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The eastern Arabian Sea is influenced by both the advection of upwelled water from the western Arabian Sea and winter convective mixing. Therefore, sediments collected from the eastern Arabian Sea can help to understand the long-term seasonal hydrographic changes. We used the planktonic foraminifera census and stable isotopic ratio (δ18O) from sediments drilled during the International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 355 to reconstruct surface hydrographic changes in the eastern Arabian Sea during the last 350 kyr. The increased abundance of Globigerina bulloides suggests enhanced advection of upwelled water during the latter half of MIS7 and the beginning of MIS6, as a result of a strengthened summer monsoon. A large drop in upwelling and/or advection of upwelled water from the western Arabian Sea is inferred during the subsequent interval of MIS6, based on the rare presence of G. bulloides. The comparable relative abundance of Neogloboquadrina dutertrei, G. bulloides and Globigerinoides ruber suggests that during the early part of MIS5, hydrographic conditions were similar to today. The upwelling decreased and winter convection increased with the progress of the glacial interval. A good coherence between planktonic foraminiferal assemblage-based monsoon stacks from both the eastern and western Arabian Sea suggests a coeval response of the entire northern Arabian Sea to the glacial–interglacial changes. The glacial–interglacial difference in δ18Osw-ivc was at a maximum with 4–5 psu change in salinity during Termination 2 and 3, and a minimum during Termination 4. The significantly reduced regional contribution to the glacial–interglacial change in δ18Osw-ivc during Termination 4 suggests a lesser change in the monsoon.
Opioid analgesics are often prescribed following rhinology surgery. This study aimed to evaluate whether the quantity of opioid analgesics prescribed is justified.
Patients were asked about their pain management post-operatively. Parameters recorded included: current pain (using a 10-point Likert scale); type of operation; the opioid analgesics prescribed; and the quantity of opioid tablets taken and other methods of pain relief used.
Thirty-five patients were successfully contacted. The median pain score at one week post-operation was 1 (interquartile range, 0–3). Of these 35 patients, 16 were prescribed opioids, whilst 19 were not. Patients prescribed opioids took a median of 8 tablets (interquartile range, 0.8–10.5) out of the 28 tablets prescribed.
The study shows that the quantity of post-operative opioid analgesics prescribed does not compare with the amount consumed by patients to relieve pain, resulting in a surplus of opioid medication which has the potential to be abused.
A field experiment was conducted to study the long-term effects of nutrient management practices on micronutrient concentrations in soil and their uptake by crops under a long-term rice–wheat cropping system. The treatments comprised different combinations of N, P, K, Zn and farm yard manure (FYM), used as nutrient management practices. After 25 years of continuous cropping, the higher grain yields and uptake of iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) were obtained when FYM was applied along with mineral sources of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) when compared to mineral sources of NPK alone. The residual effect of FYM, applied to rice, on the yield of subsequent wheat was significant. The application of mineral NPK with FYM recorded higher diethylene triamine penta acetic acid extracted (DTPA)-Fe, Mn and Cu concentrations in the soil compared to any other treatment. The plots with Zn application showed higher DTPA-Zn concentration in the soil compared to any other treatments. The available Fe, Mn and Cu in the soil were higher than their critical limits and the soil was low in Zn where inorganic fertilizers were applied alone (without Zn). Integrated application of mineral NPK and FYM to the rice crop and mineral NPK to wheat was found to be the best nutrient management practice in producing higher yields of rice and wheat and improve long-term soil micronutrient concentrations.
Using the data obtained from Kepler satellite, we have analyzed an F-type ultra-fast rotator KIC 6791060. We derive a rotational period of 0.34365±0.00004 d. Multiple periodicity with a period separation of ~0.00016 d was detected, which appears to be a result of the relative velocity between the multiple spot-groups in different stellar latitudes due to the surface differential rotation. Modeling of the surface inhomogeneities using the light curve of 3899 epochs shows the evidence of single active longitude region. The active longitude is found to drift along the longitude at a rate similar to the detected period separation of the F-type star. The surface coverage of cool spots is found to be in the range of ~0.07–0.44%. The low value of the spottedness can be interpreted probably due to the thinner convection zone on the F-type star.
Immunoactivation depends upon the antigen potential to modulate T-cell repertoires. The present study has enumerated the effect of 61 kDa recombinant Leishmania donovani co-factor-independent phosphoglycerate mutase (rLd-iPGAM) on mononuclear cells of healthy and treated visceral leishmaniasis subjects as well as on THP-1 cell line. rLd-iPGAM stimulation induced higher expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the phagocytic cell, its receptor and CD69 on T-cell subsets. These cellular activations resulted in upregulation of host-protective cytokines IL-2, IL-12, IL-17, tumour necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ, and downregulation of IL-4, IL-10 and tumour growth factor-β. This immune polarization was also evidenced by upregulation of nuclear factor-κ light-chain enhancer of activated B cells p50 and regulated expression of suppressor of mother against decapentaplegic protein-4. rLd-iPGAM stimulation also promoted lymphocyte proliferation and boosted the leishmaniacidal activity of macrophages by upregulating reactive oxygen species. It also induced 1·8-fold higher release of nitric oxide (NO) by promoting the transcription of inducible nitric oxide synthase gene. Besides, in silico analysis suggested the presence of major histocompatibility complex class I and II restricted epitopes, which can proficiently trigger CD8+ and CD4+ cells, respectively. This study reports rLd-iPGAM as an effective immunoprophylactic agent, which can be used in future vaccine design.
Oocyte-secreted factors (OSFs) play an important role in the acquisition of oocyte developmental competence through bidirectional cross-talk between oocyte and cumulus cells via gap junctions. Thus, the present study was designed to investigate the effect of two OSFs, growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15), on the developmental competence of buffalo oocytes derived from two different follicle sizes. Cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs) from large follicles (LF, >6 mm) or small follicles (SF, <6 mm) were collected and matured in vitro either in the presence of GDF9 or BMP15, or both, or with the denuded oocytes (DOs) as a source of native OSFs. Cleavage and blastocyst rates were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in LF-derived than SF-derived oocytes. Cleavage and blastocyst rates were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the DOs and the combination groups compared with the control, GDF9 alone and BMP15 alone groups, both in LF-derived and SF-derived oocytes, although the cleavage and blastocyst rates did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) between DOs and combination groups. Relative mRNA analysis revealed significantly higher (P > 0.05) expression of the cumulus cell marker genes EGFR, HAS2, and CD44 in LF-derived than SF-derived oocyte; the expression of these markers was significantly higher (P > 0.05) in DOs and combination groups, irrespective of the follicle size. These results suggested that LF-derived oocytes have a higher developmental competence than SF-derived oocytes and that supplementation of GDF9 and BMP15 modulates the developmental competence of buffalo oocytes by increasing the relative abundance of cumulus-enabling factors and thereby increasing cleavage and the quality of blastocyst production.
This study was designed to assess anti-diabetic potential of goat, camel, cow and buffalo milk in streptozotocin (STZ) induced type 1 diabetic albino wistar rats. A total of 48 rats were taken for the study where one group was kept as non-diabetic control group (8 rats) while others (40 rats) were made diabetic by STZ (50 mg/kg of body weight) injection. Among diabetic rats, a control group (8 rats) was kept and referred as diabetic control whereas other four groups (8 rats each) of diabetic rats were fed on 50 ml of goat or camel or cow or buffalo milk for 4 weeks. All the rats (non-diabetic and diabetic) were maintained on standard diet for four weeks. STZ administration resulted in enhancement of glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein, HbA1c and reduction in high density lipoprotein in plasma and lowering of antioxidative enzymes (catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase) activities in pancreas, kidney, liver and RBCs, coupled with enhanced levels of TBARS and protein carbonyls in pancreas, kidney, liver and plasma. OGTT carried out at the end of 4 week milk feeding indicated that all milks helped in early maintenance of glucose level. All milks reduced atherogenic index. In camel milk fed diabetic group, insulin concentration enhanced to level noted for non-diabetic control while goat, cow and buffalo milk failed to restore insulin level. HbA1c level was also restored only in camel milk fed diabetic group. The level of antioxidative enzymes (catalase, GPx and SOD) in pancreas enhanced in all milk fed groups. Camel milk and to a reasonable extent goat milk reduced formation of TBARS and PCs in tissues and blood. It can be concluded that camel milk ameliorates hyperglycaemia and oxidative damage in type-1 diabetic experimental rats. Further, only camel milk completely ameliorated oxidative damage in pancreas and normalised insulin level.
We present a multi-wavelength study of a nearby radio loud elliptical galaxy NGC 708, selected from the Bologna B2 sample of radio galaxies. We obtained optical broad band and narrow images from IGO 2m telescope (Pune, India). We supplement the multi-wavelength coverage of the observation by using X-ray data from Chandra, infrared data from 2MASS, Spitzer and WISE and optical image from DSS and HST. In order to investigate properties of interstellar medium, we have generated unsharp-masked, color, residual, quotient, dust extinction, Hα emission maps. From the derived maps it is evident that cool gas, dust, warm ionized Hα and hot X-ray gas are spatially associated with each other. We investigate the inner and outer photometric and kinematic properties of the galaxy using surface brightness profiles. From X-ray 2d beta model, unsharp masking, surface brightness profiles techniques, it is evident that pair of X-ray cavities are present in this system and which are ~5.6 Kpc away from the central X-ray source.
The role of ferroelectric LiNbO3 (LNB) in altering the frequency dependence of the capacitance of CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) thin films has been investigated. A cost effective spin coating deposition process was used to integrate the oxide heterostructures onto silicon substrates. This study showed that the frequency stability of the CCTO/LNB structure was much improved when the crystallization conditions and physical dimension of each layer were optimized. To integrate this structure with current silicon technology, heterostructures of CCTO and LNB thin films were fabricated on HF terminated Si using chemical solution deposition. It was found that the order of deposition of the two layers was important for the structural quality of the heterostructures with the CCTO layer followed by the LNB layer being the preferred structure. In addition to improvement of the capacitance variation with frequency, the heterostructures also provide a path to tuning the frequency of operation.
We present multiwavelength study of a sample of radio loud early-type galaxies chosen from the B2 sample. We performed surface photometry in BVR broad band filters and Hα narrow band filter on CCD images of sample galaxies using IGO 2m telescope, Pune (INDIA), to get radial profiles of various photometric and geometrical parameters that describe elliptical isophotes fitted to the 2D light distribution of the galaxies. The analysis of radial profiles of quantities such as the (local) surface brightness, the ellipticity, and the deviations from elliptical isophotes parametrized by the Fourier coefficients are main focus of our study. We generated color maps, residual maps, and dust extinction maps, Hα emission maps of the galaxies to study the morphology of the dust and ionized gas content present in the galaxies. We carried out detailed analysis of the properties of the dust present in our sample galaxies. Additionaly, we investigated properties of the dust in the central ~10 arcsec region of our sample galaxies using optical images available from the HST (WFPC2) data archive. We estimated mass and temperature of the dust, molecular gas mass, in the sample galaxies using FIR fluxes of the galaxies obtained from IRAS.
We used spectroscopic data available from the SDSS (DR7) to get an estimate of the mass of the central super massive black-hole for B2 1257+28 (NGC 4874). We plotted rotation curve for coma cluster (Abell 1656), which indicates the presence of dark matter halo around the galaxy B2 1257+28.
The UBVRI photometric follow-up of SN 2011fu has been initiated a few days after the explosion, shows a rise followed by steep decay in all bands and shares properties very similar to that seen in case of SN 1993J, with a possible detection of the adiabatic cooling phase at very early epochs. The spectral modeling performed with SYNOW suggests that the early-phase line velocities for H and Fe ii features were ~ 16000 km s−1 and ~ 14000 km s−1, respectively. Studies of rare class of type IIb SNe are important to understand the evolution of the possible progenitors of core-collapse SNe in more details.
A buffalo oocyte-specific subtracted cDNA library was constructed to identify exclusively or preferentially oocyte-expressed genes. The library represented an enriched population of transcripts obtained from oocytes of diverse ovarian follicular origin and at different stages of in vitro maturation. A total of 1173 high-quality sequences of oocyte-specific genes were clustered into 645 unique sequences, out of which 65.76% were represented as singlets and 34.26% as contig expressed sequence tags (ESTs; clusters). Analysis of sequences revealed that 498 of these sequences were identified as a known sequence in mammalian species including buffalo, 103 as uncharacterized ESTs and 44 unknown sequences including 1 novel EST, so far not reported in any species. Gene ontology annotation classified these sequences into functional categories of cellular events and biological processes associated with oocyte competence. Expression status of the isolated unknown ESTs confirmed that many of these are expressed in oocytes exclusively and in others preferentially, some in excess of 80-fold greater in comparison with a variety of somatic tissues. The isolated novel EST was detected to be expressed exclusively in oocytes and testicular cells only. To our knowledge, this is the first report giving a detailed transcriptome account of oocyte-expressed genes in buffalo. This study will provide important information on the physiological control of oocyte development, as well as many questions yet to be addressed on the reproductive process of buffalo.
We report on a program to delineate magnetic field structure inside molecular clouds by optical and infrared polarization observations. An ordered magnetic field inside a dense cloud may efficiently align the spinning dust grains to cause a detectable level of optical and near-infrared polarization of otherwise unpolarized background starlight due to dichroic extinction. The near-infrared polarization data were taken by SIRPOL mounted on IRSF in SAAO. Here we present the SIRPOL results in RCW 57, for which the magnetic field is oriented along the cloud filaments, and in Carina Nebula, for which no intrinsic polarization is detected in the turbulent environment. We further describe TRIPOL, a compact and efficient polarimer to acquire polarized images simultaneously at g', r', and i' bands, which is recently developed at Nagoya University for adaption to small-aperture telescopes. We show how optical observations probe the translucent outer parts of a cloud, and when combining with infrared observations probing the dense parts, and with millimeter and submillimeter observations to sutdy the central embedded protostar, if there is one, would yield the magnetic field structure on different length scales in the star-formation process.
Due to the poor positive predictive value of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for gonorrhoea when applied to a low-prevalence setting, current guidelines recommend the use of supplementary polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting a different gene for confirmation of true positives in urogenital specimens. This study sought to standardize and evaluate performance of an in-house opa gene-based PCR assay for gonorrhoea compared to assays targeting the porA pseudogene and 16S rRNA gene. Four hundred samples (300 endocervical, 100 urethral swabs) from patients attending STD clinics in New Delhi, India were used. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the opa-based PCR were 100%, 97·9%, 89·5% and 100%, respectively. In females, the use of NAATs provided enhanced diagnosis of gonorrhoea.
Pedigree analysis was used to study the genetic background of 66 Indian early maturing potato selections, the pedigree of which was traced back to 35 ancestors. Six of the 35 contributed 0·42 of the genetic base, which shows the narrow genetic base of Indian early maturing genotypes. Genotypes 2814 (a)1 (f=0·145) and 3069 (d)4 (f=0·145) were the ancestors which appeared most frequently. Based on the coefficient of relationship, the 66 selections were grouped into seven groups with one common ancestor in almost all the selections within a group. The genotypes Kufri Ashoka, Kufri Pukhraj, AGB-69-1, Kufri Jyoti, Kufri Alankar, Kufri Lauvkar and Kufri Kuber were identified as very important parents/ancestors, carrying specific gene complexes valuable in new selections. Crosses between selections from different diversity groups can result in the selection of useful clones while increasing or maintaining genetic diversity, which is desirable to ensure sustainable breeding progress in the future.
Genetic structure of five populations of a locally common rice (Oryza sativa L.) landrace Jaulia from parts of Uttarakhand state of India was studied using sequence tagged microsatellite site (STMS) markers. Of these, four populations were on-farm managed, assembled from different niche environments, and one population was conserved ex situ and represented static conservation. The 16 STMS primer pairs fully differentiated the inter- and intrapopulation diversity. A total of 72 alleles were recorded with a mean of 4.5 alleles per locus. Population wise, the total number of alleles ranged from 21 to 41, with maximum number of alleles for population IC 548358 and minimum number of alleles for population IC 100051 representing static conservation. A greater number of alleles specific to populations under farmer management could be recorded. Changes in yield parameters also seemed to be affected under farmer management besides other environmental adaptations for qualitative morphological characters. The marker diversity using STMS primer pairs indicates the genetic differentiation among populations resulting from joint effects of several evolutionary forces operating within the historical and biological context of the crop landrace. The variations in adaptations, on the other hand, indicate the degree to which populations are adapted to their environments and their potential for continued performance or as donors of characters in plant breeding. Both biotic and abiotic aspects of the environment are involved.
This is the first report on increasing yield and nutritional content of snake melon (Cucumis melo L. var. flexuosus) by exploiting intraspecific genetic variation of genetically diverse melons. Inbred snake melon ‘Punjab Long melon 1’ (PLM1) was hybridized with five genetically diverse inbred melons: KP 7 (var. momordica), AM 72 (var. acidulus), ‘Arya 1’ (var. chate), 04-02 (var. tibish) and ‘Punjab Wanga’ (unknown botanical variety). The parents and hybrids were evaluated at three locations for nine traits. Hybrids PLM1 × 04-02 and PLM1 × ‘Punjab Wanga’ exhibited significant (P0.05) heterosis for the number of marketable fruits per plant, and ascorbic acid and carotenoid contents of marketable fruits.