To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The World Health Organization set a target of a 15% relative reduction in the prevalence of insufficient physical activity (IPA) by 2025 among adolescents and adults globally. In Bangladesh, there are no national estimates of the prevalence of IPA among adolescents. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of and risk factors associated with IPA among adolescent girls and boys. Data for 4865 adolescent girls and 4907 adolescent boys, collected as a part of a National Nutrition Surveillance in 2018–19, were analysed for this study. A modified version of the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) was used to collect physical activity data. The World Health Organization recommended cut-off points were used to estimate the prevalence of IPA. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with IPA. Prevalences of IPA among adolescent girls and boys were 50.3% and 29.0%, respectively, and the prevalence was significantly higher among early adolescents (10–14 years) than late adolescents (15–19 years) among both boys and girls. The IPA prevalence was highest among adolescents living in non-slum urban areas (girls: 77.7%; boys: 64.1%). For both boys and girls, younger age, non-slum urban residence, higher paternal education and increased television viewing time were significantly associated with IPA. Additionally, residing in slums was significantly associated with IPA only among the boys. Higher maternal education was associated with IPA only among the girls. This study identified several modifiable risk factors associated with IPA among adolescent boys and girls in Bangladesh. These factors should be addressed through comprehensive public health interventions to promote physical activity among adolescent girls and boys.
To compare endoscopic epitympanic exploration with conventional canal wall up (cortical) mastoidectomy for mucosal chronic otitis media in terms of post-operative outcomes.
Seventy-six patients diagnosed with chronic otitis media (mucosal variety) were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: endoscopic epitympanic exploration and conventional canal wall up (cortical) mastoidectomy. The groups were compared in terms of: post-operative anatomical outcomes (graft uptake), middle-ear physiological outcomes (post-operative tympanometry), audiological outcomes (air–bone gap), surgical time, post-operative pain, vertigo, and long-term complications such as retraction pocket and re-perforation.
There was a statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of mean air–bone gap at 12 months, surgical time, and median post-operative pain measured at 6 hours (p < 0.05). No statistically significant differences were noted in terms of: graft uptake at 1, 3 and 6 months, mean air–bone gap at 3 and 6 months, tympanometry at 3, 6 and 12 months, vertigo at 1 week, or long-term complications.
Endoscopic epitympanic exploration resulted in significantly better long-term audiological outcomes, shorter operating time and less pain compared with conventional canal wall up (cortical) mastoidectomy.
The aim of this study was to assess change in temperature, audiometric outcomes and post-operative complications following exposure to different light sources during endoscopic ear surgery.
A total of 64 patients diagnosed with chronic otitis media with central perforation and pure conductive hearing loss underwent endoscopic type 1 tympanoplasty. The patients were randomised into two groups based on the light source used: xenon or light-emitting diode. Temperature was measured using a K type thermocouple at the promontory and round window niche. Mean temperature change with respect to operating time, mean audiometric change, incidence of vomiting in the first 24 hours, vertigo and tinnitus at the end of the first week were observed.
Mean temperature change showed a statistically significant difference with increasing length of operating time with the xenon light source and when the two light sources were compared for a particular time interval. Mean audiometric change showed statistically significant deterioration at higher frequencies (4, 6 and 8 kHz) with the xenon light source but only at 8 kHz for the light emitting diode source. When the mean audiometric change was compared between light sources for a particular frequency, statistical significance was found at 4, 6 and 8 kHz. Post-operative complications were vomiting, vertigo and tinnitus (p-values of 0.042, 0.099 and 0.147, respectively, between two groups).
Light emitting diodes are associated with less significant middle-ear temperature rises and audiometric changes at higher frequencies when compared to xenon light sources. Hence, xenon should be replaced with cooler light sources.
Schizophrenia is a heterogenous disorder, and has often been subtyped on the basis of family history of psychotic disorders. Compared to those without, a positive family history is associated with an earlier age of onset, greater structural brain abnormalities and poorer clinical course. Given recent emphasis on mirror neuron system (MNS) in attempting to explain psychopathology in schizophrenia; present analysis tried to tease out differences in MNS functioning between these two groups.
With ethical approval, ten consenting right-handed patients with schizophrenia (ICD-10-DCR; M=8; Drug-naïve=2) were recruited and divided into two groups of five each (M=4,F=1): those with (age 29.40±5.85 years, duration of illness 50.80±30.84 months) and without (age 29.60±5.77 years, duration of illness 43.20±43.76 months) family history of schizophrenic illness (group difference p>0.05). MNS activity was assessed using event-related desynchronization of EEG Mu waves in response to biological motion on 192-channel EEG Neurofax EEG-1100K.
On comparison, while patients had significantly lower mu suppression compared to controls (p<0.001); two schizophrenia groups did not differ between themselves, neither on MNS activity nor on psychopathology (p>0.05).
Present study replicates finding of a dysfunctional MNS in schizophrenia patients, and represents a preliminary attempt at comparing two groups of symptomatic schizophrenia patients. In both these groups, MNS dysfunctions were comparable, and commensurate with respect to psychopathology. Thus, MNS dysfunction in schizophrenia might either be inherited or acquired. However, this abnormality forms a common base, and ultimate vulnerability marker, for development of psychopathology during active disease states.
To assess the effect of tranexamic acid on intra-operative bleeding and surgical field visualisation.
Fifty patients undergoing various endoscopic ear surgical procedures, including endoscopic tympanoplasty, endoscopic atticotomy or mastoidectomy, endoscopic ossiculoplasty, and endoscopic stapedotomy, were randomly assigned to: a study group that received tranexamic acid or a control group which received normal saline. The intra-operative bleeding and operative field visualisation was graded using the Das and Mitra endoscopic ear surgery bleeding and field visibility score, which was separately analysed for the external auditory canal and the middle ear.
The Das and Mitra score was better (p < 0.05) in the group that received tranexamic acid as a haemostat when working in the external auditory canal; with respect to the middle ear, no statistically significant difference was found between the two agents. Mean values for mean arterial pressure, heart rate and surgical time were comparable in both groups, with no statistically significant differences.
Tranexamic acid appears to be an effective haemostat in endoscopic ear surgery, thus improving surgical field visualisation, especially during manipulation of the external auditory canal soft tissues.
Introduction: Prompt defibrillation is critical during paediatric cardiac arrest. The main objective of this systematic review was to determine the initial defibrillation energy dose for ventricular fibrillation (VF) or pulseless ventricular tachycardia (pVT) that is associated with sustained return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) during paediatric cardiac arrest. Associations between initial defibrillation energy dose with any ROSC, survival and defibrillation-induced complications were also assessed. Methods: A systematic review was performed using four databases (Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library) (PROSPERO: CRD42016036734). Human studies (cohort studies or controlled trials) and animal model studies (controlled trials) of pediatric cardiac arrest involving assessment of external defibrillation energy dosing were considered. The primary outcome was sustained ROSC. Two researchers independently reviewed all the titles and abstracts of the retrieved citations, selected the studies and extracted the data using a standardized template. Risk of bias of human non-randomised studies were assessed using the ROBIN-I tool (formerly ACROBAT-NRSI) tool proposed by the Cochrane Collaboration group. Results: The search strategy identified 14,471 citations of which 232 manuscripts were reviewed. Ten human and 10 animal model studies met the inclusion criteria. Human studies were prospective (n = 6) or retrospective (n = 4) cohort studies and included between 11 and 266 patients (median = 46 patients). Sustained ROSC rates ranged from 0 to 61% (n = 7). No studies reported a statistically significant association between the initial defibrillation energy dose and the rate of sustained ROSC (n = 7) or survival (n = 6). No human studies reported defibrillation-induced complications. Meta-analysis was not considered appropriate due to clinical heterogeneity. The overall risk of bias was moderate. All animal studies were randomized controlled trials with 8 and 52 (median = 27) piglets. ROSC was frequently achieved (more than 85%) with energy dose ranging from 2 to 7 joules/kg (n = 7). The defibrillation threshold varied according to the body weight and appears to be higher in infant models. Conclusion: Defibrillation energy doses and thresholds varied according to the body weight and trended higher for infants. No definitive association between initial defibrillation doses and the outcomes of sustained ROSC or survival could be demonstrated.
New simultaneous X-ray and radio observations of the archetypal mode-switching pulsar PSR B0943+10 have been carried out with XMM-Newton and the LOFAR, LWA and Arecibo radio telescopes in November 2014. They allowed us to better constrain the X-ray spectral and variability properties of this pulsar and to detect, for the first time, the X-ray pulsations also during the X-ray-fainter mode. The combined timing and spectral analysis indicates that unpulsed non-thermal emission, likely of magnetospheric origin, and pulsed thermal emission from a small polar cap are present during both radio modes and vary in a correlated way.
The importance of leaf surface wax compounds from the rice-field weed Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) Raven (Onagraceae) was determined in the flea beetle Altica cyanea (Weber) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Extraction, thin layer chromatography and GC-MS and GC-FID analyses of surface waxes of young, mature and senescent leaves revealed 20, 19 and 19 n-alkanes between n-C15 and n-C35, respectively; whereas 14, 14 and 12 free fatty acids between C12:0 and C22:0 fatty acids were identified in young, mature and senescent leaves, respectively. Tricosane was predominant n-alkane in young and mature leaves, whilst eicosane predominated in senescent leaves. Heneicosanoic acid, palmitic acid and docosanoic acid were the most abundant free fatty acids in young, mature and senescent leaves, respectively. A. cyanea females showed attraction to 0.25 mature leaf equivalent surface waxes compared with young or senescent leaves in a short glass Y-tube olfactometer bioassay. The insects were attracted to a synthetic blend of 0.90, 1.86, 1.83, 1.95, 0.50 and 0.18 µg ml−1 petroleum ether of hexadecane, octadecane, eicosane, tricosane, palmitic acid and alpha-linolenic acid, respectively, comparable with the proportions as present in 0.25 mature leaf equivalent surface waxes. A. cyanea also laid eggs on a filter paper moistened with 0.25 mature leaf equivalent surface waxes or a synthetic blend of 0.90, 1.86, 1.83, 1.95, 0.50 and 0.18 µg ml−1 petroleum ether of hexadecane, octadecane, eicosane, tricosane, palmitic acid and alpha-linolenic acid, respectively. This finding could provide a basis for monitoring of the potential biocontrol agent in the field.
Background: Patients who leave hospital against medical advice (AMA) may be at risk of adverse health outcomes, medical complications, and readmission. In this study, we examined the characteristics of patients who left AMA after traumatic brain injury (TBI), their rates of follow-up visits, and readmission. Methods: We retrospectively studied 106 consecutive patients who left the tertiary trauma center AMA (1.8% of all admitted patients with a TBI). Preinjury health and social issues, mechanism of injury, computed tomography findings, and injury markers were collected. They were correlated to compliance with follow-up visits and unplanned emergency room (ER) visits and readmission rates. Results: The most prevalent premorbid health or social-related issues were alcohol abuse (33%) and assault as a mechanism of trauma (33%). Only 15 (14.2%) subjects came to follow-up visit for their TBI. Sixteen (15.1%) of the 106 subjects had multiple readmissions and/or ER visits related to substance abuse. Seven (6.6%) had multiple readmissions or ER visits with psychiatric reasons. Those patients with multiple readmissions and ER visits showed in higher proportion preexisting neurological condition (p=0.027), homelessness (p=0.012), previous neurosurgery (p=0.014), preexisting encephalomalacia (p=0.011), and had a higher ISS score (p=0.014) than those who were not readmitted multiple times. Conclusions: The significantly increased risks of multiple follow-up visits and readmission among TBI patients who leave hospital AMA are related to a premorbid vulnerability and psychosocial issues. Clinicians should target AMA TBI patients with premorbid vulnerability for discharge transition interventions.
This paper elaborates the effect of unmatched stored energy in high-voltage high-energy pulsed power systems. High-voltage insulation failure of KALI system is analyzed thoroughly for its occurrence. According to the simulations and analysis energy mismatch of MARX generator and Blumlein transmission line is found to be the most significant cause for high-voltage failure of the system. MARX generator and Blumlein of KALI are redesigned to attain better energy balance at same voltage level. Observations, simulation and analytical results are illustrated in the following sections.
Single-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were discovered in 1993 and have been an area of intense research since then. They offer the right dimensions to explore material science and physical chemistry at the nanoscale and are the perfect system to study low-dimensional physics and transport. In the past decade, more attention has been shifted toward making use of this unique nanomaterial in real-world applications. In this article, we focus on potential applications of CNTs in the high-performance logic computing area—the main component of the semiconductor industry. We discuss the key challenges for nanotubes to replace silicon in integrated circuits and review progress made in recent years on the material, device, and circuit integration development of CNT technology.
We present neutron diffraction results on superionic materials that are good candidates for use as solid-state electrolytes in next generation Li+ ion batteries. Lithium ion conducting glasses of the compositions xLi2SO4-(1-x) [0.5Li2O-0.5(2NH4H2PO2)] ; x=0 and 0.1 were synthesized by conventional melt-quenching. The transparent homogeneous glassy flakes were thus obtained and used for the characterization. The materials are glassy in nature and composed of a complex network of the following sub-units: Li2O, Li2SO4, and 2NH4H2PO2. This disordered structure is integral to its function in that it promotes Li+ ion conduction while suppressing electronic conduction, the necessary qualities of a good Li+ electrolyte. We used neutron diffraction to study the formation of crystallites upon heating of the material above 400°C. The crystallite formation is understood to be detrimental to the Li+ ion mobility and, hence, is identified with a diminished performance in devices that require heating in their fabrication processs. Here, we report the changes in the material, as observed by neutron diffraction, as a function of annealing temperature and temperature history.
We present the key assumptions and results of a newly developed theory in
order to account for the self-consistent cascade effects of counterion
condensation and volume collapse of polyeletrolyte gels. In the present
theory, the role of the specificity and valency of counterions on the volume
transitions are also treated. These features and the fluctuations of monomer
concentration and local electrolyte charge density are included on top of
the familiar features of the Flory-Huggins theory and the classical rubber
elasticity theory in the previously used Flory-Dusek-Patterson-Tanaka theory
of polyelectrolyte gels. We have computed the swelling equilibria by
satisfying the multicomponent nature of the system and the Donnan
equilibria. A few major effects are illustrated in terms of the dependence
of volume transition on the solvent quality, temperature, salt
concentration, valency and specificity of the counterion, and polymer charge
density. Criteria for the emergence of a reentrant volume transition are
Two different atmospheric pressure microplasma systems are discussed and used for the synthesis and surface engineering of a range of nanomaterials. Specifically a gas-phase approach from vaporized tetramethylsilane has been used to synthesize silicon carbide nanoparticles with diameters below 10 nm. A different microplasma system that interfaces with a liquid solution has then been used for the synthesis of surfactant-free electrically stabilized gold nanoparticles with varying size. A similar microplasma-liquid system has been finally successfully used to tailor surface properties of silicon nanoparticles and to reduce graphene oxide into graphene. The synthesis and surface engineering mechanisms are also discussed.