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− The role of the state as an agent of earth system governance has become more complex, contingent, and interdependent. − Although participatory and collaborative processes have contributed to more effective, equitable, and legitimate environmental governance outcomes in some instances, analyses of these processes should be situated within a broader governance perspective, which recasts questions of policy change around questions of power and justice. −The complexity and normative aspects of agency in earth system governance requires new forms of policy evaluation that account for social impacts and the ability of governance systems to adapt. − Many of the core analytical concepts in ESG–Agency scholarship, such as agency, power, authority, and accountability, remain under-theorized. In addition, some types of actors, including women, labor, non-human agents, those who work against earth system governance, and many voices from the Global South, remain largely hidden. − ESG–Agency scholars need to develop research projects and collaborations in understudied regions while also recruiting and supporting scholars in those regions to engage with this research agenda.
This chapter focuses on the use of drugs that treat systemic mycoses (Table 207.1). Treatment of cutaneous fungal infections is discussed in Chapter 26, Superficial fungal diseases of the hair, skin, and nails.
Amphotericin B is a polyene antifungal synthesized by Streptomyces nodosus. Its chemical structure confers it with amphoteric properties that are essential for the drug’s ability to form channels through the cytoplasmatic membrane. The pores formed from preferential binding of amphotericin B to ergosterol, the primary fungal cell sterol, result in an increase in membrane permeability, leading to a loss of essential elements such as potassium and other molecules that impairs fungal viability. Amphotericin B binds with less affinity to cholesterol, the primary cell sterol of mammalian cells, which are therefore less affected by amphotericin B than is the fungal target.
Amphotericin B is commercially available as a complex with sodium deoxycholate: commercial vials contain amphotericin B, 50 mg, sodium deoxycholate, 41 mg, and a sodium phosphate buffer, 25.2 mg. The clinical pharmacology of amphotericin B is characterized by extensive binding to plasma proteins (>95%) and wide distribution to the peripheral compartment with preferential accumulation in liver and spleen, with lesser amounts in kidney and lung. Intravenous administration of therapeutic doses results in peak plasma levels of 1.0 to 1.5 μg/mL falling to 0.5 to 1.0 μg/mL 24 hours later. At therapeutic doses, less than 5% of the drug is excreted in the urine. The elimination of amphotericin B is not altered in patients with renal or liver dysfunction and does not require dose adjustment in patients who are anephric or undergoing hemodialysis.
The emergence and persistence of conduct problems (CPs) during early childhood is a robust predictor of behavior problems in school and of future maladaptation. In this study we examined the reciprocal influences between observed coercive interactions between children and caregivers, oppositional and aggressive behavior, and growth in parent report of early childhood (ages 2–5) and school-age CPs (ages 7.5 and 8.5). Participants were drawn from the Early Steps multisite randomized prevention trial that includes an ethnically diverse sample of male and female children and their families (N = 731). A parallel-process growth model combining latent trajectory and cross-lagged approaches revealed the amplifying effect of observed coercive caregiver–child interactions on children's noncompliance, whereas child oppositional and aggressive behaviors did not consistently predict increased coercion. The slope and initial levels of child oppositional and aggressive behaviors and the stability of caregiver–child coercion were predictive of teacher-reported oppositional behavior at school age. Families assigned to the Family Check-Up condition had significantly steeper declines in child oppositional and aggressive behavior and moderate reductions in oppositional behavior in school and in coercion at age 3. Results were not moderated by child gender, race/ethnicity, or assignment to the intervention condition. The implications of these findings are discussed with respect to understanding the early development of CPs and to designing optimal strategies for reducing problem behavior in early childhood with families most in need.
Although neurocognition is commonly described in terms of different functional domains, some factor analytic studies have suggested a simpler dimensional structure for neuropsychological (NP) tests in patients with schizophrenia. Standardized tasks of everyday functioning, or tests of “functional capacity” (FC), are viewed differently from traditional NP tests, and are hence used as a co-primary measure in treatment studies. However, FC and NP tests have been found to be highly correlated. In fact, a recent study of ours suggested that performances on these different types of tasks constituted a single latent trait in a cross-sectional analysis. The current study examined the longitudinal factor structure of a combined set of NP and FC tests. Patients with schizophrenia (n = 195) were examined at two assessment occasions separated by periods ranging from 6 weeks to 6 months. Participants were assessed with the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) and two performance-based assessments of FC. A single latent trait was extracted using full information maximum likelihood procedures, and its temporal stability was examined in terms of: stability of the latent trait scores, the inter-correlations of the three indicators of the latent trait, and the stability of loadings for the FC and NP items underlying the latent trait at the two measurement occasions. All indices of temporal stability were confirmed, with stability not related to follow-up duration. Variation in clinical symptoms and treatments across the measurement occasions was negligible. These findings raise the question of whether cognitive abilities measured by NP tests and FC instruments are tapping a single ability construct, which might have shared causal influences as well. (JINS, 2013, 19, 1–8)
Schizophrenia has a profound effect on reducing the capacity of individuals to sustain productive employment. Impaired work functioning has implications for both the overall quality of life for people with the disorder, and for the costs to their families and society. Work for people with schizophrenia is associated with a range of benefits, including social contact and a better quality of life. Poor vocational functioning in schizophrenia is the result of a host of different factors related to the illness. Two of the most important of these factors are poor premorbid adjustment and curtailed level of educational attainment. The psychotic and negative symptoms of schizophrenia can interfere with the ability to work. Cognitive impairments frequently precede the onset of schizophrenia, and worsen during the prodrome. The Individual Placement and Support (IPS) model of supported employment was developed and standardized to improve competitive work in people with serious mental illness.
Applications of nanoscience in the non-traditional classroom have successfully exposed students to various methods of research with applications to micro- and nano-electronics. Activities obtained from the NanoSense website associated with current global energy and water concerns are solid examples. In this regard, all 36 students in the 2008-2009 Science Research Program (SRP) prepared and delivered individual and group lesson plans in addition to their authentic, year-long research projects. Two out of 36 students selected nanoscience based projects in preparation for science fair competition in 2009. Additionally, preliminary research was conducted while participating in the Center for Research on Interface Structures and Phenomena (CRISP) Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Program in summer 2008 which supported the idea of developing a photolithography kit. This kit is intended to introduce high school students to the fundamentals of photolithography. In this paper, the design, implementation and feasibility of this kit in the high school classroom is described as well as details involving individual and group nanoscience based projects. Supporting educational models include self-regulated learning (SRL) concepts; situated cognition; social constructivism; Renzulli's (1977) enrichment triad and Types I – III inquiry enrichment activities.
This chapter focuses on the use of drugs that treat systemic mycoses (Table 204.1). Treatment of cutaneous fungal infections is discussed in Chapter 25, Superficial Fungal Infection of the Hair, Skin, and Nails.
Amphotericin B is a polyene antifungal synthesized by Streptomyces nodosus. Its chemical structure confers it with amphoteric properties that are essential for the drug's ability to form channels through the cytoplasmatic membrane. The pores formed from preferential binding of amphotericin B to ergosterol, the primary fungal cell sterol, result in an increase in membrane permeability, leading to a loss of essential elements such as potassium and other molecules that impairs fungal viability. Amphotericin B binds with less affinity to cholesterol, the primary cell sterol of mammalian cells, which are therefore less affected by amphotericin B than is the fungal target.
Amphotericin B is commercially available as a complex with sodium deoxycholate: commercial vials contain amphotericin B, 50 mg, sodium deoxycholate, 41 mg, and a sodium phosphate buffer, 25.2 mg. The clinical pharmacology of amphotericin B is characterized by extensive binding to plasma proteins (>90%) and wide distribution to the peripheral compartment with preferential accumulation in liver and spleen, with lesser amounts in kidney and lung. Intravenous administration of therapeutic doses results in peak plasma levels of 1.0 to 1.5 μg mL falling to 0.5 to 1.0 μg mL 24 hours later. At therapeutic doses, less than 5% of the drug each dose is excreted in the urine.
There is increasing interest in the proposition that residential environment can affect mental health.
To study the degree to which common mental disorder clusters according to postcode units and households. To investigate whether contextual measures of residential environment quality and geographical accessibility are associated with symptoms of common mental disorder.
A total of 1058 individuals aged 16–75 years (response rate 66%) participated in a cross-sectional survey The 12-item General Health Questionnaire measured symptoms of common mental disorder.
Only 2% (95% CI 0–6) of the unexplained variation in symptoms existed at postcode unit level, whereas 37% (95% CI 27–49) existed at household-level, but the postcode unit variation was reduced to zero after adjustments. There was little evidence to suggest that residential quality or accessibility were associated with symptoms.
There was substantial unexplained variation at the household level but we could find no evidence of postcode unit variation and no association with residential environmental quality or geographical accessibility. It is likely that the psychosocial environment is more important than the physical environment in relation to common mental disorder.
Background: A growing body of literature suggests that caregiving burden is associated with impaired immune system functioning, which may contribute to elevated morbidity and mortality risk among dementia caregivers. However, potential mechanisms linking these relationships are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether stress-related experience of depressive symptoms and reductions in personal mastery were related to alterations in ß2-adrenergic receptor sensitivity.
Methods: Spousal Alzheimer's caregivers (N = 106) completed measures assessing the extent to which they felt overloaded by their caregiving responsibilities, experienced depressive symptoms, and believed their life circumstances were under their control. We hypothesized that caregivers reporting elevated stress would report increased depressive symptoms and reduced mastery, which in turn would be associated with reduced ß2- adrenergic receptor sensitivity on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), as assessed by in vitro isoproterenol stimulation.
Results: Regression analyses indicated that overload was negatively associated with mastery (β = −0.36, p = 0.001) and receptor sensitivity (β = −0.24, p = 0.030), whereas mastery was positively associated with receptor sensitivity (β = 0.29, p = 0.005). Finally, the relationship between overload and receptor sensitivity diminshed upon simultaneous entry of mastery. Sobel's test confirmed that mastery significantly mediated some of the relationship between overload and receptor sensitivity (z = −2.02, p = 0.044).
Conclusions: These results suggest that a reduced sense of mastery may help explain the association between caregiving burden and reduced immune cell ß2-receptor sensitivity.
Wolfgang Donsbach, Professor of Communication and founding director of the Department of Communication, University of Dresden, Germany,
Thomas E. Patterson, Professor of Government and the Press in the John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University
Most empirical studies of journalists' thinking and decision-making processes have been conducted as case studies of individual countries. They suffer from a considerable shortcoming insofar as they lack a larger context for assessing the validity of their findings. However, the question of how significant these findings are can be answered by use of comparative analyses, which include a range of different countries. The relevance of international comparative studies is demonstrated, for instance, when we examine the influence that journalists' political beliefs exert on their professional actions. To be sure, case studies of a particular national context can provide a basis for describing the beliefs of journalists in the respective country and the impact of these beliefs on the daily work in newsrooms. Yet, such case studies give no clue as to how much their findings have been influenced by characteristics of the respective media and political systems. The national context must therefore be eliminated if we want to get a clear picture of the connection between the political views of journalists and their professional decisions. This can be achieved by conducting a systematic comparison of various countries with differing media systems and political situations. Apart from its cross-national perspective, this approach also provides a formidable basis for categorizing the state of each country on an international scale.
Journalists in Western democratic societies operate under similar legal, political, economic, and cultural conditions. They enjoy formidable legal protections, have considerable access to those in power, and are backed by substantial news organizations.
The food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) can be an efficient tool to evaluate dietary intake in large, population-based studies, especially for specific foods. The objective of this study was to validate the assessment of soy and isoflavone (daidzein and genistein) intakes, measured by an FFQ, by comparing intakes with serum isoflavone concentrations.
Design and setting:
Soy and isoflavone intakes and serum isoflavone concentrations were determined as part of a case–control study of dietary factors and risks of benign breast disease and breast cancer. The FFQ, administered during an in-person interview, included six soy-specific line items. Blood was drawn within one week of FFQ completion.
In total, 1823 women living in Shanghai, People's Republic of China.
In this population, soybean milk, fresh bean curd and other bean foods were eaten once per week, and fermented bean curd, fried bean curd puff and soybeans were eaten less than once per week. A significant linear trend (P > 0.01) in serum isoflavone concentrations across increasing categories of soy and isoflavone intakes was observed, indicating that soy and isoflavone intakes, measured by the FFQ, well distinguished serum isoflavone concentrations. Linear trends were also observed in both case and control groups in stratified analyses, suggesting little differential bias by case–control status.
The results suggest that the FFQ provides a useful marker of soy food consumption and isoflavone exposure in this population.