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The aim of the present study is to determine whether plasma bile acids (BAs) could be used as an auxiliary diagnostic biomarker to distinguish patients with schizophrenia from healthy controls.
Seventeen different BAs were quantitatively measured in plasma of 12 healthy participants and 12 patients with schizophrenia. Then, the data were subjected to correlation and linear discriminant analysis (LDA).
The concentrations of cholic acid (CA), taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA) and taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA) were significantly decreased in plasma of the schizophrenia patients. Correlation analysis showed the concentrations of CA, TCDCA and TDCA were negatively correlated with schizophrenia. In addition, LDA demonstrated that combination of CA, TCDCA and TDCA with a classification formula could predict correctly classified cases and the accuracy of prediction was up to 95.83 %.
Combination of the three BAs may be useful to diagnose schizophrenia in plasma samples.
Tempering cooling rate plays a significant role in the impact toughness of 2CrMoV weld metal. Three different tempering cooling rate experiments were carried out; it is found that the impact toughness of weld metal improved from 44.61 to 117.49 J as the cooling rate increased from 5 to 40 °C/h. Microstructure characterization revealed that the large blocky M–A constituents and cluster precipitation were considered to act as stress concentration sources and cleavage fracture initiators at a cooling rate of 5 °C/h. Under the cooling rate of 20 °C/h, the decrease of blocky M–A constituents as well as homogeneous distribution of precipitation induced the transition from cleavage to interfacial decohesion. The chance of crack propagation in intragranular ferrite matrix was increased, which needed to absorb more energy and improve impact toughness. When the tempering cooling rate reached at 40 °C/h, the cracks mainly propagated in the ferrite matrix; meanwhile, fine and homogeneous distribution of precipitation greatly inhibited crack propagation and led to higher impact toughness.
The head-on collision between two dust-acoustic solitary waves in a non-magnetized, collisionless and strongly coupled dust plasma has been studied. The application scope of the analytical solution of the head-on collision is given in the present paper by using the particle-in-cell simulation method. It is noted that the analytical results are valid if the amplitudes of both of the solitary waves are small enough. The effects of the coupling parameters on both the head-on collision and the waveform are also studied in the present paper.
Toxigenic Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) carriers represent an important source in the transmission of C. difficile infection (CDI) during hospitalisation, but its prevalence and mode in patients with hepatic cirrhosis are not well established. We investigated longitudinal changes in carriage rates and strain types of toxigenic C. difficile from admission to discharge among hepatic cirrhosis patients. Toxigenic C. difficile was detected in 104 (19.8%) of 526 hepatic cirrhosis patients on admission, and the carriage status changed in a portion of patients during hospitalisation. Approximately 56% (58/104) of patients lost the colonisation during their hospital stay. Among the remaining 48 patients who remained positive for toxigenic C. difficile, the numbers of patients who were positive at one, two, three and four isolations were 10 (55.6%), three (16.7%), two (11.1%) and three (16.7%), respectively. Twenty-eight patients retained a particular monophyletic strain at multiple isolations. The genotype most frequently identified was the same as that frequently identified in symptomatic CDI patients. A total of 25% (26/104) of patients were diagnosed with CDI during their hospital stay. Conclusions: Colonisation with toxigenic C. difficile strains occurs frequently in cirrhosis patients and is a risk factor for CDI.
The sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus is a deposit-feeder and vital for marine benthic ecosystems. Hypoxia can influence the behaviour and even lead to massive mortality in A. japonicus in the wild. It is important to understand the molecular responses of A. japonicus when exposed to acute changes in dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration. In this study, RNA-seq provided a general overview of the gene expression profiles of the respiratory tree of A. japonicus exposed to DO of 8 mg l−1 (DO8), 4 mg l−1 (DO4) and 2 mg l−1 (DO2) conditions. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) screening with the NOISeq method identified 51, 59 and 61 DEGs according to the criteria of fold change ≥2 and divergence probability ≥0.8 in the comparisons of DO2 vs DO4, DO2 vs DO8 and DO4 vs DO8, respectively. Gene ontology analysis showed that ‘cellular process’ and ‘binding’ had the most enriched DEGs in the categories of ‘biological process’ and ‘molecular function’, respectively (catalytic activity also had the most enriched DEGs in the category of ‘molecular function’ based on the comparison of DO2 vs DO8), while ‘cell’ and ‘cell part’ had the most enriched DEGs in the category of ‘cellular component’. The DEGs were mapped to 79, 81 and 104 pathways in the KEGG database, and 8, 29 and 16 pathways were significantly enriched, respectively. The DO-specific DEGs identified in this study of the respiratory tree are important targets for further research into the biochemical mechanisms involved in the response of the sea cucumber to changes in the DO concentration.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG) on initiation and duration of infant breast-feeding in a prospective birth cohort study.
Breast-feeding information was collected at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months postpartum. The association of pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG with delayed lactogenesis II and termination of exclusive breast-feeding was assessed with logistic regression analysis. The risk of early termination of any breast-feeding during the first year postpartum was assessed with Cox proportional hazards models.
Urban city in China.
Women with infants from the Ma’anshan Birth Cohort Study (n 3196).
The median duration of any breast-feeding in this cohort was 7·0 months. Pre-pregnancy obese women had higher risks of delayed lactogenesis II (risk ratio=1·89; 95 % CI 1·04, 3·43) and early termination of any breast-feeding (hazard ratio=1·38; 95 % CI 1·09, 1·75) adjusted for potential maternal and infant confounders, when compared with normal-weight women. No differences in breast-feeding initiation or duration of exclusive breast-feeding according to pre-pregnancy BMI were found. Moreover, GWG was not associated with any poor breast-feeding outcomes.
The present study indicated that pre-pregnancy obesity increases the risks of delayed lactogenesis II and early termination of any breast-feeding in Chinese women.
Runaway electrons preionized diffuse discharge (REP DD) could generate volume non-thermal plasmas at atmospheric pressure, thus is widely used for surface modification. In this paper, two pulsed generators are used to produce REP DD for modifying copper (Cu) foil in atmospheric air. One generator produces repetitive pulses with a peak voltage of 40 kV and a rise time of 150 ns. The other generator produces single pulse with a peak voltage of 280 kV and a rise time of 0.5 ns. After the treatment, the modification results for including the macro topography, chemical composition and microhardness in different depths of the Cu surface are analyzed. In order to estimate the modification results in different areas of the Cu foil, several points from the center to the edge of the Cu sample are selected. It could be observed that the maximal modification effect usually appears in the area where the density of the diffuse discharge plasma is highest. The experimental results show REP DD treatment could significantly decrease the water contact angle and increase surface energy of the Cu foil. Meanwhile, it could decrease the carbon concentration and increase oxygen concentration in the near-surface layer of the Cu sample, and enhance the microhardness in different depths of the Cu foil.
In this work, we report on development of one-dimensional reaction-diffusion simulator needed to understand the kinetics of Cu-related metastabilities observed in CdTe PV devices. Evolution of intrinsic and Cu-related defects in CdTe solar cells has been studied in time-space domain self-consistently with free carrier transport. Resulting device performance was simulated as a function of stress time, thus showing pronounced effect that the evolution of associated acceptor and donor states can cause on device characteristics. Although 1D simulation has intrinsic limitations when applied to poly-crystalline films, the results presented confirm the validity and the potential of the approach presented in better understanding of the performance and metastabilities of CdTe photovoltaic devices.
Two-step growth method of low pressure chemical vapor deposition(LPCVD) process was employed to fabricate the ZnO:B-TCO film; For the first layer, the seed layer with a heavy doping concentration was deposited on the glass substrate, the film having higher deposition rate were then grown on the top of the first layer; It shows that the doping situations of the seed layer play an important role in electrical and optical performance of the whole ZnO:B-TCO layer, and the combination of this two properties is optimal when the doping ratio (B2H6/DEZ) was 0.4;
The unique properties of silicon oxide materials, no matter intrinsic or doped, utilized in thin film solar cells (TFSCs) in the area of photovoltaic (PV) are making TFSCs one of the most attractive photovoltaic technologies for the development of high-performing electricity production units to be integrated in everyday life. In comparison to other silicon materials, the particular diphasic structure of silicon oxide materials, in which hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H) crystallites are surrounded by an oxygen-rich hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) phase, causes them present excellent photoelectrical material properties, such as a low-parasitic absorption in the broadband spectral range, independent controllability of longitudinal and lateral conductivity, refractive indices (3.5-2.0), band gap (2.0-2.6 eV) and conductivity tenability (with orders of 1-10-9 S/cm) with oxygen doping, and so on. Various types of silicon oxide materials, including intrinsic, p- or n- type, further applied in TFSCs have also played significant roles in improving the efficiency of various types of single-, dual-, and triple-junction thin-film solar cells from both the optical and electrical points of view. In this paper, we present our latest progress in studying the performance improvement role of intrinsic or doped silicon oxide materials in pin-type a-Si:H, a-SiGe:H, and μc-Si:H single-junction solar cells. By effectively tuning the band gap values of intrinsic a-SiOx:H materials with oxygen doping and adopting the layers with a suitable band gap (1.86 eV) as the P/I buffer layers of a-Si:H solar cells fabricated on metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) boron-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:B) substrates, a significant Voc increases up to 909 mV and an excellent external quantum efficiency (EQE) response of 75% at the 400 nm typical wavelength can be achieved by matching the band gap discontinuity between the p-type nc-SiOx:H window and a-Si:H intrinsic layers. The serious leakage current characteristics of pin-type narrow-gap (Eg<1.5 eV) a-SiGe:H single-junction solar cells can also be finely tuned by integrating an n-type μc-SiOx:H layer with a small oxygen content in addition to improving the long-wavelength response, an effective approach gives rise to the highest FF of 70.62% for pin-type a-SiGe:H single-junction solar cells with an average band gap of 1.48 eV. In addition, our studies proved that the application of p-type μc-SiOx:H window layers in μc-Si:H single-junction solar cells can effectively improve the short-wavelength light coupling by suppressing the parasitic absorption and promoting the anti-reflectivity with a graded refractive index profile. On the basis of the optimum single-junction solar cells with omnipotent silicon oxide materials, an initial efficiency of 16.07% has been achieved for pin-type a-Si:H/a-SiGe:H/μc-Si:H triple-junction solar cells with an active area of 0.25 cm2. The omnipotent properties of silicon oxide layers in TFSCs, including effective optical coupling and trapping, suitability in compensating for the band gap discontinuity, the shunt-quenching capacity, and so on, make them likely to be extended to other types of solar cells such as polycrystalline chalcopyrite Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) and perovskite-sensitized solar cells, opening up new opportunities for acquiring solar cells with higher performance.
Despite substantial research, uncertainty remains about the clinical and etiological heterogeneity of major depression (MD). Can meaningful and valid subtypes be identified and would they be stable cross-culturally?
Symptoms at their lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years, with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed in Mplus.
Using the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria, the 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria and all independently assessed depressive symptoms (n = 27), the best LCA model identified respectively three, four and six classes. A severe and non-suicidal class was seen in all solutions, as was a mild/moderate subtype. An atypical class emerged once bidirectional neurovegetative symptoms were included. The non-suicidal class demonstrated low levels of worthlessness/guilt and hopelessness. Patterns of co-morbidity, family history, personality, environmental precipitants, recurrence and body mass index (BMI) differed meaningfully across subtypes, with the atypical class standing out as particularly distinct.
MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several detectable subtypes with distinct clinical and demographic correlates. Three subtypes were most consistently identified in our analyses: severe, atypical and non-suicidal. Severe and atypical MD have been identified in multiple prior studies in samples of European ethnicity. Our non-suicidal subtype, with low levels of guilt and hopelessness, may represent a pathoplastic variant reflecting Chinese cultural influences.
The present investigation involves the synthesis of chitosan based composite sponges in view of their applications in wound dressing, antibacterial and haemostatic. A facile CO2 bubbles template freeze-drying method was developed for the fabrication of macroporous chitosan- poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) composite sponges with a typical porosity of 50% and pore size of 100-300 µm. The composite sponges show a high water absorption rate up to 60 times of its weight and a water vapor transmission rate of 30 ∼ 70g/m2 • h. Effects of the content of cross-linking agent and PVA on mechanical properties and moisture permeability were examined. Improved strength and flexibility of the chitosan sponges were observed with the presence of PVA. Further, the antibacterial and haemostatic activities have been demonstrated. The Chitosan/PVA sponges of high liquid absorption, appropriate moisture permeability, excellent antimicrobial and haemostatic activities have a great potential for wound dressing applications.
The aim of the present study was to determine the potential long-term metabolic effects of early nutritional programming on carbohydrate utilisation in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio). High-carbohydrate diets were fed to fish during four ontogenetic stages: from the first-feeding stage to the end of the yolk-sac larval stage; from the first-feeding stage to 2 d after yolk-sac exhaustion; after yolk-sac exhaustion for 3 or 5 d. The carbohydrate stimuli significantly increased the body weight of the first-feeding groups in the short term. The expression of genes was differentially regulated by the early dietary intervention. The high-carbohydrate diets resulted in decreased plasma glucose levels in the adult fish. The mRNA levels and enzyme activities of glucokinase, pyruvate kinase, α-amylase and sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter 1 were up-regulated in the first-feeding groups. There was no significant change in the mRNA levels of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) in any experimental group, and the activity of G6Pase enzyme in the FF-5 (first feeding to 2 d after yolk-sac exhaustion) group was significantly different from that of the other groups. The expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene in all the groups was significantly decreased. In the examined early programming range, growth performance was not affected. Taken together, data reported herein indicate that the period ranging from the polyculture to the external feeding stage is an important window for potential modification of the long-term physiological functions. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that it is possible to permanently modify carbohydrate digestion, transport and metabolism of adult zebrafish through early nutritional programming.
The symptoms of major depression (MD) are clinically diverse. Do they form coherent factors that might clarify the underlying nature of this important psychiatric syndrome?
Symptoms at lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatoryfactor analysis (CFA) were performed in Mplus in random split-half samples.
The preliminary EFA results were consistently supported by the findings from CFA. Analyses of the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria revealed two factors loading on: (i) general depressive symptoms; and (ii) guilt/suicidal ideation. Examining 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria revealed three factors reflecting: (i) weight/appetite disturbance; (ii) general depressive symptoms; and (iii) sleep disturbance. Using all symptoms (n = 27), we identified five factors that reflected: (i) weight/appetite symptoms; (ii) general retarded depressive symptoms; (iii) atypical vegetative symptoms; (iv) suicidality/hopelessness; and (v) symptoms of agitation and anxiety.
MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several underlying correlated symptom dimensions. In addition to a general depressive symptom factor, a complete picture must include factors reflecting typical/atypical vegetative symptoms, cognitive symptoms (hopelessness/suicidal ideation), and an agitated symptom factor characterized by anxiety, guilt, helplessness and irritability. Prior cross-cultural studies, factor analyses of MD in Western populations and empirical findings in this sample showing risk factor profiles similar to those seen in Western populations suggest that our results are likely to be broadly representative of the human depressive syndrome.
To assess the reliability, validity, and diagnostic utility of the Chinese version of General Practitioner Assessment of Cognition (GPCOG-C). The GPCOG, which is specifically designed for use in primary care to screen for cognitive impairment, consists of a patient section testing cognition, and an informant section asking about decline in cognitive and functional abilities.
The English version of GPCOG was translated, back-translated, and subsequently revised to determine the final GPCOG-C. Our sample comprised 253 community-dwelling volunteers with memory concerns aged 50 years and over and 103 outpatients of a psychogeriatric clinic with memory complaints. Participants were assessed by one of the four general practitioners or six psychogeriatricians. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Hasegawa's Dementia Scale (HDS), and the GPCOG-C were compared against the DSM-IV-defined dementia diagnosis.
The internal consistency (Cronbach's α) was 0.68 for the GPCOG patient section. The test–retest was 0.98 for the GPCOG-C total. The sequential administration of both components of GPCOG-C had a sensitivity of 97% and a specificity of 89%, with a positive predictive value of 72% and a negative predictive value of 99%. Both the GPCOG-C total and sequential two-stage scoring methods performed at least well as the MMSE and HDS in detecting dementia. The administration time for the two-stage approach was 4.3 ± 2.4 min.
The GPCOG-C is a valid, time efficient instrument for dementia screening in China.
A joint diagnostic system was established for the diagnosis of laser-driven shock wave experiments. The system has high temporal resolution (time resolution ~12 ps) and high spatial resolution (spatial resolution ~7 μm) and fits for diagnostics of the experiment with small sample size and short time physical process. The joint diagnostic system was applied for shock wave measurement on the Shenguang-II laser facility. The passive shock breakout signal and active diagnostic signal were simultaneously obtained. The temporal measurement reliability of the system was verified using a multi-layered target. The experimental results show that the two measurement results were consistent.
Previous studies support Beck's cognitive model of vulnerability to depression. However, the relationship between his cognitive triad and other clinical features and risk factors among those with major depression (MD) has rarely been systematically studied.
The three key cognitive symptoms of worthlessness, hopelessness and helplessness were assessed during their lifetime worst episode in 1970 Han Chinese women with recurrent MD. Diagnostic and other risk factor information was assessed at personal interview. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by logistic regression.
Compared to patients who did not endorse the cognitive trio, those who did had a greater number of DSM-IV A criteria, more individual depressive symptoms, an earlier age at onset, a greater number of episodes, and were more likely to meet diagnostic criteria for melancholia, postnatal depression, dysthymia and anxiety disorders. Hopelessness was highly related to all the suicidal symptomatology, with ORs ranging from 5.92 to 6.51. Neuroticism, stressful life events (SLEs) and a protective parental rearing style were associated with these cognitive symptoms.
During the worst episode of MD in Han Chinese women, the endorsement of the cognitive trio was associated with a worse course of depression and an increased risk of suicide. Individuals with high levels of neuroticism, many SLEs and high parental protectiveness were at increased risk for these cognitive depressive symptoms. As in Western populations, symptoms of the cognitive trio appear to play a central role in the psychopathology of MD in Chinese women.
To determine the association between major dietary patterns characterized by factor analysis and risk of depression and anxiety symptoms among adolescents.
Diet and symptoms of depression and anxiety were assessed in a cross-sectional survey among students attending junior high school. Dietary patterns were derived from a self-reported FFQ, which consisted of thirty-eight items. Anthropometric measurements were also performed.
Four junior high schools in Bengbu city, China.
A random sample of 5003 adolescents, 11–16 years of age (mean 13·21 years).
Three major dietary patterns were identified in the study based on factor analysis: ‘snack’, ‘animal food’ and ‘traditional’. The prevalence of depression symptoms, anxiety disorders and the coexistence of both were 11·2 % (560/5003), 14·6 % (732/5003) and 12·6 % (629/5003), respectively. After adjustment for potential confounders, adolescents in the highest tertile of snack dietary pattern scores had a higher odds for ‘pure’ psychological symptoms (‘depression without anxiety’, OR = 1·64; 95 % CI 1·30, 2·06; and ‘anxiety without depression’, OR = 1·87; 95 % CI 1·51, 2·31) compared with coexisting depression and anxiety (OR = 1·93; 95 % CI 1·54, 2·43). Similar to snacks, high consumption of animal foods was associated with a higher risk of psychological symptoms. Compared with low consumption, adolescents in the highest tertile of traditional dietary pattern scores had lower odds for ‘pure’ depression (OR = 0·38; 95 % CI 0·30, 0·49), ‘pure’ anxiety (OR = 0·85; 95 % CI 0·69, 1·04) and coexisting anxiety and depression (OR = 0·50; 95 % CI 0·39, 0·63).
Data from Chinese secondary-school adolescents validated findings from adult populations. Dietary patterns should be considered as important predictors of depression and anxiety among adolescents in further studies.
Background: Single-volume proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) has considerable diagnostic potential for Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study investigated 1H MRS in specific regions of the brain, the posterior cingulate gyri (PCG) and the hippocampus, in patients with AD, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and in normal control subjects.
Methods:1H MRS analysis was carried out on 47 patients with AD, 32 patients with aMCI and 56 normal control subjects (NC group). Volumes of the PCG and hippocampus were assessed, and the metabolic signals of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline compounds (Cho), myo-inositol (mI), and creatine (Cr) were quantified.
Results: In the PCG, differences between the test groups were found in NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, mI/Cr and NAA/mI ratios. Group differences were also found in mI/Cr and NAA/mI ratios in the left hippocampus, and in mI/Cr and NAA/mI ratios in the right hippocampus. NAA/Cr ratios increased in the PCG between AD and aMCI patients, and between aMCI and NC patients. Conversely, mI/Cr ratios in the PCG and left hippocampus decreased across AD, aMCI, and NC subjects. In discriminate and ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analyses, a NAA/Cr ratio of ≤ 1.50 in the PCG indicated optimal potential for discriminating between aMCI patients and normal control subjects. Discriminating potential was also found to be high for a NAA/mI ratio in the PCG of ≤ 2.72. Despite significant differences between NC and aMCI patients in the mI/Cr ratio in the PCG and in the NAA/mI ratio in the left hippocampus, their sensitivity and specificity were all lower than 75%.
Conclusion: Proton MRS of the PCG using the NAA/Cr ratio as a metabolic marker indicates considerable potential for distinguishing between aMCI and NC subjects.