The α, β, γ, and δ polymorphs of Y2Si2O7 were synthesized using sol-gel and solid-state methods. The structures of the α and γ polymorphs were determined by identification of isostructural rare-earth disilicates, and the structures were refined using Rietveld analysis of X-ray powder diffraction data. The α polymorph crystallizes in space group P1, with a=6.5872(6) Å, b=6.6387(7) Å, c=12.032(1) Å, α=94.501(7)°, β=90.984(8)°, γ=91.771(7)°, and volume=524.16(9) Å3. The γ form is described by space group P21/c, a=4.68824(5) Å, b=10.84072(9) Å, c=5.58219(6) Å, and γ=96.0325(3)°. The anisotropic thermal expansion of each phase was measured using high temperature diffraction up to 1200 or 1400 °C, depending on the stability of the polymorph. The thermal expansion is highly anisotropic for all polymorphs, with the low-expansion direction normal to the long axis of the corner-shared SiO4 tetrahedra.