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Obsession and delusion are theoretically distinct from each other in terms of reality testing. Despite such phenomenological distinction, no extant studies have examined the identification of common and distinct neural correlates of obsession and delusion by employing biologically grounded methods. Here, we investigated dimensional effects of obsession and delusion spanning across the traditional diagnostic boundaries reflected upon the resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) using connectome-wide association studies (CWAS).
Our study sample comprised of 96 patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder, 75 patients with schizophrenia, and 65 healthy controls. A connectome-wide analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between obsession and delusion severity and RFSC using multivariate distance-based matrix regression.
Obsession was associated with the supplementary motor area, precentral gyrus, and superior parietal lobule, while delusion was associated with the precuneus. Follow-up seed-based RSFC and modularity analyses revealed that obsession was related to aberrant inter-network connectivity strength. Additional inter-network analyses demonstrated the association between obsession severity and inter-network connectivity between the frontoparietal control network and the dorsal attention network.
Our CWAS study based on the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) provides novel evidence for the circuit-level functional dysconnectivity associated with obsession and delusion severity across diagnostic boundaries. Further refinement and accumulation of biomarkers from studies embedded within the RDoC framework would provide useful information in treating individuals who have some obsession or delusion symptoms but cannot be identified by the category of clinical symptoms alone.
We examined whether hypotension in very low birth weight infants aged⩽1 week was associated with hospital morbidities and overall mortality. Further, we studied whether hypotension was associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcomes in these patients at the corrected age of 18 months. A total of 166 very low birth weight infants were studied during this period. Hospital outcomes and neurodevelopmental outcomes at the corrected age of 18 months were evaluated. Among the 166 very low birth weight infants, 95 patients (57.2%) experienced hypotension at⩽1 week and were associated with an increased incidence of morbidities and mortality. At the corrected age of 18 months, hypotension of the⩽1 week group had significantly lower scores in all three – cognitive, language, and motor – composites of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III) screening tests. In addition, a multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that longer mechanical ventilation and periventricular leukomalacia were additionally associated with worse cognitive and language neurodevelopmental outcomes. Hypotension in very low birth weight infants within 1 week of life was associated with increased morbidities and overall mortality. It was also associated with an increased risk of cognitive and language outcomes.
The submarine channel-fill system of the Cambrian Spurs Formation exhibits unique metre-scale cycles of breccia and diamictite. The studied sections, Eureka Spurs, are located at the Mariner Glacier in the central-eastern part of northern Victoria Land, Antarctica. A facies analysis of the channel-fill deposit has led to the recognition of four main lithofacies: breccia, diamictite, thin-bedded sandstone and mudstone. The channel-fill deposit consists of two architectural elements: hollow-fill (HF) and sheet-like (SL) elements. The SL has wide convex-up geometry and consists solely of a very thick bed of diamictite, and is interpreted as a submarine channel lobe. The HF has a concave-up erosional base and flat upper surface. The HF consists of nine cyclic alternations of underlying breccia (cohesionless debris flow) and overlying diamictite (cohesive debris flow). The deposition of breccia is interpreted to have been controlled by repeated allogenic processes such as earthquakes. In contrast, the abrupt vertical transition from breccia to diamictite in each cycle is interpreted to have resulted from an autogenic, slope instability-related process. The interaction of the allogenic and autogenic factors recorded in the metre-scale unique cyclic deposits provides new criteria to interpret cycles of submarine debris flow.
The preparation of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) samples from powders is quite difficult and challenging. For powders with particles in the 1–5 μm size range, it is especially difficult to select an adequate sample preparation technique. Epoxy is commonly used to bind powder, but drawbacks, such as differential milling originating from unequal milling rates between the epoxy and powder, remain. We propose a new, simple method for preparing TEM samples. This method is especially useful for powders with particles in the 1–5 μm size range that are vulnerable to oxidation. The method uses solder as an embedding agent together with focused ion beam (FIB) milling. The powder was embedded in low-temperature solder using a conventional hot-mounting instrument. Subsequently, FIB was used to fabricate thin TEM samples via the lift-out technique. The solder proved to be more effective than epoxy in producing thin TEM samples with large areas. The problem of differential milling was mitigated, and the solder binder was more stable than epoxy under an electron beam. This methodology can be applied for preparing TEM samples from various powders that are either vulnerable to oxidation or composed of high atomic number elements.
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the unemployment experience and depressive symptoms among mid-aged (ages 45–59) and elderly (ages 60 or above) persons and to examine further the effects of unemployment insurance, industrial accident compensation insurance (IACI) and national pension on the stated relationship. Data were used from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA) between 2006 and 2012. A total of 1,536 individuals employed at the 2006 baseline were followed. The association between employment status change during 2006 to 2008, 2008 to 2010 or 2010 to 2012 and depressive symptoms in years 2008, 2010 or 2012 were analysed using a generalised estimating equation model. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D 10) scale. The results showed that the ‘employed to unemployed’ group had statistically significant increases in depression scores in the mid-aged (β = 0.4884, p = 0.0038) and elderly (β = 0.8275, p ⩽ 0.0001) categories, compared to the ‘employed to employed’ group. Findings were maintained in groups without a social safety net. Contrastingly, the ‘employed to unemployed’ groups with unemployment insurance and IACI did not show statistically significant increases in depression scores. The ‘employed to unemployed’ category of individuals enrolled in the national pension system exhibited a lower increase of depression. Therefore, an enhanced focus on the mental health of unemployed individuals is required, in addition to the provision of a reliable social safety net.
Noticeable demographic changes have taken place in South Korea, with the general marriage rate decreasing and the average first age at marriage and general divorce rate increasing. The shown trends have contributed to intergenerational discordance in the perception of familial values, which is important in addressing the psychological well-being of parents. This study aimed to investigate the association between the marital status of offspring aged 40 years and over and the depression levels of parents.
Data were from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA), 2006–2012. A total of 2,540 individuals with at least two offspring aged 40 years and over were included. Association between offspring marital status and parental depression scores, measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies and Depression (CES-D 10) scale, was investigated using the generalized estimating equation (GEE) model. Subgroup analysis was performed based on offspring education level.
When parents with only married offspring were set as reference, parents with never married offspring (β: 0.27, p = 0.02), parents with separated offspring (β: 0.52, p = 0.03), and parents with never married offspring and separated offspring (β: 0.38, p < 0.001) showed increases in depression scores. In the subgroup analysis, these higher depression score effects were largely limited to parents with high school graduate offspring.
It is important to monitor the mental health status of parents with never married, separated, or both never married and separated offspring as this group may be comparatively vulnerable to depressive symptoms.
In this study, the effect of simple shearing on microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of 316L austenitic stainless steel were investigated. Two different shear strain routes were obtained by twisting cylindrical specimens in the forward and backward directions. The strain-induced martensite phase was effectively obtained by alteration of the routes. Formation of the martensite phase clearly resulted in significant hardening of the steel. Grain-size reduction and strain-induced martensitic transformation within the deformed structures of the strained specimens were characterized by scanning electron microscopy – electron back-scattered diffraction, X-ray diffraction, and the TEM-ASTAR (transmission electron microscopy – analytical scanning transmission atomic resolution, automatic crystal orientation/phase mapping for TEM) system. Significant numbers of twin networks were formed by alteration of the shear strain routes, and the martensite phases were nucleated at the twin interfaces.
The thickness dependence of the electrical stability under monotonic and cyclic tensile loading is investigated for Cu films on polymer substrates. As for monotonic tensile deformation, thicker films show better stability than thinner films due to their higher ductility and the larger capability of strain accommodation. For the fatigue resistance, however, a more complex behavior was observed depending on the amount of the applied strain. For low strain amplitude in the high cycle fatigue (HCF) regime, thinner films exhibit longer fatigue life because the larger strength of thinner films suppresses dislocation movement and damage nucleation. However, for high strain amplitudes in the low cycle fatigue (LCF) regime, the fatigue life for thinner films is drastically reduced compared to thicker films. It is shown that fatigue coefficients in the LCF regime can be obtained when applying the Coffin–Manson relationship.
The oxidation mechanism and thermal stability of nickel oxide (NiO)/carbon nanotube (CNT) composites were investigated by examining composites with different NiO contents by thermogravimetric analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). NiO acts as a catalyst in the oxidation of CNT in the composite. CNTs can be oxidized, even in a vacuum, by reducing NiO to nickel at temperatures lower than the normal oxidation temperature of CNTs. This phase transition was confirmed directly by in situ heating TEM observations. In air, reduction by CNT occurs simultaneously with reoxidation by gaseous O2 molecules, and NiO maintains its phase. The thermal stability decreased with increasing NiO content because of defects in the CNT generated by the NiO loading.
TbMnO3 exists in an orthorhombic phase in nature. Recently, we successfully grew TbMnO3 thin films in the hexagonal phase using epitaxial stabilization techniques. In this article, we will show the details of the deposition conditions that allow us to fabricate the hexagonal TbMnO3 films on Pt–Al2O3(0001) substrates. The artificial hexagonal phase can be easily formed above 850 °C, irrespective of the oxygen partial pressure. The hexagonal TbMnO3 films showed ferroelectric properties, which are significantly enhanced compared to those of the orthorhombic TbMnO3 bulk phase. We find interesting anomalies in the magnetic and magnetodielectric properties of the TbMnO3 films at around 45 K, which should be related with the Mn3+ spin reorientation. We also find spin-glass-like behaviors in the magnetic susceptibility, which could be attributed to the geometric frustration of antiferromagnetically coupled Mn spins with an edge-sharing triangular lattice. This work shows details of the growth and properties of hexagonal TbMnO3 films.
In order to investigate the reason for the higher capacity of the interpenetrating isoreticular metal-organic frameworks (IRMOFs) at lower temperatures, we performed grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations and molecular dynamics simulations at 77 K for a set of the interpenetrating IRMOF-11 and the non-interpenetrating counterpart IRMOF-12. From the GCMC simulations, we found universal force field (UFF) is better for describing the hydrogen adsorption behavior than DREIDING force field. The results from the molecular dynamics simulations showed the density of adsorbed hydrogen molecules was increased in the various pores created by the catenation of IRMOF comparing to that of the pores in IRMOF-12. Moreover, the adsorbed hydrogen molecules in IRMOF-11 have the smaller diffusion coefficients. It means that their dynamic behavior is more restricted because of the complexity of the interpenetrating network of IRMOF-11. These results of molecular simulations show the small pores created by the catenation are important for the increase of hydrogen adsorption on IRMOF-11 at lower temperatures.
System in package (SiP) is a superb candidate to enhance the area efficiency and performance of electronic packaging. Here, recent work on stacked chip type 3D SiP with vertically interconnected through hole vias are reported. The process includes; formation of 50um-diameter via holes, conformal deposition of SiO2 dielectric layer, deposition of Ta and Cu barrier layers, via filling by Cu electroplating, Cu/Sn bump formation for multi-chip stacking, and finally chip-to-PCB bonding using Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu solder and ENIG pad. A prototype 3D SiP stacked up to 10 layers was successfully fabricated.
A high frequency electrical model of the through hole via was proposed and the model parameters were extracted from measured S-parameters. The proposed model was verified by TDR/TDT (time domain reflectometry/time domain transmission) and eye-diagram measurement. Contact resistances of Cu via and bump joint were presented.
We reported the relationship between the structure of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and the capability of hydrogen uptake. The QSPR (quantitative structure-property relationship) method was used to find out the factor which affects the adsorption amount of hydrogen molecule on the MOFs. The derivatives which were substituted by functionalized aromatic rings showed the effect of polarization within the identical topology of the frame and similar lattice constants. And the typical series of MOFs with different topology of the frames were investigated to examine the influence of topological change. For the consideration of saturation of hydrogen adsorption amounts, the result of fitting the adsorption curve with Langmuir-Freundlich equation was used to the QSPR approach additionally. We found out that the polar surface area plays a key role on the adsorption amount of hydrogen molecule into the MOFs and the specific value of electrostatic potential surface was calculated to indicate the interaction between hydrogen molecule and MOF.
Hydrogen adsorption mechanism into the porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been studied by density functional theory calculation. The selected functionals for the prediction of interaction energies between hydrogen and potential adsorption sites of MOFs were utilized after the evaluation with the various functionals for interaction energy of H2···C6H6 model system. The adsorption energy of hydrogen molecule into MOFs was investigated with the consideration of the favorable adsorption sites and the orientations. We also calculated the second favorable adsorption sites by geometry optimization using every combination of two first absorbed hydrogen molecules. Based on the calculation of first and second adsorption sites and energies, it has been suggested that the hydrogen adsorption into MOFs follows a cooperative mechanism in which the initial metal sites initiate the propagation of the hydrogen adsorption on the whole frameworks. In addition, the interaction mode between the simple benzene ring with hydrogen is significantly changed when the benzene ring has been incorporated into the framework of MOFs.