Skip to main content Accessibility help

A Shear Strain Route Dependency of Martensite Formation in 316L Stainless Steel

  • Suk Hoon Kang (a1), Tae Kyu Kim (a1), Jinsung Jang (a1) and Kyu Hwan Oh (a2)


In this study, the effect of simple shearing on microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of 316L austenitic stainless steel were investigated. Two different shear strain routes were obtained by twisting cylindrical specimens in the forward and backward directions. The strain-induced martensite phase was effectively obtained by alteration of the routes. Formation of the martensite phase clearly resulted in significant hardening of the steel. Grain-size reduction and strain-induced martensitic transformation within the deformed structures of the strained specimens were characterized by scanning electron microscopy – electron back-scattered diffraction, X-ray diffraction, and the TEM-ASTAR (transmission electron microscopy – analytical scanning transmission atomic resolution, automatic crystal orientation/phase mapping for TEM) system. Significant numbers of twin networks were formed by alteration of the shear strain routes, and the martensite phases were nucleated at the twin interfaces.


Corresponding author

* Corresponding author.


Hide All
Brandon, D.G. (1966). The structure of high-angle grain boundaries. Acta Metall 14, 14791484.
Choi, J.Y. & Jin, W. (1997). Strain induced martensite formation and its effect on strain hardening behavior in the cold drawn 304 austenitic stainless steels. Scr Mater 36, 99104.
Chowdhury, S.G., Das, S. & De, P.K. (2005). Cold rolling behaviour and textural evolution in AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel. Acta Mater 53, 39513959.
Christian, J.W. & Mahajan, S. (1995). Deformation twinning. Prog Mater Sci 39, 1157.
De, A.K., Murdock, D.C., Mataya, M.C., Speer, J.G. & Matlock, D. (2004). Quantitative measurement of deformation-induced martensite in 304 stainless steel by X-ray diffraction. Scr Mater 12, 14451449.
De, A.K., Speer, J.G., Matlock, D., Murdock, D.C., Mataya, M.C. & Comstock, R.J. (2006). Deformation-induced phase transformation and strain hardening in type 304 austenitic stainless steel. Metall Mater Trans A 37A, 18751886.
Fang, X., Zhang, K., Guo, H., Wang, W. & Zhou, B. (2008). Twin-induced grain boundary engineering in 304 stainless steel. Mater Sci Eng A 487, 713.
Lagneborgj, R. (1964). The martensite transformation in 18% Cr-8% Ni steels. Acta Metall 12, 823843.
Maxwell, P.C., Goldberg, A. & Shyne, J.C. (1974). Influence of martensite formed during deformation on the mechanical behavior of Fe-Ni-C Alloys. Metall Mater Trans B 5, 13051318.
Michiuchi, M., Kokawa, H., Wang, Z.J., Sato, Y.S. & Sakai, K. (2006). Twin-induced grain boundary engineering for 316 austenitic stainless steel. Acta Mater 54, 51795184.
Olson, G.B. & Cohen, M. (1972). A mechanism for the strain-induced nucleation of martensitic transformations. J Less-Common Met 28, 107117.
Staudhammer, K.P., Murr, L.E. & Hecker, S.S. (1983). Nucleation and evolution of strain-induced martensitic (bcc) embryos and substructure in stainless steel: a transmission electron microscope study. Acta Metall 31, 267274.
Talonen, J., Nenonen, P., Pape, G. & Hanninen, H. (2005). Effect of strain rate on the strain-induced γ→α′-martensite transformation and mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steels. Metall Mater Trans A 36A, 421432.
Venables, J.A. (1962). Deformation twinning in face-centred cubic metals. Philos Mag 7, 3544.



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed