Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Camel milk ameliorates hyperglycaemia and oxidative damage in type-1 diabetic experimental rats

  • Sunita Meena (a1), Yudhishthir S Rajput (a1), Amit K Pandey (a1), Rajan Sharma (a2) and Raghvendar Singh (a3)...

Abstract

This study was designed to assess anti-diabetic potential of goat, camel, cow and buffalo milk in streptozotocin (STZ) induced type 1 diabetic albino wistar rats. A total of 48 rats were taken for the study where one group was kept as non-diabetic control group (8 rats) while others (40 rats) were made diabetic by STZ (50 mg/kg of body weight) injection. Among diabetic rats, a control group (8 rats) was kept and referred as diabetic control whereas other four groups (8 rats each) of diabetic rats were fed on 50 ml of goat or camel or cow or buffalo milk for 4 weeks. All the rats (non-diabetic and diabetic) were maintained on standard diet for four weeks. STZ administration resulted in enhancement of glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein, HbA1c and reduction in high density lipoprotein in plasma and lowering of antioxidative enzymes (catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase) activities in pancreas, kidney, liver and RBCs, coupled with enhanced levels of TBARS and protein carbonyls in pancreas, kidney, liver and plasma. OGTT carried out at the end of 4 week milk feeding indicated that all milks helped in early maintenance of glucose level. All milks reduced atherogenic index. In camel milk fed diabetic group, insulin concentration enhanced to level noted for non-diabetic control while goat, cow and buffalo milk failed to restore insulin level. HbA1c level was also restored only in camel milk fed diabetic group. The level of antioxidative enzymes (catalase, GPx and SOD) in pancreas enhanced in all milk fed groups. Camel milk and to a reasonable extent goat milk reduced formation of TBARS and PCs in tissues and blood. It can be concluded that camel milk ameliorates hyperglycaemia and oxidative damage in type-1 diabetic experimental rats. Further, only camel milk completely ameliorated oxidative damage in pancreas and normalised insulin level.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*For correspondence; e-mail: ys_rajput@rediffmail.com

References

Hide All
Aebi, H 1984 Catalase in vitro. Methods in Enzymology 105 121126
Aggarwal, RA & Kansal, VK 1992 Effect of skim milk on progression of atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Indian Journal of Medical Research 96 5359
Agrawal, RP, Kochar, DK, Sahani, MS, Tuteja, FC & Ghorui, SK 2004 Hypoglycemic activity of camel milk in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. International Journal of Diabetes Developing Countries 24 4749
Agrawal, RP, Beniwal, R, Sharma, S, Kochar, DK, Tuteja, FC, Ghorui, SK & Sahani, MS 2005a Effect of raw camel milk in Type 1 diabetic patients: 1 year randomized study. Journal of Camel Practice Research 10 4550
Agrawal, RP, Sahani, MS, Tuteja, FC, Ghorui, SK, Sena, DS, Gupta, R & Kochar, DK 2005b Hypoglycemic activity of camel milk in chemically pancreatectomized rats- an experimental study. International Journal of Diabetes Developing Countries 25 7579
Agrawal, RP, Dogra, R, Mohta, N, Tiwari, R, Singhal, S & Sultania, S 2009 Beneficial effect of camel milk in diabetic neuropathy. Acta Biomedica 80 131134
Al-Awadi, FM & Srikumar, TS 2001 Trace elements and their distribution in protein fractions of camel milk in comparison to other commonly consumed milks. Journal of Dairy Research 68 463469
Al-Humaid, AI, Mousa, HM, El-Mergawi, RA & Abdel-Salam, AH 2010 Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of dates and dates-camel-milk mixtures as a protective meal against lipid peroxidation in rats. American Journal of Food Technology 5 2230
AOAC 1990 Official Methods of Analysis, 16th edition. Washington, DC: Association of Official Agricultural Chemists
Bastaki, S 2005 Diabetes mellitus and its treatment. International Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism 13 111134
Bejma, J & Ji, LL 1999 Aging and acute exercise enhance free radical generation in rat skeletal muscle. Journal of Applied Physiology 87 465470
Bravo, E, Flora, L, Cantafora, A, De Luca, V, Tripodi, M, Avella, M & Botham, KM 1998 The influence of dietary saturated and unsaturated fat on hepatic cholesterol metabolism and the biliary excretion of chylomicron cholesterolin the rat. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1390 134148
Celik, S & Akkaya, H 2009 Total antioxidant capacity, catalase and superoxide dismutase on rats before and after diabetes. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 8 15031508
Chen, J, Lindmark-Mansson, H, Gorton, L & Akesson, D 2003 Antioxidant capacity of bovine milk as assayed by spectrophotometric and amperometric methods. International Dairy Journal 13 927935
Drabkin, DL 1950 Spectrophotometric studies. XV. Hydration of macro sized crystals of human haemoglobin and osmotic concentrations in red cells. Journal of Biological Chemistry 185 231245
Ebuehi, OA, Ajuluchukwu, AE, Afolabi, OT, Ebuehi, OM & Akinwande, AI 2009 Catalase activity, lipid peroxidation, cholesterol and triglyceride levels in alloxan – induced diabetes mellitus in female and male rats. Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine 19 1519
Elagamy, EI 2000 Effect of heat treatment on camel milk proteins with respect to antimicrobial factors: a comparison with cow's and buffalo milk proteins. Food Chemistry 68 227232
Folch, JML & Slane-Stanley, GH 1957 A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. Journal of Biological Chemistry 226 497506
Friederich, M, Hansell, P & Palm, F 2009 Diabetes, oxidative stress, nitric oxide and mitochondria function. Current Diabetes Reviews 5 120144
Friedewald, WT, Levy, RI & Fredrickson, DS 1972 Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultra-centrifuge. Clinical Chemistry 18 499502
Gorban, AS & Izzeldin, OM 1997 Mineral content of camel milk and colostrum. Journal of Dairy Research 64 471474
Hassan, AI & Bayoumi, MM 2010 Efficiency of camel milk and honey bee in alleviation of diabetes in rats. Nature and Science 8 333341
Itaya, K 1977 A more sensitive and stable colorimetric determination of free fatty acids in blood. Journal of Lipid Research 18 663665
Khay, EO, Idaomar, M, Castro, LMP, Bernardez, PF, Senhaji, NS & Abrini, J 2011 Antimicrobial activities of the bacteriocin-like substances produced by lactic acid bacteria isolated from Moroccan dromedary milk. African Journal of Biotechnology 10 1044710455
Koro, CE, Bowlin, SJ, Bourgeois, N & Fedder, DO 2004 Glycemic control from 1988 to 2000 among U.S. adults diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. A preliminary report. Diabetes Care 27 1720
Kotb-El-Sayed, MI, Al-Shoeibi, ZY, EI-Ghany, AAA & Atef, ZA 2011 Effects of camel's milk as a vehicle for insulin on glycaemic control and lipid profile in type 1 diabetics. American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology 7 179189
Lemhadri, A, Hajji, L, Michel, JB & Eddouks, M 2006 Cholesterol and triglycerides lowering activities of caraway fruits in normal and streptozotocin diabetic rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 106 321326
Levine, RL, Garland, D, Oliver, CN, Amici, A, Climent, I, Lenz, AG, Ahn, BW, Shaltiel, S & Stadtman, ER 1990 Determination of carbonyl content in oxidatively modified proteins. Methods in Enzymology 186 464478
Lindmark-Manssou, H & Akesson, B 2000 Antioxidative factors in milk. British journal of Nutrition 1 103110
Lowry, OH, Rosebrough, NJ, Farr, AL & Randall, RJ 1951 Protein measurement with folin phenol reagent. Journal of Biological Chemistry 193 265275
Marklund, S & Marklund, G 1974 Involvement of superoxide dismutase anion radical radical in autooxidation of pyrogallol and a convenient assay for superoxide dismutase. European Journal of Biochemistry 42 469474
Matkovics, B, Szab, L and Sz Varga, I 1988 Determination of enzyme activities in lipid peroxidation and glutathione pathways (In Hungarian). Laboratriumi Diagnosztika 15 248250
Meena, S, Rajput, YS & Sharma, R 2014 Comparative fat digestibility of goat, camel, cow and buffalo milk. International Dairy Journal 35 153156
Merin, U, Bernstein, S, Bloch-Damti, A, Yaagil, R, van Creveld, C, Lindner, P & Gollop, N 2001 Comparative study of milk proteins in camel (Camelus dromedarius) and bovine colostrums. Livestock Production Science 67 297301
Mohamad, RH, Zekry, ZK, Al-Mehdar, HA, Salama, O, El-Shaieb, SE, El-Basmy, AA, Al-said, MG & Sharawy, SM 2009 Camel milk as an adjuvant therapy for the treatment of type 1 diabetes: verification of traditional ethnomedical practice. Journal of Medicinal Food 12 461465
Mohamed, HE, Mousa, HM & Beynen, AC 2005 Ascorbic acid concentrations in milk from Sudanese camels. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 89 3537
Nichans, WG & Samuelson, D 1968 Formation of malondialdehyde from phospholipid arachidonate during microsomal lipid peroxidation. European Journal of Biochemistry 6 126130
Nikkah, A 2011 Science of camel and yak milks: human nutrition and health perspectives. Food and Nutrition Science 2 667673
Paglia, DE & Valentine, WN 1967 Studies on quantitative and qualitative characterization of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase. Journal of Laboratory Clinical Medicine 70 158169
Raza, H, Subbuswamy, KP, John, A & Avadhani, NG 2011 Impaired mitochondrial respiratory functions and oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 12 31333147
Shabo, Y, Barzel, R, Margoulis, M & Yagil, R 2005 Camel milk for food allergies in children. The Israel Medical Association Journal 7 796798
Simmons, RA 2006 Developmental origins of diabetes: the role of oxidative stress. Free Radical Biology & Medicine 40 917922
Wang, X, Li, J, Liu, L, Hu, N, Jin, S, Liu, C, Mei, D & Liu, X 2012 Tissue cholesterol content alterations in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 33 909917
Zulueta, A, Maurizi, A, Frigola, A, Esteve, MJ, Coli, R & Burini, G 2009 Antioxidant capacity of cow milk, whey and deproteinized milk. International Dairy Journal 19 380385

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed