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The right to bodily integrity (RBI) may seem inapt for inclusion in this volume, which is supposed to address new human rights, for as A. M. Viens notes, the RBI is a long-standing fixture in the philosophical and legal discussion of rights. However, Viens does, I think, make a good case for the right’s inclusion here. Not only does he note the increasing recognition of a new right to genital integrity derived from the more general RBI, he also argues for a new conceptualisation of the RBI itself: he argues that we ought to decompose the RBI into several constituent rights, delineated according to the different values from which they derive – rights to bodily autonomy, bodily dignity, bodily ownership, well-being, and so on.
Taking advantage of recent advances in parallel computing, we studied compositional disorder along metal–oxygen atomic columns in a complex Mo,V-oxide bronze using multislice frozen-phonon calculations. Commonly, the virtual crystal approximation (VCA) is used to model compositional disorder at crystallographic sites in a unit cell for a number of different theoretical and experimental techniques. In the VCA, a weighted linear sum of atomic properties is used to approximate the model structure. When using the VCA, the extracted V content of Mo,V–O columns from experimental high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) images will be about half the V content estimated from simulations, considering the distinct cation ordering. This discrepancy is larger than the spread of HAADF signals of different configurational orders at a given V concentration, which can be up to 20%. Certain “isophilic” atomic arrangements along the column can be distinguished from more random ones using HAADF-STEM imaging. The trends and ratios of the simulated intensity spreads due to different compositional ordering along 11 M–O columns along the c-axis of the Mo,V oxide bronze qualitatively match those observed in experimental HAADF-STEM data. Instrumental and sample-based noise adds to the variability but does not significantly distort the relative ratios of column intensity variation. We observed that we only required seven random configurations to represent the intensity variations along columns.
Analysis of human remains and a copper band found in the center of a Late Archaic (ca. 5000–3000 cal BP) shell ring demonstrate an exchange network between the Great Lakes and the coastal southeast United States. Similarities in mortuary practices suggest that the movement of objects between these two regions was more direct and unmediated than archaeologists previously assumed based on “down-the-line” models of exchange. These findings challenge prevalent notions that view preagricultural Native American communities as relatively isolated from one another and suggest instead that wide social networks spanned much of North America thousands of years before the advent of domestication.
The mixing of a reactive scalar by a fluid flow can have a significant impact on reaction dynamics and the growth of reacted regions. However, experimental studies of the fluid mechanics of reactive mixing present significant challenges and puzzling results. The observed speed at which reacted regions expand can be separated into a contribution from the underlying flow and a contribution from reaction–diffusion dynamics, which we call the chemical front speed. In prior work (Nevins & Kelley, Chaos, vol. 28 (4), 2018, 043122), we were surprised to observe that the chemical front speed increased where the underlying flow in a thin layer was faster. In this paper, we show that the increase is physical and is caused by smearing of reaction fronts by vertical shear. We show that the increase occurs not only in thin-layer flows with a free surface, but also in Hele-Shaw systems. We draw these conclusions from a series of simulations in which reaction fronts are located according to depth-averaged concentration, as is common in laboratory experiments. Where the front profile is deformed by shear, the apparent front speed changes as well. We compare the simulations to new experimental results and find close quantitative agreement. We also show that changes to the apparent front speed are reduced approximately 80 % by adding a lubrication layer.
Objectives: Although subjective cognitive complaints (SCC) are an integral component of the diagnostic criteria for mild cognitive impairment (MCI), previous findings indicate they may not accurately reflect cognitive ability. Within the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, we investigated longitudinal change in the discrepancy between self- and informant-reported SCC across empirically derived subtypes of MCI and normal control (NC) participants. Methods: Data were obtained for 353 MCI participants and 122 “robust” NC participants. Participants were classified into three subtypes at baseline via cluster analysis: amnestic MCI, mixed MCI, and cluster-derived normal (CDN), a presumptive false-positive group who performed within normal limits on neuropsychological testing. SCC at baseline and two annual follow-up visits were assessed via the Everyday Cognition Questionnaire (ECog), and discrepancy scores between self- and informant-report were calculated. Analysis of change was conducted using analysis of covariance. Results: The amnestic and mixed MCI subtypes demonstrated increasing ECog discrepancy scores over time. This was driven by an increase in informant-reported SCC, which corresponded to participants’ objective cognitive decline, despite stable self-reported SCC. Increasing unawareness was associated with cerebrospinal fluid Alzheimer’s disease biomarker positivity and progression to Alzheimer’s disease. In contrast, CDN and NC groups over-reported cognitive difficulty and demonstrated normal cognition at all time points. Conclusions: MCI participants’ discrepancy scores indicate progressive underappreciation of their evolving cognitive deficits. Consistent over-reporting in the CDN and NC groups despite normal objective cognition suggests that self-reported SCC do not predict impending cognitive decline. Results demonstrate that self-reported SCC become increasingly misleading as objective cognitive impairment becomes more pronounced. (JINS, 2018, 24, 842–853)
Eta Carinae is the most massive active binary within 10,000 light-years. While famous for the largest non-terminal stellar explosion ever recorded, observations reveal a supermassive (∼120 M⊙) binary consisting of an LBV and either a WR or extreme O star in a very eccentric orbit (e=0.9) with a 5.54-year period. Dramatic changes across multiple wavelengths are routinely observed as the stars move about in their highly elliptical orbits, especially around periastron when the hot (∼40 kK) companion star delves deep into the denser and much cooler (∼15 kK) extended wind photosphere of the LBV primary. Many of these changes are due to a dynamic wind-wind collision region (WWCR) that forms between the stars, plus expanding radiation-illuminated fossil WWCRs formed one, two, and three 5.54-year orbital cycles ago. These fossil WWCRs have been spatially and spectrally resolved by the Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (HST/STIS) at multiple epochs, resulting in data cubes that spatially map Eta Carinae’s innermost WWCRs and follow temporal changes in several forbidden emission lines (e.g. [Fe iii] 4659 Å, [Fe ii] 4815 Å) across the 5.54-year cycle. We present initial results of 3D time-dependent hydrodynamical and radiative-transfer simulations of the Eta Carinae binary and its WWCRs with the goal of producing synthetic data cubes of forbidden emission lines for comparison to the available HST/STIS observations. Comparison of the theoretical models to the observations reveals important details about the binary’s orbital motion, photoionization properties, and recent (5–15year) mass loss history. Such an analysis also provides a baseline for following future changes in Eta Carinae, essential for understanding the late-stage evolution of a nearby supernova progenitor. Our modeling methods can also be adapted to a number of other colliding wind binary systems (e.g. WR 140) that are scheduled to be studied with future observatories (e.g. the James Webb Space Telescope).
Rapidly rotating B-type stars with gaseous mass-loss disks in Keplerian rotation are common central objects in X-Ray binaries. These disks are physically well understood in the framework of the viscous decretion disk, and their typical parameters have been established for a large number of single Be stars in the recent years. According to the current observational evidence, the Be stars and disks found in BeXRBs are well within the boundaries known from single Be stars, i.e., they are normal Be stars. New results have also been obtained on the orbital disk truncation and other tidal effects of the companion objects on the disk.
Knowledge of the effects of burial depth and burial duration on seed viability and, consequently, seedbank persistence of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) and waterhemp [Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq.) J. D. Sauer] ecotypes can be used for the development of efficient weed management programs. This is of particular interest, given the great fecundity of both species and, consequently, their high seedbank replenishment potential. Seeds of both species collected from five different locations across the United States were investigated in seven states (sites) with different soil and climatic conditions. Seeds were placed at two depths (0 and 15 cm) for 3 yr. Each year, seeds were retrieved, and seed damage (shrunken, malformed, or broken) plus losses (deteriorated and futile germination) and viability were evaluated. Greater seed damage plus loss averaged across seed origin, burial depth, and year was recorded for lots tested at Illinois (51.3% and 51.8%) followed by Tennessee (40.5% and 45.1%) and Missouri (39.2% and 42%) for A. palmeri and A. tuberculatus, respectively. The site differences for seed persistence were probably due to higher volumetric water content at these sites. Rates of seed demise were directly proportional to burial depth (α=0.001), whereas the percentage of viable seeds recovered after 36 mo on the soil surface ranged from 4.1% to 4.3% compared with 5% to 5.3% at the 15-cm depth for A. palmeri and A. tuberculatus, respectively. Seed viability loss was greater in the seeds placed on the soil surface compared with the buried seeds. The greatest influences on seed viability were burial conditions and time and site-specific soil conditions, more so than geographical location. Thus, management of these weed species should focus on reducing seed shattering, enhancing seed removal from the soil surface, or adjusting tillage systems.
The Certificate Program in Translational Research (CPTR) at the Georgia Clinical and Translational Science Alliance provides Ph.D. students, postdoctoral fellows and faculty with didactic, mentored, and experiential training in clinical and translational research.
Quantitative evaluation includes tracking trainee competency, publications, grants and careers in clinical and translational research. Qualitative evaluation includes interviews with trainees about program experiences.
The CPTR provided knowledge and skills in clinical and translational research through coursework, clinical rotations, and collaboration with interdisciplinary scientists. Trainees reported increased confidence in 22 program competencies. Trainees have published more than 290 peer-reviewed articles and received over $4 million in grants from the NIH, over $15 million from the U.S. Department of Defense, and more than $300,000 from foundations. Trainees who completed the program remained in clinical and translational research.
Programs like the CPTR are needed to train investigators to advance biomedical discoveries into population health.
We evaluate the variability in basal friction for Kronebreen, Svalbard, a fast-flowing tidewater glacier. We invert 3 years (2013–15) of surface velocities at high temporal resolution (generally 11 days), to estimate the changing basal properties of the glacier. Our results suggest that sliding behaviour of Kronebreen within a year is primarily influenced by changes in water input patterns during the meltwater season and basal friction is highly variable from a year to another. At present, models usually employ parameterisations to encompass the complex physics of glacier sliding by mathematically simulate their net effect. For such ice masses with strong seasonal variations of surface melt, the spatio-temporal patterns of basal friction imply that it is neither possible nor appropriate to use a parameterisation for bed friction that is fixed in space and/or time, at least in a timescale of a few years. Basal sliding may not only be governed by local processes such as basal topography or summer melt, but also be mediated by factors that vary over a larger distance and over a longer time period such as subglacial hydrology organisation, ice-thickness changes or calving front geometry.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Precise biomarkers are urgently needed to characterize the tumor immune microenvironment in primary melanoma tumors both for prognostication and to predict the benefit of immuno-therapeutic intervention. The goal of this work is to define spatial relationships between CD8+ T cells, CD68+ macrophages and Sox10+ melanoma cells in order to define features correlating with prolonged survival METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Five micrometer slides from either the primary biopsy or subsequent wide local excision procedure were stained using Opal multiplex IHC for DAPI, CD3 (LN10, Leica), CD8 (4B11, Leica), CD68 (KP1, Biogenex), SOX10 (BC34, Biocare), HLA-DR (LN-3, Abcam), and Ki67 (MIB1, Abcam). Cell phenotypes within representative fields preselected by a trained dermato-pathologist and were visualized using the Mantra quantitative pathology workstation (PerkinElmer), and analysis of spatial distribution of CD3+ CD8+ cells analyzed using inForm® image analysis software (PerkinElmer), and Spotfire software (TIBCO). In order to test whether mIHC can better characterize the tumor immune microenvironment, we screened databases at the Herbert Irving Cancer Center (HICC) at Columbia University for stage II/III melanoma patients diagnosed between 2000 and 2012, with available FFPE of primary melanoma tissue and documented clinical follow-up. We identified a preliminary population of 57 patients to begin our analysis. Clinical follow-up was available on 35 patients of whom 21 patients were alive with no evidence of recurrence or died with no evidence of recurrence and 14 had died of melanoma. Twenty-four patients had more than 24 months of survival information available but no detailed clinical information to determine cause of death. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: First, we evaluated whether density of immune cells in tumor and stroma predicted prognosis in 35 patients with disease specific survival information. We find that high number of CD3+CD8+ cells in tumor correlates with Disease Specific Survival (DSS) (p=0.0323*) and CD3+CD8+ cells in stroma may also correlate with DSS (p=0.0671). This is consistent with what is known in the literature regarding tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). We also found that CD68+ cells in stroma predict poor prognosis (0.0259*). This is consist with the proposed deleterious role for macrophages in tumor progression. Next, using nearest neighbor analysis we examined the effect of HLA-DR and Ki67 expression on spatial distribution of CD3+CD8+ T cells. We find that CD8+ T cells are closer to myeloid (CD68+) cells expressing HLA-DR. This is consistent with the potential of HLA-DR expressing cells to present antigens to T cells, and suggests that T cells may preferentially interact with HLA-DR expressing myeloid cells. Conversely, we find that Ki67 expression on tumor (SOX10+) cells correlates with increased distance from CD3+CD8+ T cells relative to SOX10+Ki67-tumor cells. This finding is consistent with the observation that more advanced tumors with higher mitotic rates have decreased T cell infiltrates, and suggests that dividing melanoma cells are less likely to interact with T cells. In addition, we performed analysis to determine whether spatial relationships defined above impact prognosis. Clinical oncology follow-up was available on 35 of the 57 patients evaluated above. We compared proximity of CD3+CD8+ cells to both myeloid (CD68+) and tumor (SOX10+) cells in patients who recurred and those with no evidence of recurrence. We found that CD3+CD8+ cells in patients who had recurrence were closer to CD68+ HLA-DR− cells than in patients who had no recurrence (t-test, p=0.0377), this correlated with DSS (p=0.003). Conversely, distance from CD3+CD8+ to CD68+ HLA-DR+ in relationship to recurrence was not significant with a trend towards CD3+CD8+ T cells being closer in nonrecurrent patients (t-test, p=0.1362). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Consistent with the literature, we find that densities of CD8+ T cells correlates with favorable outcomes in early stage melanoma. We also find that density of CD68+ macrophages in stroma correlates with poor outcome. If proximity is a surrogate for interaction, these data indicate that dividing, Ki67+, melanoma cells interact less with CD8+ T cells than do Ki67+ melanoma cells. Further, HLA-DR expression on CD68+ infiltrating cells likely enhances their interaction with T cells. Interestingly, on further analysis, CD3+CD8+ cells were significantly closer to CD68+ HLA-DR− cells in patients who recurred, implying that interactions between these cell types may not be favorable. This analysis demonstrates that spatial analysis may be useful in predicting prognosis in early stage melanoma, and this is the first report of this type of analysis predicting outcomes in primary tumor specimens to our knowledge. Further staining and analysis of the complete patient cohort (n=120) is ongoing.
The simple calving laws currently used in ice-sheet models do not adequately reflect the complexity and diversity of calving processes. To be effective, calving laws must be grounded in a sound understanding of how calving actually works. Here, we develop a new strategy for formulating calving laws, using (a) the Helsinki Discrete Element Model (HiDEM) to explicitly model fracture and calving processes, and (b) the continuum model Elmer/Ice to identify critical stress states associated with HiDEM calving events. A range of observed calving processes emerges spontaneously from HiDEM in response to variations in ice-front buoyancy and the size of subaqueous undercuts. Calving driven by buoyancy and melt under-cutting is under-predicted by existing calving laws, but we show that the location and magnitude of HiDEM calving events can be predicted in Elmer/Ice from characteristic stress patterns. Our results open the way to developing calving laws that properly reflect the diversity of calving processes, and provide a framework for a unified theory of the calving process continuum.
Bandelier National Monument (BNM) was created to protect an extraordinary inventory of archaeological resources carved in the Tshirege Member of the Bandelier Tuff. These include more than one thousand excavated chambers, called cavates, used for dwelling, storage, and textile production. The glass-rich tuffs at the base of the Tshirege Member are poorly consolidated and susceptible to erosion by wind, rain, and mechanical abrasion, with resultant loss of cultural material. However, rock surfaces develop protective weathering rinds that are resistant to erosion. Using optical microscopy, SEM-EDS, XRD, and electron microprobe analysis, we determined that this rind consists of clay and silt sediments colonized by lichens and other surface biota, accompanied by the precipitation of secondary minerals in the near-surface pore space. Scoping experiments focused on glass-organic acid interactions indicate that oxalic acid excreted by microbial crust constituents catalyzes biogeochemical reactions that lead to the preferential dissolution of Si, Al, and Fe components of the volcanic glass; these cations become available for precipitation of opal, and smectite and sepiolite clays. Enzyme assays that quantify biological activity at outcrop surfaces indicate that microbial populations initially thrive as they derive nutrients from the dissolution reactions of the glass, but activity starts to decline as precipitation of secondary minerals limits access to new sources of nutrients, so that alteration processes are self-limiting. As case hardening progresses, imbibition rates at the surface decrease, and the erosion resistance of the altered surfaces is substantially improved. This article presents summary results of research conducted over a period of five years to characterize the roles of lichens and other microflora in rind formation, and the resulting contributions to tuff stability. The interaction of lichens and other microflora with rock surfaces in archaeological sites and monuments is usually explored in terms of biodeterioration and consequent damage. However, this study shows that, under some circumstances, lichens and microflora provide a level of erosion protection to relatively porous and unconsolidated rock strata that outweighs their biodeteriorative effects.
This article examines one kind of conscientious refusal: the refusal of healthcare professionals to treat sexual dysfunction in individuals with a history of sexual offending. According to what I call the orthodoxy, such refusal is invariably impermissible, whereas at least one other kind of conscientious refusal—refusal to offer abortion services—is not. I seek to put pressure on the orthodoxy by (1) motivating the view that either both kinds of conscientious refusal are permissible or neither is, and (2) critiquing two attempts to buttress it.
Palmer amaranth and waterhemp have become increasingly troublesome weeds throughout the United States. Both species are highly adaptable and emerge continuously throughout the summer months, presenting the need for a residual PRE application in soybean. To improve season-long control of Amaranthus spp., 19 PRE treatments were evaluated on glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth in 2013 and 2014 at locations in Arkansas, Indiana, Nebraska, Illinois, and Tennessee; and on glyphosate-resistant waterhemp at locations in Illinois, Missouri, and Nebraska. The two Amaranthus species were analyzed separately; data for each species were pooled across site-years, and site-year was included as a random variable in the analyses. The dissipation of weed control throughout the course of the experiments was compared among treatments with the use of regression analysis where percent weed control was described as a function of time (the number of weeks after treatment [WAT]). At the mean (i.e., average) WAT (4.3 and 3.2 WAT for Palmer amaranth and waterhemp, respectively) isoxaflutole + S-metolachlor + metribuzin had the highest predicted control of Palmer amaranth (98%) and waterhemp (99%). Isoxaflutole + S-metolachlor + metribuzin, S-metolachlor + mesotrione, and flumioxazin + pyroxasulfone had a predicted control ≥ 97% and similar model parameter estimates, indicating control declined at similar rates for these treatments. Dicamba and 2,4-D provided some, short-lived residual control of Amaranthus spp. When dicamba was added to metribuzin or S-metolachlor, control increased compared to dicamba alone. Flumioxazin + pyroxasulfone, a currently labeled PRE, performed similarly to treatments containing isoxaflutole or mesotrione. Additional sites of action will provide soybean growers more opportunities to control these weeds and reduce the potential for herbicide resistance.
Herbicide-resistant Amaranthus spp. continue to cause management difficulties in soybean. New soybean technologies under development, including resistance to various combinations of glyphosate, glufosinate, dicamba, 2,4-D, isoxaflutole, and mesotrione, will make possible the use of additional herbicide sites of action in soybean than is currently available. When this research was conducted, these soybean traits were still regulated and testing herbicide programs with the appropriate soybean genetics in a single experiment was not feasible. Therefore, the effectiveness of various herbicide programs (PRE herbicides followed by POST herbicides) was evaluated in bare-ground experiments on glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth and glyphosate-resistant waterhemp (both tall and common) at locations in Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, Nebraska, and Tennessee. Twenty-five herbicide programs were evaluated; 5 of which were PRE herbicides only, 10 were PRE herbicides followed by POST herbicides 3 to 4 wks after (WA) the PRE application (EPOST), and 10 were PRE herbicides followed by POST herbicides 6 to 7 WA the PRE application (LPOST). Programs with EPOST herbicides provided 94% or greater control of Palmer amaranth and waterhemp at 3 to 4 WA the EPOST. Overall, programs with LPOST herbicides resulted in a period of weed emergence in which weeds would typically compete with a crop. Weeds were not completely controlled with the LPOST herbicides because weed sizes were larger (≥ 15 cm) compared with their sizes at the EPOST application (≤ 7 cm). Most programs with LPOST herbicides provided 80 to 95% control at 3 to 4 WA applied LPOST. Based on an orthogonal contrast, using a synthetic-auxin herbicide LPOST improves control of Palmer amaranth and waterhemp over programs not containing a synthetic-auxin LPOST. These results show herbicides that can be used in soybean and that contain auxinic- or HPPD-resistant traits will provide growers with an opportunity for better control of glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth and waterhemp over a wide range of geographies and environments.