symptoms of pericardial involvement. Serums were analyzed for the presence of IgM and IgG antibodies to cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, and Epstein-Barr virus. The polymerase chain reaction was used for amplification when assessing the genome of the enteroviruses. Cultures for viruses were established on samples of stool, urine, and throat swabs collected 7 days post-operatively, and at the time of postpericardial symptoms. Pericardial fluid obtained from 5 patients with the syndrome was cultured for viruses, and tested for enterovirus genome. On the basis of clinical and echocardiographic findings, 34 children were determined to have definite evidence of the syndrome, 13 were considered to have possible evidence, and the results from these patients were compared to those from patients with no pericardial symptoms, the latter being matched for age and transfusion status. We isolated viruses from one or more sites in five patients with definite evidence (16%), from one (9%) of those with possible evidence, and from seven (19%) of the controls. All serums and pericardial samples were negative for enterovirus genome. IgM antibodies were found in only 5 patients, three with symptoms of pericardial involvement and two without. Rates of seroconversion to IgG for the viruses were lower in the patients with symptoms of pericardial involvement compared to controls, but were strongly influenced by transfusion status. Conclusion: Our study has provided no evidence to support a viral etiology for the postpericardiotomy syndrome.
This chapter focuses on the use of drugs that treat systemic mycoses (Table 204.1). Treatment of cutaneous fungal infections is discussed in Chapter 25, Superficial Fungal Infection of the Hair, Skin, and Nails.
Amphotericin B is a polyene antifungal synthesized by Streptomyces nodosus. Its chemical structure confers it with amphoteric properties that are essential for the drug's ability to form channels through the cytoplasmatic membrane. The pores formed from preferential binding of amphotericin B to ergosterol, the primary fungal cell sterol, result in an increase in membrane permeability, leading to a loss of essential elements such as potassium and other molecules that impairs fungal viability. Amphotericin B binds with less affinity to cholesterol, the primary cell sterol of mammalian cells, which are therefore less affected by amphotericin B than is the fungal target.
Amphotericin B is commercially available as a complex with sodium deoxycholate: commercial vials contain amphotericin B, 50 mg, sodium deoxycholate, 41 mg, and a sodium phosphate buffer, 25.2 mg. The clinical pharmacology of amphotericin B is characterized by extensive binding to plasma proteins (>90%) and wide distribution to the peripheral compartment with preferential accumulation in liver and spleen, with lesser amounts in kidney and lung. Intravenous administration of therapeutic doses results in peak plasma levels of 1.0 to 1.5 μg mL falling to 0.5 to 1.0 μg mL 24 hours later. At therapeutic doses, less than 5% of the drug each dose is excreted in the urine.