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Approximately, 1.7 million individuals in the United States have been infected with SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for the novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). This has disproportionately impacted adults, but many children have been infected and hospitalised as well. To date, there is not much information published addressing the cardiac workup and monitoring of children with COVID-19. Here, we share the approach to the cardiac workup and monitoring utilised at a large congenital heart centre in New York City, the epicentre of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States.
Three amplification mechanisms present in turbulent jets, namely lift-up, Kelvin–Helmholtz and Orr, are characterized via global resolvent analysis and spectral proper orthogonal decomposition (SPOD) over a range of Mach numbers. The lift-up mechanism was recently identified in turbulent jets via local analysis by Nogueira et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 873, 2019, pp. 211–237) at low Strouhal number (
) and non-zero azimuthal wavenumbers (
). In these limits, a global SPOD analysis of data from high-fidelity simulations reveals streamwise vortices and streaks similar to those found in turbulent wall-bounded flows. These structures are in qualitative agreement with the global resolvent analysis, which shows that they are a response to upstream forcing of streamwise vorticity near the nozzle exit. Analysis of mode shapes, component-wise amplitudes and sensitivity analysis distinguishes the three mechanisms and the regions of frequency–wavenumber space where each dominates, finding lift-up to be dominant as
. Finally, SPOD and resolvent analyses of localized regions show that the lift-up mechanism is present throughout the jet, with a dominant azimuthal wavenumber inversely proportional to streamwise distance from the nozzle, with streaks of azimuthal wavenumber exceeding five near the nozzle, and wavenumbers one and two most energetic far downstream of the potential core.
From 1971 to 2012, in New York State, years with human Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) were more strongly associated with the presence of Aedes canadensis, Coquillettidia perturbans and Culiseta melanura mosquitoes infected with the EEE virus (Fisher's exact test, one-sided P = 0.005, 0.03, 0.03) than with Culiseta morsitans, Aedes vexans, Culex pipiens-restuans, Anopheles quadrimaculatus or Anopheles punctipennis (P = 0.05, 0.40, 0.33, 1.00, 1.00). The estimated relative risk of a case in a year in which the virus was detected vs. not detected was 14.67 for Ae. canadensis, 6.38 for Cq. perturbans and 5.50 for Cs. morsitans. In all 5 years with a case, Cs. melanura with the virus was detected. In no year was there a case in the absence of Cs. melanura with the virus. There were 18 years with no case in the presence of Cs. melanura with the virus. Such observations may identify the time of increased risk, and when the methods may be used to prevent or reduce exposure to vector mosquito species in this geographic region.
Ornamental jewelweed (Impatiens glandulifera Royle) is an alien invasive plant in Europe. This annual plant often grows in riparian habitats where herbicides are prohibited. Several studies have reported the negative effect on ecosystem and ecosystem services by this species. However, limited research is published on control measures and the aim of our study was to explore use of hot water and cutting to control I. glandulifera. A lab experiment showed that the lethal water temperature for seed was between 45 and 50 C. In a pot experiment with seeds in soil, emergence of I. glandulifera was reduced by 78% and 93% compared with the untreated control with volumes of hot water (80 C) of 7.2 and 14.5 L m−2, respectively. When treatments were conducted on relatively tall plants (almost 60 cm) in late June, hot water gave significantly better control than cutting. Compared with an untreated control, I. glandulifera cover was reduced by 97% and 79% after hot water and cutting, respectively. Application of hot water to smaller (<40 cm) and less developed plants (BBCH 12–13) in early June and cutting of plants with visible flower buds (mid-July) led to no significant difference in cover. Compared with an untreated control, I. glandulifera cover was reduced by 99% (cut below first node) and 91% (hot water and cut above first node). When relatively tall plants (almost 60 cm) were treated, hot water use was high (31.1 L m−2) and required twice as many work hours (4.8 min m−2) as cutting (2.4 min m−2). When smaller plants (<40 cm) were targeted, work hours and hot water use were reduced to 2.1 min m−2 and 13.7 L m−2, respectively.
Older adults constitute the age group in which suicide more often reaches its most categorical expression: consummation.
Identify risk factors for suicide in older people.
Systematic review of the literature on the subject. The databases consulted were Dialnet and Pubmed. The descriptors used have been: “suicide”, “risk factors” and “elderly”, accepting the works found in English and Spanish, with a total of 501 references found after the search, from which 75 have been selected.
As shown in the reviewed studies, there is a progressive increase in suicide rate with age in males. The purpose of dying in the old man is usually characterized by his firm conviction, not infrequently reflexive and premeditated. In the multifactorial etiology of suicidal behaviour in this age group, the main elements to be considered would be psychosocial factors, psychiatric diseases and chronic somatic diseases, resulting in a potentiation among them due to their frequent interaction. The feeling of abandonment, the feeling of emptiness, the despair of the organic collapse and the self-perception of being a useless person, without projects, generates deterioration in the quality of life.
In the multifactorial etiology of the suicidal behaviour of the elderly, they usually play coprotagonic roles, loneliness, isolation, somatic illness and depression. The most likely profile of the suicidal elder would be represented by a man with a history of depressive episode after age 40, who lives alone, with a family history of depression or alcoholism and a recent loss.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Schizophrenia is a developmental disorder that includes non-psychiatric abnormalities . Metabolic abnormalities prior to antipsychotic treatment exist. The clozapine metabolic profile causes clozapine underuse in resistant schizophrenia .
To correlate metabolic profile with psychiatric severity and compare the correlations between clozapine/non-clozapine patients.
To determine possible contributory factors to metabolic abnormalities in schizophrenia.
We cross-sectionally analyzed all patients from a Spanish long-term mental care facility (n = 139). Schizophrenic/schizoaffective patients were selected (n = 118). N = 31 used clozapine. We paired clozapine and non-clozapine patients by sex and age and assessed metabolic and psychopathologic variables.
We compared psychopathologic variables between patients with/without cardiometabolic treatment and the differences between clozapine/non-clozapine groups.
We analyzed: 27 clozapine/29 non-clozapine patients. A total of 67,9% males with a mean age of 51.3 (SD 9.6) years. In the whole sample TG negatively correlated with Negative-CGI (r: −0,470, P: 0.049) and HDL-cholesterol correlates with Global-CGI(r: 0,505, P: 0.046). Prolactin correlated with the number of antipsychotics (r: 0.581, P: 0.023) and IMC (r: 0.575, P: 0.025). Clozapine group took less antipsychotics [Fisher (P: 0.045)] and had higher scores in total BRPS scale [t-Student (P: 0.036)]. They did not use more cardiometabolic treatment. There were no psychopathological differences between cardiometabolic treated/non-treated patients. In the non-cardiometabolic treated group (n = 35/62,5%), IMC negatively correlated with positive and total BPRS, positive, cognitive and global-CGI. We found negative correlations between metabolic parameters and psychopathology in clozapine (40%) and non-clozapine subgroups (60%). In the cardiometabolic treated group (n = 21/37,5%), we did not find these correlations in either of clozapine (61.9%) or non-clozapine (38.1%) subgroups.
Severity , prolactine  and treatment  could play a role in metabolic parameters. In our sample we found negative correlations between psychopathological and metabolic parameters.
References not available.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
For resistant schizophrenia, the only approved treatment is clozapine. However, clozapine is underused, mainly due to its wide range of side-effects. Secondary effects differ amongst antipsychotics (Leucht et al., 2009). Despite that there is no good evidence that combined antipsychotics offer any advantage over the use of a single antipsychotic, combination increases the frequency of adverse events (Maudsley guidelines).
To compare the side-effect profile between clozapine and non-clozapinepatients.
To provide evidence that clozapine patients do not show a worse side-effects profile.
We cross-sectionally analysed all patients from a Spanish long-term mental care facility (n = 139). Schizophrenic/schizoaffective patients were selected (n = 118) and their treatment was assessed, 31 patients used clozapine. We paired clozapine and non-clozapine patients by sex and age and assessed antipsychotic side effects and possible confounder variables.
Our sample was 27 clozapine patients and 29 non-clozapine patients. 67,9% were male with a mean age of 51.3 (SD 9.6) years. For continuous variables: age, BMI, waist/hip, cholesterol, TG, glucose, prolactin, heart-rate, blood pressure, sleeping hours, the only statistical differences found were lower heart-rate (P = 0.001) in clozapine group and higher salivation subscale of SAS (P = 0.002) in clozapine group. For discrete variables: monotherapy, obesity, overweight, metabolic syndrome or possible confounders as propranolol, laxative, diet, antiglycemiant or insulin, fibrates or statins, antihypertensive or anticholinergic, no statistical differences were found.
We did not find differences in cardiometabolic parameters, which are the main barrier to prescribing clozapine, probably due to the concomitant use of other drugs in both groups.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Psychotic disorders are associated with metabolic abnormalities including alterations in glucose and lipid metabolism. A major challenge in the treatment of psychosis is to identify patients with vulnerable metabolic profiles who may be at risk of developing cardiometabolic co-morbidities. It is established that both central and peripheral metabolic organs use lipids to control energy balance and regulate peripheral insulin sensitivity. The endocannabinoid system, implicated in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism, has been shown to be dysregulated in psychosis. It is currently unclear how these endocannabinoid abnormalities relate to metabolic changes in psychosis. Here we review recent research in the field of metabolic co-morbidities in psychotic disorders as well as the methods to study them and potential links to the endocannabinoid system. We also describe the bioinformatics platforms developed in the EU project METSY for the investigations of the biological etiology in patients at risk of psychosis and in first episode psychosis patients. The METSY project was established with the aim to identify and evaluate multi-modal peripheral and neuroimaging markers that may be able to predict the onset and prognosis of psychiatric and metabolic symptoms in patients at risk of developing psychosis and first episode psychosis patients. Given the intrinsic complexity and widespread role of lipid metabolism, a systems biology approach which combines molecular, structural and functional neuroimaging methods with detailed metabolic characterisation and multi-variate network analysis is essential in order to identify how lipid dysregulation may contribute to psychotic disorders. A decision support system, integrating clinical, neuropsychological and neuroimaging data, was also developed in order to aid clinical decision making in psychosis. Knowledge of common and specific mechanisms may aid the etiopathogenic understanding of psychotic and metabolic disorders, facilitate early disease detection, aid treatment selection and elucidate new targets for pharmacological treatments.
We study the optimization of collisionless shock acceleration of ions based on hydrodynamic modelling and simulations of collisional shock waves in gaseous targets. The models correspond to the specifications required for experiments with the
laser at the Accelerator Test Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory and the Vulcan Petawatt system at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. In both cases, a laser prepulse is simulated to interact with hydrogen gas jet targets. It is demonstrated that by controlling the pulse energy, the deposition position and the backing pressure, a blast wave suitable for generating nearly monoenergetic ion beams can be formed. Depending on the energy absorbed and the deposition position, an optimal temporal window can be determined for the acceleration considering both the necessary overdense state of plasma and the required short scale lengths for monoenergetic ion beam production.
This study explores magnetization exhibited by nanoscale platinum-based structures embedded in pure silica plates. A superposition of laser pulses in the samples produced periodic linear arrangements of micro-sized structures. The samples were integrated by PtO2 microstructures (PtOΣs) with dispersed Pt oxide nanoparticles in their surroundings. The characterization of the materials was performed by high transmission electron microscopy studies. Furthermore, topographical and magnetic effects on the sample surfaces were analyzed by atomic force microscopy and magnetic force microscopy, respectively. The magnetic measurements indicated an enhancement in the gradient phase shift and in the gradient force related to the magnetic PtOΣs. The possibility of tuning the magnetic characteristics of the samples through contact with a Nd2Fe14B magnet was demonstrated. This process corresponds to an innovative method for obtaining magnetic PtOΣs induced by laser pulses. Moreover, an increase in the compactness of the silica with platinum-based structures was confirmed by an evaluation of the effective elastic modulus with reference to pure silica. The multimodal magnetic structures studied in this work seem to be candidates for developing high-density magnetic storage media.
Positive symptoms are a useful predictor of aggression in schizophrenia. Although a similar pattern of abnormal brain structures related to both positive symptoms and aggression has been reported, this observation has not yet been confirmed in a single sample.
To study the association between positive symptoms and aggression in schizophrenia on a neurobiological level, a prospective meta-analytic approach was employed to analyze harmonized structural neuroimaging data from 10 research centers worldwide. We analyzed brain MRI scans from 902 individuals with a primary diagnosis of schizophrenia and 952 healthy controls.
The result identified a widespread cortical thickness reduction in schizophrenia compared to their controls. Two separate meta-regression analyses revealed that a common pattern of reduced cortical gray matter thickness within the left lateral temporal lobe and right midcingulate cortex was significantly associated with both positive symptoms and aggression.
These findings suggested that positive symptoms such as formal thought disorder and auditory misperception, combined with cognitive impairments reflecting difficulties in deploying an adaptive control toward perceived threats, could escalate the likelihood of aggression in schizophrenia.
The Children of the Twins Early Development Study (CoTEDS) is a new prospective children-of-twins study in the UK, designed to investigate intergenerational associations across child developmental stages. CoTEDS will enable research on genetic and environmental factors that underpin parent–child associations, with a focus on mental health and cognitive-related traits. Through CoTEDS, we will have a new lens to examine the roles that parents play in influencing child development, as well as the genetic and environmental factors that shape parenting behavior and experiences. Recruitment is ongoing from the sample of approximately 20,000 contactable adult twins who have been enrolled in the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS) since infancy. TEDS twins are invited to register all offspring to CoTEDS at birth, with 554 children registered as of May 2019. By recruiting the second generation of TEDS participants, CoTEDS will include information on adult twins and their offspring from infancy. Parent questionnaire-based data collection is now underway for 1- and 2-year-old CoTEDS infants, with further waves of data collection planned. Current data collection includes the following primary constructs: child mental health, temperament, language and cognitive development; parent mental health and social relationships; parenting behaviors and feelings; and other socioecological factors. Measurement tools have been selected with reference to existing genetically informative cohort studies to ensure overlap in phenotypes measured at corresponding stages of development. This built-in study overlap is intended to enable replication and triangulation of future analyses across samples and research designs. Here, we summarize study protocols and measurement procedures and describe future plans.
The first episode of psychosis is a critical period in the emergence of cardiometabolic risk.
We set out to explore the influence of individual and lifestyle factors on cardiometabolic outcomes in early psychosis.
This was a prospective cohort study of 293 UK adults presenting with first-episode psychosis investigating the influence of sociodemographics, lifestyle (physical activity, sedentary behaviour, nutrition, smoking, alcohol, substance use) and medication on cardiometabolic outcomes over the following 12 months.
Rates of obesity and glucose dysregulation rose from 17.8% and 12%, respectively, at baseline to 23.7% and 23.7% at 1 year. Little change was seen over time in the 76.8% tobacco smoking rate or the quarter who were sedentary for over 10 h daily. We found no association between lifestyle at baseline or type of antipsychotic medication prescribed with either baseline or 1-year cardiometabolic outcomes. Median haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) rose by 3.3 mmol/mol in participants from Black and minority ethnic (BME) groups, with little change observed in their White counterparts. At 12 months, one-third of those with BME heritage exceeded the threshold for prediabetes (HbA1c >39 mmol/mol).
Unhealthy lifestyle choices are prevalent in early psychosis and cardiometabolic risk worsens over the next year, creating an important window for prevention. We found no evidence, however, that preventative strategies should be preferentially directed based on lifestyle habits. Further work is needed to determine whether clinical strategies should allow for differential patterns of emergence of cardiometabolic risk in people of different ethnicities.
Over recent decades, biomass gains in remaining old-growth Amazonia forests have declined due to environmental change. Amazonia’s huge size and complexity makes understanding these changes, drivers, and consequences very challenging. Here, using a network of permanent monitoring plots at the Amazon–Cerrado transition, we quantify recent biomass carbon changes and explore their environmental drivers. Our study area covers 30 plots of upland and riparian forests sampled at least twice between 1996 and 2016 and subject to various levels of fire and drought. Using these plots, we aimed to: (1) estimate the long-term biomass change rate; (2) determine the extent to which forest changes are influenced by forest type; and (3) assess the threat to forests from ongoing environmental change. Overall, there was no net change in biomass, but there was clear variation among different forest types. Burning occurred at least once in 8 of the 12 riparian forests, while only 1 of the 18 upland forests burned, resulting in losses of carbon in burned riparian forests. Net biomass gains prevailed among other riparian and upland forests throughout Amazonia. Our results reveal an unanticipated vulnerability of riparian forests to fire, likely aggravated by drought, and threatening ecosystem conservation at the Amazon southern margins.
Public health is defined by the UK’s Faculty of Public Health as ‘The science and art of promoting and protecting health and well being, preventing ill health and prolonging life through the organised efforts of society’.
This definition locates the causes of ill health and the remedies in the realms of personal and societal agency, and not only in the remit of health practitioners. Although the latter have a role as members of society to make prevention a reality for themselves, families and communities, they play a special part in preventing further ill health for people who suffer mental illness and are seeking help for it.
Other chapters in this book attend to the relational and social fabric that enables people to flourish; it is made of good and trusting relationships, and material conditions that permit thought about purpose and meaning beyond survival.
We read with interest the recent editorial, “The Hennepin Ketamine Study,” by Dr. Samuel Stratton commenting on the research ethics, methodology, and the current public controversy surrounding this study.1 As researchers and investigators of this study, we strongly agree that prospective clinical research in the prehospital environment is necessary to advance the science of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and emergency medicine. We also agree that accomplishing this is challenging as the prehospital environment often encounters patient populations who cannot provide meaningful informed consent due to their emergent conditions. To ensure that fellow emergency medicine researchers understand the facts of our work so they may plan future studies, and to address some of the questions and concerns in Dr. Stratton’s editorial, the lay press, and in social media,2 we would like to call attention to some inaccuracies in Dr. Stratton’s editorial, and to the lay media stories on which it appears to be based.
Ho JD, Cole JB, Klein LR, Olives TD, Driver BE, Moore JC, Nystrom PC, Arens AM, Simpson NS, Hick JL, Chavez RA, Lynch WL, Miner JR. The Hennepin Ketamine Study investigators’ reply. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2019;34(2):111–113
Carrion in the form of dead seal pups and algal mats placed on soft bottom habitats at Explorers Cove and Salmon Bay, McMurdo Sound, attract scavenging invertebrates that are driven away by hydrogen sulphide produced by sulphate-reducing bacteria sequestered below a layer of Beggiatoa/Thioploca-like filamentous bacteria. This system is usually found for lipid-rich marine mammal carrion, but also occurred with natural algal mats.
Optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) [Dubietis et al., Opt. Commun. 88, 437 (1992)] implemented by multikilojoule Nd:glass pump lasers is a promising approach to produce ultraintense pulses (
). Technologies are being developed to upgrade the OMEGA EP Laser System with the goal to pump an optical parametric amplifier line (EP OPAL) with two of the OMEGA EP beamlines. The resulting ultraintense pulses (1.5 kJ, 20 fs,
) would be used jointly with picosecond and nanosecond pulses produced by the other two beamlines. A midscale OPAL pumped by the Multi-Terawatt (MTW) laser is being constructed to produce 7.5-J, 15-fs pulses and demonstrate scalable technologies suitable for the upgrade. MTW OPAL will share a target area with the MTW laser (50 J, 1 to 100 ps), enabling several joint-shot configurations. We report on the status of the MTW OPAL system, and the technology development required for this class of all-OPCPA laser system for ultraintense pulses.