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In this paper a one-dimensional numerical study on the nonlinear behaviour of an electrically charged jet of Oldroyd-B viscoelastic, Taylor–Melcher leaky dielectric liquid is carried out. The effect of surface charge level, axial wavenumber and finite conductivity on the nonlinear evolution of the jet is investigated. Different structures including beads-on-a-string with/without satellite droplets, quasi-spikes and spikes are detected, and their domains in the plane of the non-dimensional axial wavenumber and the electrical Bond number are illustrated. The underlying mechanisms in the formation of the structures are examined. It is found that tangential electrostatic force plays a key role in the formation of a quasi-spike structure. Decreasing liquid conductivity may lead to a decrease in the size of satellite droplets or even the complete removal of them from a beads-on-a-string structure, induce the transition from a beads-on-a-string to a quasi-spike structure or postpone the appearance of a spike. On the other hand, finite conductivity has little influence on filament thinning in a beads-on-a-string structure, owing to the fact that the electrostatic forces are of secondary importance compared with the capillary force. The difference between the finite conductivity, large conductivity and other cases is elucidated. An experiment is carried out to observe spike structures.
Aeolian dust input exerts significant influence on oceanic biogeochemical cycles and further potentially controls atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, the possible link between long-term aeolian dust supply and primary productivity in the western North Pacific remains poorly understood. Here, we present a comprehensive study of major and trace elements and total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations of sediments from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site U1430 in the southern Japan Sea, in order to reconstruct oceanic palaeoproductivity evolution and test its possible link to Asian dust input since 4 Ma. Palaeoproductivity proxies indicate remarkable increases in productivity at ∼3–2 Ma followed by high-frequency oscillations in productivity since 1.2 Ma. We suggest that higher dust-derived iron supply from Central Asia at 3–2 Ma, which was likely driven by the growth of the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets, could account for enhanced primary productivity and export production in the Japan Sea. Such increased oceanic palaeoproductivity could enhance organic carbon burial, which might contribute to the decrease in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and provide a positive feedback to the global cooling. However, the Tsushima Warm Current (TSWC) intrusion via the southern Tsushima Strait, which was controlled by glacioeustatic sea level changes, has been the principal cause of the rapid changes in primary productivity and benthic redox condition since 1.2 Ma, regardless of continuously increased Asian dust input.
This paper presents new LA-ICP-MS zircon U–Pb chronology, whole-rock geochemical and zircon Hf isotopic data for the felsic lavas of the Huili Group from the southwestern Yangtze Block. LA-ICP-MS zircon U–Pb dating shows that these rocks were emplaced in Late Mesoproterozoic time (∼1028 to 1019 Ma). Relative to typical I-type and S-type granitoids, all the samples are characterized by low Sr and Eu, and high high-field-strength element contents, high TFeO/MgO, enriched rare earth element compositions and negative Eu anomalies, indicating that they share the geochemical signatures of A-type granitoid. They can be further divided into two groups: Group I and Group II. Group I are A1-type felsic rocks and were produced by fractional crystallization of alkaline basaltic magmas. The Group II felsic lavas belong to the A2-type and were derived by partial melting of a crustal source with mixing of mantle-derived magmas. Both Group I and Group II felsic lavas may erupt in a continental back-arc setting. The coexistence of A1- and A2-type rocks in the southwestern Yangtze Block suggests that they can occur in the same tectonic setting.
Fruit flies in the genus Bactrocera are global, economically important pests of agricultural food crops. However, basic life history information about these pests, which is vital for designing more effective control methods, is currently lacking. Artificial diets can be used as a suitable replacement for natural host plants for rearing fruit flies under laboratory conditions, and this study reports on the two-sex life-table parameters of four Bactrocera species (Bactrocera correcta, Bactrocera dorsalis, Bactrocera cucurbitae, and Bactrocera tau) reared on a semi-artificial diet comprising corn flour, banana, sodium benzoate, yeast, sucrose, winding paper, hydrochloric acid and water. The results indicated that the larval development period of B. correcta (6.81 ± 0.65 days) was significantly longer than those of the other species. The fecundity of B. dorsalis (593.60 eggs female−1) was highest among the four species. There were no differences in intrinsic rate of increase (r) and finite rate of increase (λ) among the four species. The gross reproductive rate (GRR) and net reproductive rate (R0) of B. dorsalis were higher than those of the other species, and the mean generation time (T) of B. cucurbitae (42.08 ± 1.21 h) was longer than that of the other species. We conclude that the semi-artificial diet was most suitable for rearing B. dorsalis, due to its shorter development time and higher fecundity. These results will be useful for future studies of fruit fly management.
Most dielectric materials have very weak electro-optic properties, whereas the optical properties of some plasmonic materials may be greatly tuned, especially around their plasma frequency, where dielectric constant is transiting between positive (“dielectric state”) and negative (“metallic state”) values. In this talk, we will review some of our recent work on electro-optical modulation and introduce a new concept, photonic MOS based on “optical property inversion”. This concept may provide inspiration for the development of nanophotonic devices. While the whole paper only discusses theory and modelling, some new experimental results will be presented in the on-site talk. Throughout this report, “static dielectric constant”, ɛ, refers to material dielectric constant in the DC or radio frequency (RF) regime; “optical dielectric constant”, ε, represents material dielectric constant in the near-infrared regime. This paper was re-written based on an Arxiv file .
The present study was conducted to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of vitamin D both in juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) in vivo and in enterocytes in vitro. In primary enterocytes, exposure to 10 mg lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/l increased lactate dehydrogenase activity in the culture medium (P<0·05) and resulted in a significant loss of cell viability (P<0·05). LPS exposure increased (P<0·05) the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8), which was decreased by pre-treatment with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D3) in a dose-dependent manner (P<0·05). Further results showed that pre-treatment with 1,25D3 down-regulated Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (Myd88) and NF-κB p65 mRNA expression (P<0·05), suggesting potential mechanisms against LPS-induced inflammatory response. In vivo, intraperitoneal injection of LPS significantly increased TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA expression in the intestine of carp (P<0·05). Pre-treatment of fish with vitamin D3 protected the fish intestine from the LPS-induced increase of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 mainly by downregulating TLR4, Myd88 and NF-κB p65 mRNA expression (P<0·05). These observations suggest that vitamin D could inhibit LPS-induced inflammatory response in juvenile Jian carp in vivo and in enterocytes in vitro. The anti-inflammatory effect of vitamin D is mediated at least in part by TLR4-Myd88 signalling pathways in the intestine and enterocytes of juvenile Jian carp.
The robust spines and sclerites of the early to middle Cambrian ‘mollusc’ Wiwaxia are ubiquitous in suitably preserved deposits, but are strikingly absent from the Chengjiang Lagerstätte (Cambrian Stage 3, Yunnan Province, SW China). Here we provide the first record of Wiwaxia sclerites from this rich deposit, extending the record of the genus to the earliest Cambrian Series 2. This reinforces the cosmopolitan distribution of this iconic Cambrian lophotrochozoan and demonstrates the strong faunal continuity that unites distant Cambrian Lagerstätten.
GaN-based metal-ferroelectric-semiconductor (MFS) structure has been fabricated by using ferroelectric Pb(Zr0.53Ti0.47)O3 (PZT) instead of conventional oxides as gate insulators. The GaN and PZT films in the MFS structures have been characterized by various methods such as photoluminescence (PL), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD). The Electric properties of GaN MFS structure with different oxide thickness have been characterized by high-frequency C-V measurement. When the PZT films are as thick as 1 μm, the GaN active layers can approach inversion under the bias of 15V, which can not be observed in the traditional GaN MOS structures. When the PZT films are about 100 nm, the MFS structures can approach inversion just under 5V. All the marked improvements of C-V behaviors in GaN MFS structures are mainly attributed to the high dielectric constant and large polarization of the ferroelectric gate oxide.
Ketoacids (KA) are known to improve muscle mass among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on a low-protein diet (CKD-LPD), but the mechanism of its preventive effects on muscle atrophy still remains unclear. Since muscle atrophy in CKD may be attributable to the down-regulation of the Wnt7a/Akt/p70S6K pathway and the activation of the ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS) and the apoptotic signalling pathway, a hypothesis can readily be drawn that KA supplementation improves muscle mass by up-regulating the Wnt7a/Akt/p70S6K pathway and counteracting the activation of the UPS and caspase-3-dependent apoptosis in the muscle of CKD-LPD rats. Rats with 5/6 nephrectomy were randomly divided into three groups, and fed with either 22 % protein (normal-protein diet; NPD), 6 % protein (LPD) or 5 % protein plus 1 % KA for 24 weeks. Sham-operated rats with NPD intake were used as the control. The results demonstrated that KA supplementation improved protein synthesis and increased related mediators such as Wnt7a, phosphorylated Akt and p70S6K in the muscle of CKD-LPD rats. It also inhibited protein degradation, withheld the increase in ubiquitin and its ligases MAFbx (muscle atrophy F-box) and MuRF1 (muscle ring finger-1) as well as attenuated proteasome activity in the muscle of CKD-LPD rats. Moreover, KA supplementation gave rise to a reduction in DNA fragment, cleaved caspase-3 and 14 kDa actin fragment via the down-regulation of the Bax:Bcl-2 ratio in the muscle of CKD-LPD rats. The beneficial effects unveiled herein further consolidate that KA may be a better therapeutic strategy for muscle atrophy in CKD-LPD.
In this study, epidemiological factors of sparganosis cases reported in mainland China from 1959 to December 2012 were analysed. A total of 1061 valid cases were distributed throughout most of the provinces of mainland China, with most cases occurring in Southern and Eastern China. The average age of patients was 29 years (range 0–80 years). Modes of transmission to humans were via contact (54·6%), mainly by application of frog meat as a poultice, foodborne (33·8%), mainly through ingesting frogs or snakes, and waterborne (11·5%) through drinking raw water. The tissue/organs involved were subcutaneous/muscle (43·1%), eyes (31·0%), central nervous system (CNS) (17·9%), urogenital system (3·9%) and visceral organs (3·2%). Obvious differences existed in main risk factors for different areas. Close correlation was found between tissue/organs and risk factors. Main modes of transmission changed during the past decades, from contact (83·8% pre-1979) to foodborne (63·9% post-2000). The tissue/organs involved also changed at the same time. Cases involving eyes fell from 50·0% pre-1979 to 8·3% post-2000, and cases involving CNS increased from 0% pre-1979 to 47·8% post-2000. These results illustrate that China is one of the main epidemic countries of sparganosis in the world. Consumption of frog/snake meat was the main risk factor, although application of frog flesh as a poultice was the main risk factor before 2000. Sparganosis has become one of the neglected but important foodborne/waterborne parasitic diseases in mainland China.
To clarify the effects of a Cryptocaryon irritans infection on the physiological functions of the marbled rockfish Sebastiscus marmoratus, this study utilized C. irritans at concentrations of 2500; 5000; 7500; 10 000; 20 000; and 30 000 theronts/fish to infect marbled rockfish weighing 45±3 g. The survival rate, food intake, respiratory rate, serum ion concentrations and gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity were determined. With the increase of the infection concentration and the passage of time, the survival rate of the rockfish gradually decreased. The groups infected with more than 5000 theronts/fish had stopped feeding within 4 days. The respiratory rates of the fish in the groups infected with 2500 and 5000 theronts/fish initially increased and then decreased. In contrast, the respiratory rate of the fish in the groups infected with more than 7500 theronts/fish was elevated to levels significantly higher than the control group after 12 h. The Na+/K+-ATPase activity and serum Na+ and Cl− concentrations increased with increasing infection concentration. In conclusion, the physiological functions of the fish infected with low concentrations of C. irritans can be effectively restored, whereas a high concentration infection induced severe stress. The declined food intake and accelerated respiratory rate could be useful for an early warning system as important indicators.
Taurine appears to exert potent protections against glutamate (Glu)-induced injury to neurons, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. The possibly protected targets consist of the plasma membrane and the mitochondrial as well as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes. Protection may be provided through a variety of effects, including the prevention of membrane depolarization, neuronal excitotoxicity and mitochondrial energy failure, increases in intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+]i), activation of calpain, and reduction of Bcl-2 levels. These activities are likely to be linked spatially and temporally in the neuroprotective functions of taurine. In addition, events that occur downstream of Glu stimulation, including altered enzymatic activities, apoptotic pathways, and necrosis triggered by the increased [Ca2+]i, can be inhibited by taurine. This review discusses the possible molecular mechanisms of taurine against Glu-induced neuronal injury, providing a better understanding of the protective processes, which might be helpful in the development of novel interventional strategies.
Plasma wakefield excited by a short TeV-scale proton beam is investigated in the highly nonlinear regime. Analysis of the “bubble” field illustrates that transverse expelling force of the wakefield can be compensated by the attractive force, which originates from the co-propagating electrons within the proton bunch, leading to a collimation effect that stabilizes the beam propagation. The protons located in the beam tail can be well-confined and accelerated forward for a long distance. Two-dimensional simulations show that after a 1-TeV proton bunch propagating through plasma for a distance, several percentages of the protons achieve a remarkable energy gain. This scheme presents a potential that proton beams from conventional accelerators may gain considerable additional energy through plasmas wakefields.
Ce0.35Zr0.65−xRExO2 (RE = Y and La; x = 0 and 0.10) and Ce0.35Zr0.50Y0.075La0.075O2 were prepared by a coprecipitation method. The textures, structures, oxygen storage capacity (OSC), and redox properties of all samples were investigated using Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area characterization, x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectra, temperature-programmed technique, and oxygen pulse reaction. The results showed that the fresh Ce0.35Zr0.65O2 has cubic phase, 434 μmol/g of OSC, 82 m2/g of surface area, and good redox properties; after aging at 1000 °C, Ce0.35Zr0.65O2 still has cubic phase, 418 μmol/g of OSC, and 50 m2/g of surface area; when Y3+ or La3+ is added to CeO2–ZrO2, the aged Ce0.35Zr0.65−xRExO2 (RE = Y and La; x = 0 and 0.10) still remains cubic phase, high OSC, and large surface area (47 m2/g); when Y3+ and La3+ are simultaneously added into CeO2–ZrO2, a stable solid solution with cubic phase is formed and has 459 μmol/g of OSC; and the aged Ce0.35Zr0.50Y0.075La0.075O2 reaches to 60 m2/g of surface area and has 390 μmol/g of OSC.
Spirulina is an alga rich in high-quality protein and carotenoids. It is unclear whether spirulina can improve the total-body vitamin A stores of school-age children in China with a high prevalence of vitamin A malnutrition. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of spirulina in improving the total-body vitamin A stores of school-age children in rural areas of China when they consumed spirulina in their daily meals. A total of 228 children (6–11 years) were recruited and randomly divided into three groups supplemented with 4 g (containing 4·18 µg β-carotene), 2 g (containing 2·54 µg β-carotene) or 0 g spirulina 5 d/week for 10 weeks, respectively. Before and after the intervention period, each child was given 0·5 mg [2H4]retinyl acetate and [2H8]retinyl acetate, respectively. To assess vitamin A stores, blood samples (3 ml) were collected on the third and the twenty-first day after each labelled retinyl acetate dose for a retinol enrichment analysis using a GC mass spectrometer. The concentrations of retinol and β-carotene in serum samples were also determined by using HPLC. After the 10-week intervention, serum β-carotene concentrations of children with 2 or 4 g spirulina supplement increased by 0·160 and 0·389 µmmol/l, respectively. Total-body vitamin A stores increased significantly, with a median increase of 0·160 mmol in children taking 2 g spirulina and of 0·279 mmol in children taking 4 g spirulina. Spirulina is a good dietary source of β-carotene, which may effectively increase the total-body vitamin A stores of Chinese school-age children.
GaN-based metal-ferroelectric-semiconductor (MFS) structure has been fabricated by using ferroelectric Pb(Zr0.53Ti0.47)O3 (PZT) instead of conventional oxides as gate insulators. The GaN and PZT films in the MFS structures have been characterized by various methods such as photoluminescence (PL), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD). The Electric properties of GaN MFS structure with different oxide thickness have been characterized by high-frequency C-V measurement. When the PZT films are as thick as 1 µm, the GaN active layers can approach inversion under the bias of 15V, which can not be observed in the traditional GaN MOS structures. When the PZT films are about 100 nm, the MFS structures can approach inversion just under 5V. All the marked improvements of C-V behaviors in GaN MFS structures are mainly attributed to the high dielectric constant and large polarization of the ferroelectric gate oxide.
Intense broad absorption bands centered around 1.7, 2.5, 3.1, and 3.7 eV take place in Er3+-diffused layer formed near MgO (5 mol%)-doped LiNbO3 crystal surface by in-diffusion of Er metal under Li-poor atmosphere. These bands are tentatively attributed to the defect absorption of small polarons, bipolarons, F-centers, and Q-polarons created due to Er3+ in-diffusion and Li2O loss from the crystal. It is interesting that the number, type, area, and peaking position of the bands can be controlled by the diffusion temperature and further oxidation treatment. Such material is a promising medium for data storage based upon two-color holography.