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Introduction: Prompt defibrillation is critical during paediatric cardiac arrest. The main objective of this systematic review was to determine the initial defibrillation energy dose for ventricular fibrillation (VF) or pulseless ventricular tachycardia (pVT) that is associated with sustained return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) during paediatric cardiac arrest. Associations between initial defibrillation energy dose with any ROSC, survival and defibrillation-induced complications were also assessed. Methods: A systematic review was performed using four databases (Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library) (PROSPERO: CRD42016036734). Human studies (cohort studies or controlled trials) and animal model studies (controlled trials) of pediatric cardiac arrest involving assessment of external defibrillation energy dosing were considered. The primary outcome was sustained ROSC. Two researchers independently reviewed all the titles and abstracts of the retrieved citations, selected the studies and extracted the data using a standardized template. Risk of bias of human non-randomised studies were assessed using the ROBIN-I tool (formerly ACROBAT-NRSI) tool proposed by the Cochrane Collaboration group. Results: The search strategy identified 14,471 citations of which 232 manuscripts were reviewed. Ten human and 10 animal model studies met the inclusion criteria. Human studies were prospective (n = 6) or retrospective (n = 4) cohort studies and included between 11 and 266 patients (median = 46 patients). Sustained ROSC rates ranged from 0 to 61% (n = 7). No studies reported a statistically significant association between the initial defibrillation energy dose and the rate of sustained ROSC (n = 7) or survival (n = 6). No human studies reported defibrillation-induced complications. Meta-analysis was not considered appropriate due to clinical heterogeneity. The overall risk of bias was moderate. All animal studies were randomized controlled trials with 8 and 52 (median = 27) piglets. ROSC was frequently achieved (more than 85%) with energy dose ranging from 2 to 7 joules/kg (n = 7). The defibrillation threshold varied according to the body weight and appears to be higher in infant models. Conclusion: Defibrillation energy doses and thresholds varied according to the body weight and trended higher for infants. No definitive association between initial defibrillation doses and the outcomes of sustained ROSC or survival could be demonstrated.
New simultaneous X-ray and radio observations of the archetypal mode-switching pulsar PSR B0943+10 have been carried out with XMM-Newton and the LOFAR, LWA and Arecibo radio telescopes in November 2014. They allowed us to better constrain the X-ray spectral and variability properties of this pulsar and to detect, for the first time, the X-ray pulsations also during the X-ray-fainter mode. The combined timing and spectral analysis indicates that unpulsed non-thermal emission, likely of magnetospheric origin, and pulsed thermal emission from a small polar cap are present during both radio modes and vary in a correlated way.
The importance of leaf surface wax compounds from the rice-field weed Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) Raven (Onagraceae) was determined in the flea beetle Altica cyanea (Weber) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Extraction, thin layer chromatography and GC-MS and GC-FID analyses of surface waxes of young, mature and senescent leaves revealed 20, 19 and 19 n-alkanes between n-C15 and n-C35, respectively; whereas 14, 14 and 12 free fatty acids between C12:0 and C22:0 fatty acids were identified in young, mature and senescent leaves, respectively. Tricosane was predominant n-alkane in young and mature leaves, whilst eicosane predominated in senescent leaves. Heneicosanoic acid, palmitic acid and docosanoic acid were the most abundant free fatty acids in young, mature and senescent leaves, respectively. A. cyanea females showed attraction to 0.25 mature leaf equivalent surface waxes compared with young or senescent leaves in a short glass Y-tube olfactometer bioassay. The insects were attracted to a synthetic blend of 0.90, 1.86, 1.83, 1.95, 0.50 and 0.18 µg ml−1 petroleum ether of hexadecane, octadecane, eicosane, tricosane, palmitic acid and alpha-linolenic acid, respectively, comparable with the proportions as present in 0.25 mature leaf equivalent surface waxes. A. cyanea also laid eggs on a filter paper moistened with 0.25 mature leaf equivalent surface waxes or a synthetic blend of 0.90, 1.86, 1.83, 1.95, 0.50 and 0.18 µg ml−1 petroleum ether of hexadecane, octadecane, eicosane, tricosane, palmitic acid and alpha-linolenic acid, respectively. This finding could provide a basis for monitoring of the potential biocontrol agent in the field.
Background: Patients who leave hospital against medical advice (AMA) may be at risk of adverse health outcomes, medical complications, and readmission. In this study, we examined the characteristics of patients who left AMA after traumatic brain injury (TBI), their rates of follow-up visits, and readmission. Methods: We retrospectively studied 106 consecutive patients who left the tertiary trauma center AMA (1.8% of all admitted patients with a TBI). Preinjury health and social issues, mechanism of injury, computed tomography findings, and injury markers were collected. They were correlated to compliance with follow-up visits and unplanned emergency room (ER) visits and readmission rates. Results: The most prevalent premorbid health or social-related issues were alcohol abuse (33%) and assault as a mechanism of trauma (33%). Only 15 (14.2%) subjects came to follow-up visit for their TBI. Sixteen (15.1%) of the 106 subjects had multiple readmissions and/or ER visits related to substance abuse. Seven (6.6%) had multiple readmissions or ER visits with psychiatric reasons. Those patients with multiple readmissions and ER visits showed in higher proportion preexisting neurological condition (p=0.027), homelessness (p=0.012), previous neurosurgery (p=0.014), preexisting encephalomalacia (p=0.011), and had a higher ISS score (p=0.014) than those who were not readmitted multiple times. Conclusions: The significantly increased risks of multiple follow-up visits and readmission among TBI patients who leave hospital AMA are related to a premorbid vulnerability and psychosocial issues. Clinicians should target AMA TBI patients with premorbid vulnerability for discharge transition interventions.
The evolution of the multipolar structure of the magnetic field of isolated neutron stars is studied assuming the currents to be confined to the crust. Lower orders (≤ 25) of multipole are seen to evolve in a manner similar to the dipole suggesting little or no evolution of the expected pulse shape. We also study the multifrequency polarization position angle traverse of PSR B0329+54 and find a significant frequency dependence above 2.7 GHz. We interpret this as an evidence of strong multipolar magnetic field present in the radio emission region.
This paper elaborates the effect of unmatched stored energy in high-voltage high-energy pulsed power systems. High-voltage insulation failure of KALI system is analyzed thoroughly for its occurrence. According to the simulations and analysis energy mismatch of MARX generator and Blumlein transmission line is found to be the most significant cause for high-voltage failure of the system. MARX generator and Blumlein of KALI are redesigned to attain better energy balance at same voltage level. Observations, simulation and analytical results are illustrated in the following sections.
Single-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were discovered in 1993 and have been an area of intense research since then. They offer the right dimensions to explore material science and physical chemistry at the nanoscale and are the perfect system to study low-dimensional physics and transport. In the past decade, more attention has been shifted toward making use of this unique nanomaterial in real-world applications. In this article, we focus on potential applications of CNTs in the high-performance logic computing area—the main component of the semiconductor industry. We discuss the key challenges for nanotubes to replace silicon in integrated circuits and review progress made in recent years on the material, device, and circuit integration development of CNT technology.
We present neutron diffraction results on superionic materials that are good candidates for use as solid-state electrolytes in next generation Li+ ion batteries. Lithium ion conducting glasses of the compositions xLi2SO4-(1-x) [0.5Li2O-0.5(2NH4H2PO2)] ; x=0 and 0.1 were synthesized by conventional melt-quenching. The transparent homogeneous glassy flakes were thus obtained and used for the characterization. The materials are glassy in nature and composed of a complex network of the following sub-units: Li2O, Li2SO4, and 2NH4H2PO2. This disordered structure is integral to its function in that it promotes Li+ ion conduction while suppressing electronic conduction, the necessary qualities of a good Li+ electrolyte. We used neutron diffraction to study the formation of crystallites upon heating of the material above 400°C. The crystallite formation is understood to be detrimental to the Li+ ion mobility and, hence, is identified with a diminished performance in devices that require heating in their fabrication processs. Here, we report the changes in the material, as observed by neutron diffraction, as a function of annealing temperature and temperature history.
We present the key assumptions and results of a newly developed theory in
order to account for the self-consistent cascade effects of counterion
condensation and volume collapse of polyeletrolyte gels. In the present
theory, the role of the specificity and valency of counterions on the volume
transitions are also treated. These features and the fluctuations of monomer
concentration and local electrolyte charge density are included on top of
the familiar features of the Flory-Huggins theory and the classical rubber
elasticity theory in the previously used Flory-Dusek-Patterson-Tanaka theory
of polyelectrolyte gels. We have computed the swelling equilibria by
satisfying the multicomponent nature of the system and the Donnan
equilibria. A few major effects are illustrated in terms of the dependence
of volume transition on the solvent quality, temperature, salt
concentration, valency and specificity of the counterion, and polymer charge
density. Criteria for the emergence of a reentrant volume transition are
Two different atmospheric pressure microplasma systems are discussed and used for the synthesis and surface engineering of a range of nanomaterials. Specifically a gas-phase approach from vaporized tetramethylsilane has been used to synthesize silicon carbide nanoparticles with diameters below 10 nm. A different microplasma system that interfaces with a liquid solution has then been used for the synthesis of surfactant-free electrically stabilized gold nanoparticles with varying size. A similar microplasma-liquid system has been finally successfully used to tailor surface properties of silicon nanoparticles and to reduce graphene oxide into graphene. The synthesis and surface engineering mechanisms are also discussed.
The material characterization toolbox has recently experienced a number of parallel revolutionary advances, foreshadowing a time in the near future when material scientists can quantify material structure evolution across spatial and temporal space simultaneously. This will provide insight to reaction dynamics in four-dimensions, spanning multiple orders of magnitude in both temporal and spatial space. This study presents the authors’ viewpoint on the material characterization field, reviewing its recent past, evaluating its present capabilities, and proposing directions for its future development. Electron microscopy; atom probe tomography; x-ray, neutron and electron tomography; serial sectioning tomography; and diffraction-based analysis methods are reviewed, and opportunities for their future development are highlighted. Advances in surface probe microscopy have been reviewed recently and, therefore, are not included [D.A. Bonnell et al.: Rev. Modern Phys. in Review]. In this study particular attention is paid to studies that have pioneered the synergetic use of multiple techniques to provide complementary views of a single structure or process; several of these studies represent the state-of-the-art in characterization and suggest a trajectory for the continued development of the field. Based on this review, a set of grand challenges for characterization science is identified, including suggestions for instrumentation advances, scientific problems in microstructure analysis, and complex structure evolution problems involving material damage. The future of microstructural characterization is proposed to be one not only where individual techniques are pushed to their limits, but where the community devises strategies of technique synergy to address complex multiscale problems in materials science and engineering.
Mg ion-implantation of A12O3 wafers followed by air annealing at high temperatures was investigated as a way to provide bulk doped samples for studies of Mg surface segregation and its effect on surface mass transport. SIMS was used to analyse Mg concentrations in implanted and unimplanted near-surface regions and in the bulk. It was found that the concentration of Mg decreases dramatically with depth from both surfaces of an annealed wafer and is also observed in the bulk. These observations are attributed to bulk diffusion of the Mg combined with equilibrium surface segregation. Surface mass transport associated with the (1120) surface of an A12 O3 single crystal wafer doped and equilibrated by such a method was studied by the grating decay method; the Mg doped sample showed a decay rate in air higher than that in the undoped wafer by a factor of ∼ 2.4 at 1500°C.
a-Si:H films rf sputtered in 10 mT He and 0.5 mT H2, in contrast to those prepared in Ar/H2 or Xe/H2, exhibit port depositional oxidation when sputtered at power levels of 0.55 – 3.3 W/cm2 (100 – 600W). SEM measurements show that the morphology of the films evolves from a cracked, microcrystalline, glassy one at higher rf power levels to a porous one at low power levels. This trend is also correlated with a sharply increasing density of Si-H2 dihydride bonds at decreasing rf levels. Auger depth profiles of the oxygen concentration in the films agree with a diffusion controlled process of a source solute of O2 molecules into a semi-infinite solid solvent. Yet IR absorption measurements indicate that the oxygen is confined to the internal surfaces of the microvoids. The diffusion constant is a very sensitive functi n of the sputtering conditions. At low rf power levels, it is as low as 10−16 – 10−1 cm2 /sec at room temperature, but increases to ∼10−13 at 250 – 350°C.These results are discussed in terms of a porous network of microvoids, through which the O2 “squeezes” into the film.