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Excavations at Tiaotou reveal evidence for cultural continuity through the late third to the mid first millennia BC. This research explores shifts in subsistence, production and ritual at Tiaotou, and the emergence of the Pishan-Tiaotou Culture (1200–1000 BC). Tiaotou/Pishan-Tiaotou represents a missing link among Taihu Lake archaeological cultures and contributes to our knowledge of complex political formations and cultural change in Bronze Age southern China.
Youth suicide rates have increased markedly in some countries. This study aimed to estimate the population-attributable risk of psychiatric disorders associated with suicide among Taiwanese youth aged 10–24 years.
Data were obtained from the National Death Registry and National Health Insurance (NHI) claims database between 2007 and 2019. Youth who died by suicide were included, and comparisons, 1:10 matched by age and sex, were randomly selected from the Registry for NHI beneficiaries. We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate suicide odds ratios for psychiatric disorders. The population-attributable fractions (PAF) were calculated for each psychiatric disorder.
A total of 2345 youth suicide and 23 450 comparisons were included. Overall, 44.8% of suicides had a psychiatric disorder, while only 7.9% of the comparisons had a psychiatric disorder. The combined PAF for all psychiatric disorders was 55.9%. The top three psychiatric conditions of the largest PAFs were major depressive disorder, dysthymia, and sleep disorder. In the analysis stratified by sex, the combined PAF was 45.5% for males and 69.2% for females. The PAF among young adults aged 20–24 years (57.0%) was higher than among adolescents aged 10–19 years (48.0%).
Our findings of high PAF from major depressive disorder, dysthymia, and sleep disorder to youth suicides suggest that youth suicide prevention that focuses on detecting and treating mental illness may usefully target these disorders.
Maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) is an important determinant of infant birth weight, and having adequate total GWG has been widely recommended. However, the association of timing of GWG with birth weight remains controversial. We aimed to evaluate this association, especially among women with adequate total GWG. In a prospective cohort study, pregnant women’s weight was routinely measured during pregnancy, and their GWG was calculated for the ten intervals: the first 13, 14–18, 19–23, 24–28, 29–30, 31–32, 33–34, 35–36, 37–38 and 39–40 weeks. Birth weight was measured, and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and large-for-gestational-age were assessed. Generalized linear and Poisson models were used to evaluate the associations of GWG with birth weight and its outcomes after multivariate adjustment, respectively. Of the 5049 women, increased GWG in the first 30 weeks was associated with increased birth weight for male infants, and increased GWG in the first 28 weeks was associated with increased birth weight for females. Among 1713 women with adequate total GWG, increased GWG percent between 14 and 23 weeks was associated with increased birth weight. Moreover, inadequate GWG between 14 and 23 weeks, compared with the adequate GWG, was associated with an increased risk of SGA (43 (13·7 %) v. 42 (7·2 %); relative risk 1·83, 95 % CI 1·21, 2·76). Timing of GWG may influence infant birth weight differentially, and women with inadequate GWG between 14 and 23 weeks may be at higher risk of delivering SGA infants, despite having adequate total GWG.
Numerous animal models and epidemiological and observational studies have demonstrated that enterovirus (EV) infection could be involved in the development of clinical type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), but its aetiology is not fully understood. Therefore, we reviewed the association between EV infection and clinical T1DM. We searched PubMed and Embase from inception to April 2021 and reference lists of included studies without any language restrictions in only human studies. The correlation between EV infection and clinical T1DM was calculated as the pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), analysed using random-effects models. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate the robustness of the associations. A total of 25 articles (22 case–control studies and three nested case–control studies) met the inclusion criterion including 4854 participants (2948 cases and 1906 controls) with a high level of statistical heterogeneity (I2 = 80%, P < 0.001) mainly attributable to methods of EV detection, study type, age distribution, source of EV sample and control subjects. Meta-analysis showed a significant association between EV infection and clinical T1DM (OR 5.75, 95% CI 3.61–9.61). There is a clinically significant association between clinical T1DM and EV infection.
Mars exploration motivates the search for extraterrestrial life, the development of space technologies, and the design of human missions and habitations. Here, we seek new insights and pose unresolved questions relating to the natural history of Mars, habitability, robotic and human exploration, planetary protection, and the impacts on human society. Key observations and findings include:
– high escape rates of early Mars' atmosphere, including loss of water, impact present-day habitability;
– putative fossils on Mars will likely be ambiguous biomarkers for life;
– microbial contamination resulting from human habitation is unavoidable; and
– based on Mars' current planetary protection category, robotic payload(s) should characterize the local martian environment for any life-forms prior to human habitation.
Some of the outstanding questions are:
– which interpretation of the hemispheric dichotomy of the planet is correct;
– to what degree did deep-penetrating faults transport subsurface liquids to Mars' surface;
– in what abundance are carbonates formed by atmospheric processes;
– what properties of martian meteorites could be used to constrain their source locations;
– the origin(s) of organic macromolecules;
– was/is Mars inhabited;
– how can missions designed to uncover microbial activity in the subsurface eliminate potential false positives caused by microbial contaminants from Earth;
– how can we ensure that humans and microbes form a stable and benign biosphere; and
– should humans relate to putative extraterrestrial life from a biocentric viewpoint (preservation of all biology), or anthropocentric viewpoint of expanding habitation of space?
Studies of Mars' evolution can shed light on the habitability of extrasolar planets. In addition, Mars exploration can drive future policy developments and confirm (or put into question) the feasibility and/or extent of human habitability of space.
Isolated congenital tricuspid regurgitation other than Ebstein’s anomaly was rare especially for children. The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics and to assess the results of tricuspid valvuloplasty for children with isolated tricuspid regurgitation.
From January 2010 to June 2019, 10 consecutive patients with isolated tricuspid regurgitation who were unresponsive to drug therapy underwent tricuspid valvuloplasty in our hospital. Patients’ clinical data were analysed retrospectively.
Mean age at operation was 48.5 ± 31.0 (range: 9–106) months and mean weight at operation was 16.1 ± 6.9 (range: 8.6–33.0) kg. All patients presented severe isolated tricuspid regurgitation. According to pathological lesions, the main causes accounted for chordae tendinea rupture (3/10), leaflet cleft (2/10), mal-connected chordal tendinea to leaflets (2/10), elongated chordae (1/10) and chordae absent (1/10), and severe anterior leaflet dysplasia (1/10). Individualised tricuspid valvuloplasty was adapted to all of them successfully. Post-operative echocardiography showed no tricuspid regurgitation in two patients and mild regurgitation in eight patients. The cardiothoracic ratios on their chest roentgenograms decreased from 0.59 ± 0.05 to 0.54 ± 0.05. At the latest follow-up (50.4 ± 47.2 months), echocardiography showed that mild to moderate tricuspid regurgitation in seven patients, moderate tricuspid regurgitation in three patients, and no patient with severe tricuspid regurgitation. All patients were in NYHA functional class I.
For patients with isolated tricuspid regurgitation who were not well responsive to drug therapy, individualised tricuspid valve repair can achieve an excellent result.
Bile acids (BA) have emerged as signalling molecules regulating intestinal physiology. The importance of intestinal microbiota in production of secondary BA, for example, lithocholic acid (LCA) which impairs enterocyte proliferation and permeability, triggered us to determine the effects of oral probiotics on intestinal BA metabolism. Piglets were weaned at 28 d of age and allocated into control (CON, n 14) or probiotic (PRO, n 14) group fed 50 mg of Lactobacillus plantarum daily, and gut microbiota and BA profile were determined. To test the potential interaction of LCA with bacteria endotoxins in inducing damage of enterocytes, IPEC-J2 cells were treated with LCA, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LCA + LPS and expressions of genes related to inflammation, antioxidant capacity and nutrient transport were determined. Compared with the CON group, the PRO group showed lower total LCA level in the ileum and higher relative abundance of the Lactobacillus genus in faeces. In contrast, the relative abundances of Bacteroides, Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1, Parabacteroides and Ruminococcus_1, important bacteria genera in BA biotransformation, were all lower in the PRO than in the CON group. Moreover, PRO piglets had lower postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1 level, while higher glucose level than CON piglets. Co-administration of LPS and LCA led to down-regulated expression of glucose and peptide transporter genes in IPEC-J2 cells. Altogether, oral L. plantarum altered BA profile probably by modulating relative abundances of gut microbial genera that play key roles in BA metabolism and might consequently impact glucose homoeostasis. The detrimental effect of LCA on nutrient transport in enterocytes might be aggravated under LPS challenge.
A solution to the problem of Gaussian beam scattering by a circular perfect electric conductor coated with eccentrically anisotropic media is presented. The incident Gaussian beam source is expanded as an approximate expression in the simple form with Taylor's series. The transmitted field in the anisotropically coated region is expressed as an infinite summation of Eigen plane waves with different polar angles. The unknown coefficients of the scattered fields are obtained with the aid of the boundary conditions. The addition theorem for cylindrical functions is applied to transfer from the local coordinates to the global ones. The infinite series can be truncated under the prerequisite of achieving the solution convergence. Only the case of transverse-electric polarization is discussed. The similar formulation of transverse-magnetic polarization can be obtained by adopting a similar method. Some numerical results are presented and discussed. The result is in agreement with that available as expected when the eccentric geometry comes to the concentric one.
Underground coal mining in the North China Plain has created large-scale subsidence wetlands that may attract waterbirds that use them as complementary habitats. However, no study has been conducted to understand avian use of these created wetlands, inhibiting the formulation of effective management plans. Here, we carried out 12 semi-monthly surveys in 55 subsidence wetlands during the 2016–2017 migration and wintering period and performed direct multivariate analyses, combined with variance partitioning, to test the effects of multi-scale habitat variables on the waterbird assemblages. A total of 89 349 waterbirds representing 60 species were recorded, with seasonal fluctuations in species richness and bird abundance. Waterbird community structures were shaped by four groups of variables at local, landscape and human levels with different effects among seasons. Anthropogenic disturbance was the most important factor group, negatively affecting most guilds. Waterbirds in this human-dominated environment are under a variety of potential threats that should be further studied. The subsidence wetlands are still expanding, and if managed effectively, may provide important complementary habitats for a wide array of waterbird species, particularly for those migrating along the East Asian–Australasian Flyway. Our study provides key baseline data regarding the waterbird communities and may help with the designing of effective management and conservation plans.
Training students has been proven to be the optimal way to deliver cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skills. However, it is somehow unknown whether or not the current recommendations appropriate for Caucasian students are also suitable for East Asian students. The purpose of this study is to explore the best age for East Asian students to receive CPR training.
Students were recruited from six schools. Students participated in a standard CPR training program provided by tutors. Each student attended a 60-minute training session with a manikin. After being trained, within one hour, the student’s compression quality was assessed.
A total of 360 students who constituted 12 continuous grades were recruited for this study. Adequate compression depth and satisfactory compression rate with correct hand position could be achieved since the age of 12. However, successful compression rate and complete release could be achieved since the younger age of six.
Current recommendations for Caucasian students to cultivate a full-capacity CPR rescuer at the age of 12 are also appropriate for East Asian students. However, the optimal age for students to receive CPR training should be decided based on evidence and importance assessment of CPR.
He D, Huang K, Yang Y, Jiang W, Yang N, Yang H. What is the optimal age for students to receive cardiopulmonary resuscitation training? Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(4):394–398.
We describe here a new turtle from the early Eocene of Wutu, Shandong Province, China. This turtle with a full row of well-developed inframarginal scutes is assigned to the basalmost testudinoids while stem testudinoids were believed to disappear by the Palaeocene–Eocene boundary. This account shows that stem testudinoids crossed this boundary in their original range. The first comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of stem and modern testudinoids performed here demonstrates that the stem testudinoids, previously placed in the family ‘Lindholmemydidae’, do not form a monophyletic group, and the two major clades of testudinoids (Emydidae and Geoemydidae+Testudinidae) split one from another well before the Palaeocene/Eocene boundary, prior to the Late Cretaceous.
Vitamin D is essential for Ca absorption, prevention of falls and fracture, and maintenance of muscle strength and balance. Lack of awareness of the importance of vitamin D in bone health is common in Asia.
To define key statements, objectives and actions for improving osteoporosis management and vitamin D inadequacy in Asia.
Results and conclusion
This declaration was jointly produced by specialists at the Asia Metaforum on the Role of Vitamin D and the Management of Osteoporosis, held in September 2006 in Hong Kong, to define actions to prevent vitamin D insufficiency in Asia. Although developed specifically for Asia, some or all of these statements may be applicable to other regions of the world.
The high sensitivity and spatial resolution enabled by two-photon excitation fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy/fluorescence resonance energy transfer (2PE-FLIM/FRET) provide an effective approach that reveals protein-protein interactions in a single cell during stimulated exocytosis. Enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP)–labeled synaptosomal associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP25A) and red fluorescence protein (mRFP)–labeled Rabphillin 3A (RPH3A) were co-expressed in PC12 cells as the FRET donor and acceptor, respectively. The FLIM images of EGFP-SNAP25A suggested that SNAP25A/RPH3A interaction was increased during exocytosis. In addition, the multidimensional (three-dimensional with time) nature of the 2PE-FLIM image datasets can also resolve the protein interactions in the z direction, and we have compared several image analysis methods to extract more accurate and detailed information from the FLIM images. Fluorescence lifetime was fitted by using one and two component analysis. The lifetime FRET efficiency was calculated by the peak lifetime (τpeak) and the left side of the half-peak width (τ1/2), respectively. The results show that FRET efficiency increased at cell surface, which suggests that SNAP25A/RPH3A interactions take place at cell surface during stimulated exocytosis. In summary, we have demonstrated that the 2PE-FLIM/FRET technique is a powerful tool to reveal dynamic SNAP25A/RPH3A interactions in single neuroendocrine cells.
The deposition of amorphous InGaZnO4 (a-IGZO) semiconductor film, via a sputtering process, has been demonstrated in the literature. In this paper, we present a solution method as an alternative to obtain this semiconducting film. The dispersible IGZO colloids is formed first by co-precipitation of precursors, followed by hydrothermal treatment at 200°C for 1 hour and using CMC as the dispersion agent. The crystalline colloid would become amorphous when it was heated at above 250°C. The TFT structure was made by growing a dielectric silica layer using the CVD method, a metal layer using the sputtering method, and an active IGZO layer using the solution method. This device exhibits low operating voltage, the mobility is about 2cm2V−1s−1 and the Ion/Ioff ratio is 104. Further improvement in processing is needed.
Self-propulsion and directed movement of nano- and micro-particles can in principle provide novel components for applications in microrobotics and MEMS. Our research involves the design of catalytic propulsion systems and the control of colloidal movement based on this principle. We have designed autonomous nanomotors that mimic biological motors by using catalytic reactions to generate forces derived from chemical gradients. Through architectural control of bimetallic catalytic particles, we have recently developed systems that undergo more complex movement. For example, we have constructed 10-micron scale rotary motors by contact lithography. In these chiral motors, bimetallic Au-Pt patterns are free-standing and move in the pattern predicted by theory. These studies demonstrate that by designing the proper architecture, one can tailor the pattern of movement to specific applications, such as changing from translational to rotational movement. The potential for elaboration of these designs to more complex micro-machine assemblies is discussed.
Gene expression profiles between submergence rice (Oryza sativa ssp. indica) varieties, tolerant FR13A and sensitive IR39595-503-2-1-2, under submergence stress were identified using differential display reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (DDRT-PCR). A total of 1428 bands were amplified with 40 pairs of primers, of which 102 were significantly different between the two lines. The differential display ratio was 7.1%. Among 42 differential display bands derived from the submergence tolerant variety, the expression of seven fragments was confirmed by Northern blot analysis. The analysis of their sequences indicated that four of them showed high homology with genes related to a water stress response: genes encoding ATP-binding protein, isocitrate dehydrogenase, NADH dehydrogenase and terminal acetyltransferase, respectively. The remaining three fragments were novel cDNA fragments.
Well-dispersed anatase and rutile nano-particles were prepared via hydrothermal treatment of tetrabutylammonium hydroxide-peptized and HNO3-peptized sols at 240 °C. A broad particle size distribution of anatase crystals was observed in the nonpeptized TiO2 species hydrothermally treated at 240 °C. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, as well as zeta potential measurement, were used to characterize the particles. The formation of the well-dispersed anatase and rutile particles from the peptized samples could be attributed to (i) homogeneous distribution of the component in the peptized sols, and (ii) the high long-range electrostatic forces between particles in the presence of both peptizers, which were not present in the nonpeptized samples. This work provided a new way to prepare nano-crystals of titania.
Transformations, microstructures and mechanical properties of Nb(10-16) at.% Al alloys are reported. Cast buttons of the alloys were solutionized in the high temperature single phase Nb-Al region and cooled to retain supersaturated solid solutions (SS). These SSs are observed to show B2 ordering, with both the degree of ordering and hardness increasing with increase in Al. The precipitation of ND3AI from the supersaturated SS, which was studied as a function of temperature (1000-1600°C) and time (to 100h) by hardness measurements and microscopy, is sluggish, proceeds by initial heterogeneous nucleation at grain boundaries followed by growth into the grains in a discontinuous fashion, follows C-curve kinetics, and leads to significant hardening. The size, spacing and amount of the Nb3Al precipitates depend strongly on Al content, temperature and time. The compressive yield strength of the SS increases with %Al and high values of 900 and 500 MPa at 25 and 900°C, respectively, are observed. The presence of Nb3Al leads to a very significant increase in yield strength, with values being as high as 1550 and 1100 MPa at 25 and 900°C, respectively. Also, a strong dependence of strength on the size and spacing of the Nb3Al precipitates is observed. These results are presented and discussed.
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